Gene Symbol: Myl7
Description: myosin, light polypeptide 7, regulatory
Alias: MLC-2alpha, MLC2a, MYL2A, Mylc2a, RLC-A, myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform, MLC-2a, myosin light chain 2a, myosin light chain, regulatory A, myosin regulatory light chain 7
Species: mouse
Products:     Myl7

Top Publications

  1. Kubalak S, Miller Hance W, O Brien T, Dyson E, Chien K. Chamber specification of atrial myosin light chain-2 expression precedes septation during murine cardiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:16961-70 pubmed
    ..The region-specific expression of the MLC-2a and MLC-2v genes in their respective chambers during early cardiogenesis provides genetic markers for chamber specification (atrial and ventricular) in both the in vitro and in vivo context. ..
  2. Wang Z, Zhai W, Richardson J, Olson E, Meneses J, Firpo M, et al. Polybromo protein BAF180 functions in mammalian cardiac chamber maturation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:3106-16 pubmed
    ..Importantly, BAF180 is recruited to the promoter of these target genes and BAF180 deficiency affects the RA response for CRABPII and RARbeta2. These studies reveal unique functions of PBAF in cardiac chamber maturation. ..
  3. Molkentin J, Lin Q, Duncan S, Olson E. Requirement of the transcription factor GATA4 for heart tube formation and ventral morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1061-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that GATA4 is required for the migration or folding morphogenesis of the precardiogenic splanchnic mesodermal cells at the level of the AIP. ..
  4. Kaneko Oshikawa C, Nakagawa T, Yamada M, Yoshikawa H, Matsumoto M, Yada M, et al. Mammalian E4 is required for cardiac development and maintenance of the nervous system. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10953-64 pubmed
    ..UFD2a thus appears to be essential for the development of cardiac muscle, as well as for the protection of spinocerebellar neurons from degeneration induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. ..
  5. Snarr B, O Neal J, Chintalapudi M, Wirrig E, Phelps A, Kubalak S, et al. Isl1 expression at the venous pole identifies a novel role for the second heart field in cardiac development. Circ Res. 2007;101:971-4 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that abnormal development of the SHF-derived DMP is associated with the pathogenesis of atrioventricular septal defects. These results identify a novel role for the SHF. ..
  6. Wegener J, Nawrath H, Wolfsgruber W, Kühbandner S, Werner C, Hofmann F, et al. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I mediates the negative inotropic effect of cGMP in the murine myocardium. Circ Res. 2002;90:18-20 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that cGKI mediates the negative inotropic effect of cGMP in the myocardium of juvenile and adult mice. ..
  7. Westendorp B, Major J, Nader M, Salih M, Leenen F, Tuana B. The E2F6 repressor activates gene expression in myocardium resulting in dilated cardiomyopathy. FASEB J. 2012;26:2569-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The data highlight an unprecedented role for the strict regulation of the E2F pathway in normal postnatal cardiac function. ..
  8. Dragani B, Aceto A. About the role of conserved amino acid residues in the calcium-binding site of proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999;368:211-3 pubmed
  9. Tevosian S, Deconinck A, Tanaka M, Schinke M, Litovsky S, Izumo S, et al. FOG-2, a cofactor for GATA transcription factors, is essential for heart morphogenesis and development of coronary vessels from epicardium. Cell. 2000;101:729-39 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide the molecular inroad into the induction of coronary vasculature by myocardium in the developing heart. ..

More Information


  1. Kim E, Chen L, Ma Y, Yu W, Chang J, Moskowitz I, et al. Enhanced desumoylation in murine hearts by overexpressed SENP2 leads to congenital heart defects and cardiac dysfunction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;52:638-49 pubmed publisher
    ..5 in vivo. Our findings indicate the indispensability of a balanced SUMO pathway for proper cardiac development and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-translational Modification SI'. ..
  2. Shin C, Liu Z, Passier R, Zhang C, Wang D, Harris T, et al. Modulation of cardiac growth and development by HOP, an unusual homeodomain protein. Cell. 2002;110:725-35 pubmed
    ..We propose that HOP modulates SRF activity during heart development; its absence results in an imbalance between cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation with consequent abnormalities in cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  3. Wu S, Cheng C, Lanz R, Wang T, Respress J, Ather S, et al. Atrial identity is determined by a COUP-TFII regulatory network. Dev Cell. 2013;25:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..5 atria identified classic atrial-ventricular identity genes Tbx5, Hey2, Irx4, MLC2v, MLC2a, and MLC1a, among many other cardiac genes, as potential COUP-TFII direct targets...
  4. He L, Tian X, Zhang H, Hu T, Huang X, Zhang L, et al. BAF200 is required for heart morphogenesis and coronary artery development. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e109493 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work revealed that PBAF complex plays a critical role in heart morphogenesis and coronary artery angiogenesis. ..
  5. Li D, Hallett M, Zhu W, Rubart M, Liu Y, Yang Z, et al. Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) is required for heart morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:303-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical analyses indicate that Daam1 does not regulate cytoskeletal organization through RhoA, Rac1 or Cdc42. Our study highlights a crucial role for Daam1 in regulating the actin cytoskeleton and tissue morphogenesis. ..
  6. Asai R, Kurihara Y, Fujisawa K, Sato T, Kawamura Y, Kokubo H, et al. Endothelin receptor type A expression defines a distinct cardiac subdomain within the heart field and is later implicated in chamber myocardium formation. Development. 2010;137:3823-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The present finding provides an insight into how subpopulations within the crescent-forming (first) heart field contribute to the coordination of heart morphogenesis through spatiotemporally defined cell movements. ..
  7. Anderson G, Udan R, Dickinson M, Henkelman R. Cardiovascular Patterning as Determined by Hemodynamic Forces and Blood Vessel Genetics. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0137175 pubmed publisher
    ..Endoglin mutant mice shared a high degree of similarity to Mlc2a mutant mice, which have been shown to have a primary developmental heart defect causing secondary vessel ..
  8. Kuo C, Morrisey E, Anandappa R, Sigrist K, Lu M, Parmacek M, et al. GATA4 transcription factor is required for ventral morphogenesis and heart tube formation. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1048-60 pubmed
    ..However, they define a critical role for GATA4 in regulating the rostral-to-caudal and lateral-to-ventral folding of the embryo that is needed for normal cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  9. Ai D, Fu X, Wang J, Lu M, Chen L, Baldini A, et al. Canonical Wnt signaling functions in second heart field to promote right ventricular growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9319-24 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal that Wnt signaling plays a major positive role in promoting growth and diversification of SHF precursors into right ventricular and interventricular myocardium. ..
  10. Vong L, Bi W, O Connor Halligan K, Li C, Cserjesi P, Schwarz J. MEF2C is required for the normal allocation of cells between the ventricular and sinoatrial precursors of the primary heart field. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1809-21 pubmed
    ..The underlying genetic program was also affected with altered expression of mlc2a, mlc2v, and irx4 in outflow segment precursors of the primary heart field...
  11. Solloway M, Robertson E. Early embryonic lethality in Bmp5;Bmp7 double mutant mice suggests functional redundancy within the 60A subgroup. Development. 1999;126:1753-68 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed with respect to potential mechanisms underlying cooperative signaling by multiple members of the TGF-beta superfamily. ..
  12. Xu C, Liguori G, Persico M, Adamson E. Abrogation of the Cripto gene in mouse leads to failure of postgastrulation morphogenesis and lack of differentiation of cardiomyocytes. Development. 1999;126:483-94 pubmed
    ..7 embryos: (&agr;)MHC, betaMHC, MLC2A, MLC2V and ANF, whereas they were expressed in wild-type embryos...
  13. Douglas Y, Mahtab E, Jongbloed M, Uhrin P, Zaujec J, Binder B, et al. Pulmonary vein, dorsal atrial wall and atrial septum abnormalities in podoplanin knockout mice with disturbed posterior heart field contribution. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that myocardium of the PVs, dorsal atrial wall, and atrial septum, as well as the smooth muscle cells, are derived from the posterior heart field regulated by podoplanin. ..
  14. Hoogaars W, Tessari A, Moorman A, de Boer P, Hagoort J, Soufan A, et al. The transcriptional repressor Tbx3 delineates the developing central conduction system of the heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2004;62:489-99 pubmed
    ..Our analysis implicates a role for Tbx3 in repressing a chamber-specific program of gene expression in regions from which the components of the central conduction system are subsequently formed. ..
  15. Machon O, Masek J, Machonova O, Krauss S, Kozmik Z. Meis2 is essential for cranial and cardiac neural crest development. BMC Dev Biol. 2015;15:40 pubmed publisher
    ..Meis2-null mice are embryonic lethal. Our results reveal a critical role of Meis2 during cranial and cardiac neural crest cells development in mouse. ..
  16. Fujii M, Sakaguchi A, Kamata R, Nagao M, Kikuchi Y, Evans S, et al. Sfrp5 identifies murine cardiac progenitors for all myocardial structures except for the right ventricle. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14664 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into the arrangement of cardiac progenitors for systemic circulation. ..
  17. Horstkotte J, Perisic T, Schneider M, Lange P, Schroeder M, Kiermayer C, et al. Mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase is essential for early postischemic myocardial protection. Circulation. 2011;124:2892-902 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of cyclosporin A in cardiac Txnrd2 deficiency may indicate a role for Txnrd2 in reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, thereby preventing opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. ..
  18. Mommersteeg M, Soufan A, de Lange F, van den Hoff M, Anderson R, Christoffels V, et al. Two distinct pools of mesenchyme contribute to the development of the atrial septum. Circ Res. 2006;99:351-3 pubmed
    ..From the stance of morphological description, therefore, there is little thus far to substantiate the existence of an atrial spine. ..
  19. Vicente Steijn R, Scherptong R, Kruithof B, Duim S, Goumans M, Wisse L, et al. Regional differences in WT-1 and Tcf21 expression during ventricular development: implications for myocardial compaction. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136025 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may relate to lateralized differences in ventricular (patho)morphology in humans. ..
  20. Franco D, Icardo J. Molecular characterization of the ventricular conduction system in the developing mouse heart: topographical correlation in normal and congenitally malformed hearts. Cardiovasc Res. 2001;49:417-29 pubmed
    ..The AVB expresses betaMHC and MLC2v, but no alphaMHC, MLC2a, Cx43, desmin or alpha-SMA...
  21. Shirai M, Osugi T, Koga H, Kaji Y, Takimoto E, Komuro I, et al. The Polycomb-group gene Rae28 sustains Nkx2.5/Csx expression and is essential for cardiac morphogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:177-84 pubmed
    ..5 expression in cardiomyocytes. Thus, our data show that a mammalian PcG gene can play a key role in organogenesis by helping to maintain the expression of a selector gene. ..
  22. Ruiz Lozano P, Doevendans P, Brown A, Gruber P, Chien K. Developmental expression of the murine spliceosome-associated protein mSAP49. Dev Dyn. 1997;208:482-90 pubmed
  23. Pu W, Ishiwata T, Juraszek A, Ma Q, Izumo S. GATA4 is a dosage-sensitive regulator of cardiac morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;275:235-44 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that multiple aspects of embryonic cardiac morphogenesis and function are exquisitely sensitive to small changes in GATA4 expression levels. ..
  24. Niederreither K, Vermot J, Messaddeq N, Schuhbaur B, Chambon P, Dolle P. Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is essential for heart morphogenesis in the mouse. Development. 2001;128:1019-31 pubmed
    ..However, cardiac neural crest cells cannot be properly rescued in Raldh2(-/- )embryos, leading to outflow tract septation defects. ..
  25. He A, Ma Q, Cao J, von Gise A, Zhou P, Xie H, et al. Polycomb repressive complex 2 regulates normal development of the mouse heart. Circ Res. 2012;110:406-15 pubmed publisher
    ..EZH2 was also required for proper spatiotemporal regulation of cardiac gene expression, because Hcn4, Mlc2a, and Bmp10 were inappropriately upregulated in ventricular RNA...
  26. Jongbloed M, Vicente Steijn R, Douglas Y, Wisse L, Mori K, Yokota Y, et al. Expression of Id2 in the second heart field and cardiac defects in Id2 knock-out mice. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2561-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate a role for Id2 in the second heart field contribution at both the arterial and the venous poles of the heart. ..
  27. Lowey S, Risby D. Light chains from fast and slow muscle myosins. Nature. 1971;234:81-5 pubmed
  28. Mesbah K, Rana M, Francou A, van Duijvenboden K, Papaioannou V, Moorman A, et al. Identification of a Tbx1/Tbx2/Tbx3 genetic pathway governing pharyngeal and arterial pole morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1217-29 pubmed publisher
    ..2DS patients. ..
  29. Ozerdem U, Grako K, Dahlin Huppe K, Monosov E, Stallcup W. NG2 proteoglycan is expressed exclusively by mural cells during vascular morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:218-27 pubmed
    ..Additional insight into these and other aspects of vascular morphogenesis should be possible through use of NG2 as a mural cell marker. ..
  30. Lai D, Liu X, Forrai A, Wolstein O, Michalicek J, Ahmed I, et al. Neuregulin 1 sustains the gene regulatory network in both trabecular and nontrabecular myocardium. Circ Res. 2010;107:715-27 pubmed publisher
  31. Cai C, Martin J, Sun Y, Cui L, Wang L, Ouyang K, et al. A myocardial lineage derives from Tbx18 epicardial cells. Nature. 2008;454:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The pluripotency of Tbx18 proepicardial cells provides a theoretical framework for applying these progenitors to effect cardiac repair and regeneration. ..
  32. Van Handel B, Montel Hagen A, Sasidharan R, Nakano H, Ferrari R, Boogerd C, et al. Scl represses cardiomyogenesis in prospective hemogenic endothelium and endocardium. Cell. 2012;150:590-605 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal unexpected plasticity in embryonic endothelium such that loss of a single master regulator can induce ectopic cardiomyogenesis from endothelial cells. ..
  33. Christoffels V, Mommersteeg M, Trowe M, Prall O, de Gier de Vries C, Soufan A, et al. Formation of the venous pole of the heart from an Nkx2-5-negative precursor population requires Tbx18. Circ Res. 2006;98:1555-63 pubmed
  34. Harrelson Z, Kelly R, Goldin S, Gibson Brown J, Bollag R, Silver L, et al. Tbx2 is essential for patterning the atrioventricular canal and for morphogenesis of the outflow tract during heart development. Development. 2004;131:5041-52 pubmed
  35. Bruneau B, Nemer G, Schmitt J, Charron F, Robitaille L, Caron S, et al. A murine model of Holt-Oram syndrome defines roles of the T-box transcription factor Tbx5 in cardiogenesis and disease. Cell. 2001;106:709-21 pubmed
  36. Li S, Zhou D, Lu M, Morrisey E. Advanced cardiac morphogenesis does not require heart tube fusion. Science. 2004;305:1619-22 pubmed
  37. Nakazawa M, Uchida K, Aramaki M, Kodo K, Yamagishi C, Takahashi T, et al. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are essential for the development of the second heart field. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;51:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal that IP(3)R type 1 and type 3 may play a redundant role in the development of the SHF. ..
  38. Gottlieb P, Pierce S, Sims R, Yamagishi H, Weihe E, Harriss J, et al. Bop encodes a muscle-restricted protein containing MYND and SET domains and is essential for cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 2002;31:25-32 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that m-Bop is essential for cardiomyocyte differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  39. Beach J, Bruun K, Shao L, Li D, Swider Z, Remmert K, et al. Actin dynamics and competition for myosin monomer govern the sequential amplification of myosin filaments. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results provide new insights into the mechanism and spatio-temporal regulation of NM2 filament assembly in cells. ..
  40. Bax N, Bleyl S, Gallini R, Wisse L, Hunter J, Van Oorschot A, et al. Cardiac malformations in Pdgfralpha mutant embryos are associated with increased expression of WT1 and Nkx2.5 in the second heart field. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide novel insight for a possible role for Pdgfralpha in transduction pathways that lead to repression of Nkx2.5 and WT1 during development of posterior heart field-derived cardiac structures. ..
  41. Eisenberg T, Abdellatif M, Schroeder S, Primessnig U, Stekovic S, Pendl T, et al. Cardioprotection and lifespan extension by the natural polyamine spermidine. Nat Med. 2016;22:1428-1438 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a new and feasible strategy for protection against cardiovascular disease. ..
  42. Domínguez J, Meilhac S, Bland Y, Buckingham M, Brown N. Asymmetric fate of the posterior part of the second heart field results in unexpected left/right contributions to both poles of the heart. Circ Res. 2012;111:1323-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations show asymmetric fate of the pSHF, resulting in unexpected left/right contributions to both poles of the heart and can be integrated into a model of the morphogenetic movement of cells during cardiac looping. ..
  43. Dyson E, Sucov H, Kubalak S, Schmid Schönbein G, DeLano F, Evans R, et al. Atrial-like phenotype is associated with embryonic ventricular failure in retinoid X receptor alpha -/- mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7386-90 pubmed
    ..The conduction system disturbances found in the RXR alpha -/- embryos may reflect a requirement of the developing conduction system for the RXR alpha signaling pathway, or it may be secondary to the failure of septal development. ..
  44. Zeisberg E, Ma Q, Juraszek A, Moses K, Schwartz R, Izumo S, et al. Morphogenesis of the right ventricle requires myocardial expression of Gata4. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1522-31 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a general role of myocardial Gata4 in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferation and a specific, stage-dependent role in regulating the morphogenesis of the RV and the atrioventricular canal. ..
  45. Huang C, Sheikh F, Hollander M, Cai C, Becker D, Chu P, et al. Embryonic atrial function is essential for mouse embryogenesis, cardiac morphogenesis and angiogenesis. Development. 2003;130:6111-9 pubmed
    ..To address this question, we have generated mice deficient in atrial myosin light chain 2 (MLC2a), a major structural component of the atrial myofibrillar apparatus...
  46. Clay H, Wilsbacher L, Wilson S, Duong D, McDonald M, Lam I, et al. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 in cardiomyocytes is required for normal cardiac development. Dev Biol. 2016;418:157-165 pubmed publisher
    ..5 dpc and later. Nkx2-5-Cre- and Mlc2a-Cre-mediated conditional knockout of S1pr1 led to ventricular noncompaction and ventricular septal defects at 18...
  47. Merki E, Zamora M, Raya A, Kawakami Y, Wang J, Zhang X, et al. Epicardial retinoid X receptor alpha is required for myocardial growth and coronary artery formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18455-60 pubmed
  48. Tian Y, Yuan L, Goss A, Wang T, Yang J, Lepore J, et al. Characterization and in vivo pharmacological rescue of a Wnt2-Gata6 pathway required for cardiac inflow tract development. Dev Cell. 2010;18:275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a molecular pathway regulating the posterior cardiac mesoderm and demonstrate that cardiovascular defects caused by loss of Wnt signaling can be rescued pharmacologically in vivo. ..
  49. Brunskill E, Witte D, Yutzey K, Potter S. Novel cell lines promote the discovery of genes involved in early heart development. Dev Biol. 2001;235:507-20 pubmed
    ..The results show that the 1H and ECL-2 cell lines can be used to discover novel genes expressed in the early cardiomyocyte. ..
  50. Ruiz Lozano P, Smith S, Perkins G, Kubalak S, Boss G, Sucov H, et al. Energy deprivation and a deficiency in downstream metabolic target genes during the onset of embryonic heart failure in RXRalpha-/- embryos. Development. 1998;125:533-44 pubmed
    ..We propose a model whereby defects in intermediary metabolism may be a causative factor of the RXRalpha-/- phenotype and resembles an embryonic form of dilated cardiomyopathy. ..
  51. Kokubo H, Miyagawa Tomita S, Nakazawa M, Saga Y, Johnson R. Mouse hesr1 and hesr2 genes are redundantly required to mediate Notch signaling in the developing cardiovascular system. Dev Biol. 2005;278:301-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate a requirement for hesr1 and hesr2 in mediating Notch signaling in the developing cardiac and vascular systems. ..
  52. Riley P, Anson Cartwright L, Cross J. The Hand1 bHLH transcription factor is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 1998;18:271-5 pubmed
    ..Their heart tubes showed abnormal looping and ventricular myocardial differentiation. Therefore, Hand1 is essential for differentiation of both trophoblast and cardiomyocytes, which are embryologically distinct cell lineages. ..
  53. Liao J, Aggarwal V, Nowotschin S, Bondarev A, Lipner S, Morrow B. Identification of downstream genetic pathways of Tbx1 in the second heart field. Dev Biol. 2008;316:524-37 pubmed publisher
    ..When taken together, our studies show that Tbx1 acts upstream in a genetic network that positively regulates SHF cell proliferation and negatively regulates differentiation, cell-autonomously in the caudal pharyngeal region. ..