Gene Symbol: Myl4
Description: myosin, light polypeptide 4
Alias: ALC1, AMLC, ELC, ELC1a, GT1, MLC1EMB, MLC1a, Myla, myosin light chain 4, myosin light chain 1, atrial/fetal isoform, myosin light chain, alkali, cardiac atria, myosin, light polypeptide 4, alkali; atrial, embryonic
Species: mouse
Products:     Myl4

Top Publications

  1. Liberatore C, Searcy Schrick R, Yutzey K. Ventricular expression of tbx5 inhibits normal heart chamber development. Dev Biol. 2000;223:169-80 pubmed
    ..These studies provide direct evidence for an essential role for tbx5 in early heart morphogenesis and chamber-specific gene expression. ..
  2. Kelly R, Jerome Majewska L, Papaioannou V. The del22q11.2 candidate gene Tbx1 regulates branchiomeric myogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:2829-40 pubmed
    ..While no abnormalities in branchiomeric myogenesis were detected in Tbx1(+/-) mice, reduced TBX1 levels may contribute to pharyngeal hypotonia in del22q11.2 patients...
  3. Niederreither K, Vermot J, Messaddeq N, Schuhbaur B, Chambon P, Dolle P. Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is essential for heart morphogenesis in the mouse. Development. 2001;128:1019-31 pubmed
    ..However, cardiac neural crest cells cannot be properly rescued in Raldh2(-/- )embryos, leading to outflow tract septation defects. ..
  4. Weydert A, Daubas P, Lazaridis I, Barton P, Garner I, Leader D, et al. Genes for skeletal muscle myosin heavy chains are clustered and are not located on the same mouse chromosome as a cardiac myosin heavy chain gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:7183-7 pubmed
    ..This result is in contrast to that for other contractile protein genes such as the alkali myosin light chain and the actin multigene families, which are dispersed in the genome. ..
  5. Bernier L, Colman D, D EUSTACHIO P. Chromosomal locations of genes encoding 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the mouse. J Neurosci Res. 1988;20:497-504 pubmed
    ..We have localized the GFAP gene to distal chromosome 11 in the mouse. There are two genetic loci identified by CNP probes, one is closely linked to the GFAP gene, and the other maps to chromosome 3. ..
  6. Yang Y, Womack J. Human chromosome 17 comparative anchor loci are conserved on bovine chromosome 19. Genomics. 1995;27:293-7 pubmed
    Eight comparative anchor loci on human chromosome 17, TP53, CHRNB1, THRA1, CRYB1, NF1, MPO, MYL4, and P4HB, were mapped to bovine chromosome 19 using bovine x hamster and bovine x mouse hybrid somatic cell lines...
  7. Nadeau J, Berger F, Cox D, Crosby J, Davisson M, Ferrara D, et al. A family of type I keratin genes and the homeobox-2 gene complex are closely linked to the rex locus on mouse chromosome 11. Genomics. 1989;5:454-62 pubmed
  8. Obama H, Matsubara S, Guenet J, Muramatsu T. The midkine (MK) family of growth/differentiation factors: structure of an MK-related sequence in a pseudogene and evolutionary relationships among members of the MK family. J Biochem. 1994;115:516-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, so far there are only two established protein members, MK and heparin-binding, growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM)/pleiotrophin (PTN) in the MK family. ..
  9. Goto M, Oshima I, Hasegawa M, Ebihara S. The locus controlling pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity (Nat-2) is located on mouse chromosome 11. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1994;21:349-54 pubmed
    ..on chromosome 11 was found between Nat-2, Es-3 (esterase-3), Glk (the locus controlling galactokinase activity) and Myla (myosin alkali light chains expressed in cardiac atrial muscle)...

More Information


  1. Morris Rosendahl D, Schriever Schwemmer G, Robinson T. Derivation and characterization of a somatic cell hybrid containing the portion of mouse chromosome 11 (MMU11) homologous to human chromosome 17q. J Hered. 1996;87:252-8 pubmed
    ..Loci for D11Mit5, Rpo2-1, Trp53, Glut4, Acrb, and Atplb2 could all be localized proximal to the T16Ad breakpoint in band B5, between bands B1 and B5 on MMU11. ..
  2. Tenin G, Clowes C, Wolton K, Krejci E, Wright J, Lovell S, et al. Erbb2 is required for cardiac atrial electrical activity during development. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107041 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the l11Jus8 mouse reveals a novel function of Erbb2 during atrial conduction system development, which when disrupted causes death at mid-gestation. ..
  3. Potthoff M, Arnold M, McAnally J, Richardson J, Bassel Duby R, Olson E. Regulation of skeletal muscle sarcomere integrity and postnatal muscle function by Mef2c. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8143-51 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a key role for Mef2c in maintenance of sarcomere integrity and postnatal maturation of skeletal muscle. ..
  4. Molkentin J, Lin Q, Duncan S, Olson E. Requirement of the transcription factor GATA4 for heart tube formation and ventral morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1061-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that GATA4 is required for the migration or folding morphogenesis of the precardiogenic splanchnic mesodermal cells at the level of the AIP. ..
  5. Kelly R, Zammit P, Mouly V, Butler Browne G, Buckingham M. Dynamic left/right regionalisation of endogenous myosin light chain 3F transcripts in the developing mouse heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998;30:1067-81 pubmed
    ..MLC3F transgenes, however, maintain an embryonic-like distribution throughout development suggesting that myocardial gene expression is controlled by distinct temporal, as well as spatial, regulatory modules. ..
  6. Yamagishi H, Yamagishi C, Nakagawa O, Harvey R, Olson E, Srivastava D. The combinatorial activities of Nkx2.5 and dHAND are essential for cardiac ventricle formation. Dev Biol. 2001;239:190-203 pubmed
    ..5 and dHAND. These studies provide the first demonstration of gene mutations that result in ablation of the entire ventricular segment of the mammalian heart, and reveal essential transcriptional pathways for ventricular formation. ..
  7. Werner P, Raducha M, Prociuk U, Henthorn P, Patterson D. Physical and linkage mapping of human chromosome 17 loci to dog chromosomes 9 and 5. Genomics. 1997;42:74-82 pubmed
    ..centromeric two-thirds of dog chromosome 9 (CFA9), an acrocentric chromosome of medium size: P4HB, GALK1, TK1, GH1, MYL4, BRCA1, RARA, THRA1, MPO, NF1, and CRYBA1. Eight of these were also positioned on a linkage map spanning 38.6 cM...
  8. Shiota M, Heike T, Haruyama M, Baba S, Tsuchiya A, Fujino H, et al. Isolation and characterization of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells with myogenic and neuronal properties. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:1008-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, sphere-derived cells represent a new approach to enhance the multi-differentiation potential of murine bone marrow. ..
  9. Ontell M, Sopper M, Lyons G, Buckingham M, Ontell M. Modulation of contractile protein gene expression in fetal murine crural muscles: emergence of muscle diversity. Dev Dyn. 1993;198:203-13 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  10. Ontell M, Ontell M, Buckingham M. Muscle-specific gene expression during myogenesis in the mouse. Microsc Res Tech. 1995;30:354-65 pubmed
    ..The differences in gene expression in these two types of muscle suggest that no single coordinated pattern of gene activation is required during the initial formation of the muscles of the mouse. ..
  11. Vincent S, Mayeuf A, Niro C, Saitou M, Buckingham M. Non conservation of function for the evolutionarily conserved prdm1 protein in the control of the slow twitch myogenic program in the mouse embryo. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:3181-91 pubmed
  12. Catala F, Wanner R, Barton P, Cohen A, Wright W, Buckingham M. A skeletal muscle-specific enhancer regulated by factors binding to E and CArG boxes is present in the promoter of the mouse myosin light-chain 1A gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4585-96 pubmed
    The mouse myosin light-chain 1A (MLC1A) gene, expressed in the atria of the adult heart, is one of the first muscle genes to be activated when skeletal as well as cardiac muscles form in the embryo...
  13. Bajanca F, Luz M, Duxson M, Thorsteinsdóttir S. Integrins in the mouse myotome: developmental changes and differences between the epaxial and hypaxial lineage. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:402-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, alpha4beta1 is expressed in the hypaxial dermomyotome and is maintained by early hypaxial myogenic progenitor cells colonizing the myotome. ..
  14. Ontell M, Ontell M, Sopper M, Mallonga R, Lyons G, Buckingham M. Contractile protein gene expression in primary myotubes of embryonic mouse hindlimb muscles. Development. 1993;117:1435-44 pubmed
    ..for (1) alpha-cardiac and alpha-skeletal actin, (2) MHCembryonic, MHCperinatal and MHC beta/slow, and (3) MLC1A, MLC1F and MLC3F are detectable at 14 days gestation...
  15. Niro C, Demignon J, Vincent S, Liu Y, Giordani J, Sgarioto N, et al. Six1 and Six4 gene expression is necessary to activate the fast-type muscle gene program in the mouse primary myotome. Dev Biol. 2010;338:168-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vivo wide transcriptomal analysis of the function of the master myogenic determinants, Six, identifies them as novel markers for the differential activation of a specific muscle program during mammalian somitic myogenesis. ..
  16. Juriloff D, Harris M, Dewell S, Brown C, Mager D, Gagnier L, et al. Investigations of the genomic region that contains the clf1 mutation, a causal gene in multifactorial cleft lip and palate in mice. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73:103-13 pubmed
    ..Gosr2, Wnt9b, Wnt3, Nsf, Arf2, Crhr1, Mapt, Cdc27, Myl4, Itgb3, chr11_20.152, chr11_20.154, chr11_20.155, and chr11_20.156 are expressed in ED10-11 heads...
  17. Lyons I, Parsons L, Hartley L, Li R, Andrews J, Robb L, et al. Myogenic and morphogenetic defects in the heart tubes of murine embryos lacking the homeo box gene Nkx2-5. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1654-66 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate that Nkx2-5 is essential for normal heart morphogenesis, myogenesis, and function. Furthermore, this gene is a component of a genetic pathway required for myogenic specialization of the ventricles. ..
  18. Miller M, Palmer B, Ruch S, Martin L, Farman G, Wang Y, et al. The essential light chain N-terminal extension alters force and fiber kinetics in mouse cardiac muscle. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34427-34 pubmed
    ..functional significance of the actin-binding region at the N terminus of the cardiac myosin essential light chain (ELC) remains elusive...
  19. Ramsdell C, Thames E, Weston J, Dewey M. Development of a deer mouse whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and comparative mapping of Mus chromosome 11 loci. Mamm Genome. 2006;17:37-48 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this separate linkage group is likely to reside in a chromosomal region of inversion polymorphism between P. maniculatus and P. polionotus. ..
  20. Hernandez O, Jones M, Guzman G, Szczesna Cordary D. Myosin essential light chain in health and disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H1643-54 pubmed
    The essential light chain of myosin (ELC) is known to be important for structural stability of the alpha-helical lever arm domain of the myosin head, but its function in striated muscle contraction is poorly understood...
  21. Washabaugh C, Ontell M, Shan Z, Hoffman E, Ontell M. Role of the nerve in determining fetal skeletal muscle phenotype. Dev Dyn. 1998;211:177-90 pubmed
    ..slow muscles; (2) the absence of innervation of future slow, but not fast, muscles decreases the accumulation of MLC1A transcript...
  22. Xin M, Small E, van Rooij E, Qi X, Richardson J, Srivastava D, et al. Essential roles of the bHLH transcription factor Hrt2 in repression of atrial gene expression and maintenance of postnatal cardiac function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7975-80 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a ventricular myocardial cell-autonomous function for Hrt2 in the suppression of atrial cell identity and the maintenance of postnatal cardiac function. ..
  23. Cohen Haguenauer O, Barton P, Van Cong N, Cohen A, Masset M, Buckingham M, et al. Chromosomal assignment of two myosin alkali light-chain genes encoding the ventricular/slow skeletal muscle isoform and the atrial/fetal muscle isoform (MYL3, MYL4). Hum Genet. 1989;81:278-82 pubmed the slow skeletal muscle isoform MLC1Sb) and the atrial muscle isoform MLC1A (equivalent to the fetal isoform MLC1emb) using a panel of 25 independent man-rodent somatic cell hybrids...
  24. Barton P, Robert B, Cohen A, Garner I, Sassoon D, Weydert A, et al. Structure and sequence of the myosin alkali light chain gene expressed in adult cardiac atria and fetal striated muscle. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:12669-76 pubmed fetal skeletal and fetal ventricular muscle, where this isoform is also described as the fetal isoform MLC1emb. We have previously isolated a cDNA clone encoding part of the mouse MLC1A/MLC1emb isoform and have used this ..
  25. Hustert E, Scherer G, Olowson M, Guenet J, Balling R. Rbt (Rabo torcido), a new mouse skeletal mutation involved in anteroposterior patterning of the axial skeleton, maps close to the Ts (tail-short) locus and distal to the Sox9 locus on chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:881-5 pubmed
    ..Sox9, the human homolog of which is responsible for the skeletal malformation syndrome campomelic dysplasia, was mapped proximal to D11Mit128. It is, therefore, unlikely that Ts and Rbt are mouse models for this human skeletal disorder. ..
  26. Robert B, Barton P, Minty A, Daubas P, Weydert A, Bonhomme F, et al. Investigation of genetic linkage between myosin and actin genes using an interspecific mouse back-cross. Nature. 1985;314:181-3 pubmed
    ..No linkage between these genes was observed. ..
  27. Park I, Qian D, Kiel M, Becker M, Pihalja M, Weissman I, et al. Bmi-1 is required for maintenance of adult self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells. Nature. 2003;423:302-5 pubmed
    ..Expression of p16Ink4a and p19Arf in normal HSCs resulted in proliferative arrest and p53-dependent cell death, respectively. Our results indicate that Bmi-1 is essential for the generation of self-renewing adult HSCs. ..
  28. Kazmierczak K, Xu Y, Jones M, Guzman G, Hernandez O, Kerrick W, et al. The role of the N-terminus of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction. J Mol Biol. 2009;387:706-25 pubmed publisher
    To study the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by the myosin essential light chain (ELC) and the physiological significance of its N-terminal extension, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice by partially replacing the endogenous mouse ..
  29. Markel P, Johnson T. Initial characterization of STS markers in the LSXSS series of recombinant inbred strains. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:199-202 pubmed
    ..This ongoing QTL-mapping project eventually will result in a strain distribution pattern for the LSXSS RI series with an average marker spacing of 5 centimorgans. ..
  30. Buchberg A, Brownell E, Nagata S, Jenkins N, Copeland N. A comprehensive genetic map of murine chromosome 11 reveals extensive linkage conservation between mouse and human. Genetics. 1989;122:153-61 pubmed
    ..backcross analysis were determined (Erbb, Rel, 11-3, Csfgm, Trp53-1, Evi-2, Erba, Erbb-2, Csfg, Myhs, Cola-1, Myla, Hox-2 and Pkca)...
  31. Love J, Knight A, McAleer M, Todd J. Towards construction of a high resolution map of the mouse genome using PCR-analysed microsatellites. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:4123-30 pubmed
    ..This simple approach is extremely useful in linkage and genome mapping studies and will facilitate construction of high resolution maps of both the mouse and human genomes. ..
  32. Laumen H, Brunner C, Greiner A, Wirth T. Myosin light chain 1 atrial isoform (MLC1A) is expressed in pre-B cells under control of the BOB.1/OBF.1 coactivator. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:1577-83 pubmed
    ..Using the cDNA representational difference analysis method we could identify myosin light chain 1 atrial (MLC1A) isoform as a gene regulated by BOB.1/OBF.1. MLC1A was so far unknown to be expressed in tissues other than muscle...
  33. Lyons G, Ontell M, Cox R, Sassoon D, Buckingham M. The expression of myosin genes in developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:1465-76 pubmed
    ..Cardiac MHC beta transcripts are always present as a minor component. In contrast, the cardiac MLC1A mRNA is initially more abundant than that encoding the skeletal MLC1F isoform. By 12.5 d p.c...
  34. Sanbe A, Gulick J, Fewell J, Robbins J. Examining the in vivo role of the amino terminus of the essential myosin light chain. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32682-6 pubmed the cognate compartments were observed when either deletion-containing protein replaced endogenous ELC1v or ELC1a. The data indicate that the previously postulated importance of this region in mediating critical protein ..
  35. Delgado Olguin P, Huang Y, Li X, Christodoulou D, Seidman C, Seidman J, et al. Epigenetic repression of cardiac progenitor gene expression by Ezh2 is required for postnatal cardiac homeostasis. Nat Genet. 2012;44:343-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that epigenetic dysregulation in embryonic progenitor cells is a predisposing factor for adult disease and dysregulated stress responses. ..
  36. Koibuchi N, Chin M. CHF1/Hey2 plays a pivotal role in left ventricular maturation through suppression of ectopic atrial gene expression. Circ Res. 2007;100:850-5 pubmed
    ..The atrial contractile genes mlc1a and mlc2a were also expressed ectopically in the left ventricular compact myocardium, providing evidence for a ..
  37. Seharaseyon J, Bober E, Hsieh C, Fodor W, Francke U, Arnold H, et al. Human embryonic/atrial myosin alkali light chain gene: characterization, sequence, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 1990;7:289-93 pubmed
    ..This gene, together with a number of others such as the collagen(I) alpha 1, galactokinase, and thymidine kinase genes, is part of the largest syntenic group between mouse and man. ..
  38. Bermingham J, Arden K, Naumova A, Sapienza C, Viars C, Fu X, et al. Chromosomal localization of mouse and human genes encoding the splicing factors ASF/SF2 (SFRS1) and SC-35 (SFRS2). Genomics. 1995;29:70-9 pubmed
    ..Mapping of Sfrs1 using F1 hybrid backcross mice between the strains C57BL/6 and DDK places Sfrs1 very near the marker D11Mit38 and indicates that the ASF/SF2 gene is closely linked to the Ovum mutant locus. ..
  39. Barton P, Harris A, Buckingham M. Myosin light chain gene expression in developing and denervated fetal muscle in the mouse. Development. 1989;107:819-24 pubmed
    We have investigated the accumulation of mRNA transcripts of the atrial (or embryonic) myosin light chain MLC1A (MLC1emb), and the two adult fast muscle myosin light chains (MLC1F and MLC3F) during fetal skeletal muscle development in ..
  40. Boyer S, Montagutelli X, Gomes D, Simon Chazottes D, Guenet J, Dupouey P. Recent evolutionary origin of the expression of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in lens epithelial cells. A molecular and genetic analysis of various mouse species. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1991;10:159-66 pubmed
    ..GFAP(+) character is transmitted in a dominant fashion and seems to be linked to the Mus musculus Gfap gene. In this study we have also confirmed the localization of the mouse Gfap gene on chromosome 11. ..
  41. Epstein J, Li J, Lang D, Chen F, Brown C, Jin F, et al. Migration of cardiac neural crest cells in Splotch embryos. Development. 2000;127:1869-78 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that Pax3 is required for fine tuning the migratory behavior of the cardiac neural crest cells while it is not essential for neural crest migration. ..
  42. Diehl A, Zareparsi S, Qian M, Khanna R, Angeles R, Gage P. Extraocular muscle morphogenesis and gene expression are regulated by Pitx2 gene dose. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1785-93 pubmed
  43. Lowey S, Risby D. Light chains from fast and slow muscle myosins. Nature. 1971;234:81-5 pubmed
  44. Lyons G, Schiaffino S, Sassoon D, Barton P, Buckingham M. Developmental regulation of myosin gene expression in mouse cardiac muscle. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:2427-36 pubmed
    ..5 and 8 d post coitum (p.c.), the newly formed cardiac tube begins to express MHC alpha, MHC beta, MLC1 atrial (MLC1A), and MLC1 ventricular (MLC1V) gene transcripts at high levels throughout the myocardium...
  45. Hayashi S, Manabe I, Suzuki Y, Relaix F, Oishi Y. Klf5 regulates muscle differentiation by directly targeting muscle-specific genes in cooperation with MyoD in mice. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Klf5 is an essential regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation, acting in concert with myogenic transcription factors such as MyoD and Mef2. ..
  46. Cohen A, Barton P, Robert B, Garner I, Alonso S, Buckingham M. Promoter analysis of myosin alkali light chain genes expressed in mouse striated muscle. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:10037-52 pubmed
    ..muscle/slow skeletal muscle gene MLC1V(MLC1S), and the atrial muscle/foetal striated muscle gene MLC1A(MLC1emb)...
  47. Bertrand A, Renou L, Papadopoulos A, Beuvin M, Lacene E, Massart C, et al. DelK32-lamin A/C has abnormal location and induces incomplete tissue maturation and severe metabolic defects leading to premature death. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1037-48 pubmed publisher
    ..And importantly, L-CMD patients should be investigated for putative metabolic disorders. ..
  48. Nassar R, Malouf N, Mao L, Rockman H, Oakeley A, Frye J, et al. cTnT1, a cardiac troponin T isoform, decreases myofilament tension and affects the left ventricular pressure waveform. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H1147-56 pubmed
  49. Juriloff D, Harris M, Dewell S. A digenic cause of cleft lip in A-strain mice and definition of candidate genes for the two loci. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70:509-18 pubmed
    ..The clf1 region contains 10 known genes (Arf2, Cdc27, Crhr1, Gosr2, Itgb3, Mapt, Myl4, Nsf, Wnt3, and Wnt9b). The clf2 region contains 17 known genes with human orthologs...
  50. Zammit P, Kelly R, Franco D, Brown N, Moorman A, Buckingham M. Suppression of atrial myosin gene expression occurs independently in the left and right ventricles of the developing mouse heart. Dev Dyn. 2000;217:75-85 pubmed
    ..5, remain regionalized between E12.5 and E14.5. Downregulation of alpha-MHC, MLC1A, and MLC2A in iv/iv embryos, which have defective left/right patterning, initiates in the morphological left (..
  51. Fewell J, Hewett T, Sanbe A, Klevitsky R, Hayes E, Warshaw D, et al. Functional significance of cardiac myosin essential light chain isoform switching in transgenic mice. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:2630-9 pubmed
    ..subpopulation suffering from heart disease caused by congenital malformations of the outflow tract, an ELC1v-->ELC1a isoform shift correlated with increases in cross-bridge cycling kinetics as measured in skinned fibers derived ..
  52. Kastner P, Grondona J, Mark M, Gansmuller A, LeMeur M, Decimo D, et al. Genetic analysis of RXR alpha developmental function: convergence of RXR and RAR signaling pathways in heart and eye morphogenesis. Cell. 1994;78:987-1003 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, RXR alpha/RAR double mutants exhibited several malformations not seen in single mutants. This functional convergence strongly suggests that RXR alpha/RAR heterodimers mediate retinoid signaling in vivo. ..
  53. Sola B, Simon D, Mattei M, Fichelson S, Bordereaux D, Tambourin P, et al. Fim-1, Fim-2/c-fms, and Fim-3, three common integration sites of Friend murine leukemia virus in myeloblastic leukemias, map to mouse chromosomes 13, 18, and 3, respectively. J Virol. 1988;62:3973-8 pubmed
    ..Fim-2 spans the 5' end of the c-fms gene, which encodes for the macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor. We located the c-fms gene on the D band of chromosome 18 by in situ hybridization. ..