Gene Symbol: Myl3
Description: myosin, light polypeptide 3
Alias: MLC1s, MLC1v, Mylc, VLC1, myosin light chain 3, MLC1SB, myosin alkali light chain 1, ventricular/slow skeletal muscle isoform, myosin light chain 1, slow-twitch muscle B/ventricular isoform, myosin light chain, alkali, cardiac ventricles, myosin, light polypeptide 3, alkali; ventricular, skeletal, slow, slow skeletal, ventricular, ventricular/slow twitch myosin alkali light chain
Species: mouse
Products:     Myl3

Top Publications

  1. Lyons I, Parsons L, Hartley L, Li R, Andrews J, Robb L, et al. Myogenic and morphogenetic defects in the heart tubes of murine embryos lacking the homeo box gene Nkx2-5. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1654-66 pubmed
    ..MLC2V expression normally occurs only in ventricular cells and is the earliest known molecular marker of ventricular differentiation...
  2. Keller A, Ott M, Lamande N, Lucas M, Gros F, Buckingham M, et al. Activation of the gene encoding the glycolytic enzyme beta-enolase during early myogenesis precedes an increased expression during fetal muscle development. Mech Dev. 1992;38:41-54 pubmed
    ..The regulation of this muscle-specific gene in somites is discussed in terms of the myogenic sequences of the MyoD family shown to be present when it is activated. ..
  3. Lyons G, Ontell M, Cox R, Sassoon D, Buckingham M. The expression of myosin genes in developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:1465-76 pubmed
    ..5 d p.c., MLC1F is the predominant MLC transcript detected. Transcripts for the ventricular/slow (MLC1V) and another fast skeletal myosin light chain (MLC3F) are not detected in skeletal muscle before 15 ..
  4. Chen J, Kubalak S, Minamisawa S, Price R, Becker K, Hickey R, et al. Selective requirement of myosin light chain 2v in embryonic heart function. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1252-6 pubmed
    Two major myosin light chain 2 isoforms are coexpressed in the early stages of murine cardiogenesis, a cardiac ventricular isoform and a cardiac atrial isoform, each of which is tightly regulated in a muscle cell-type-specific manner ..
  5. Amann R, Wyder S, Slavotinek A, Trueb B. The FgfrL1 receptor is required for development of slow muscle fibers. Dev Biol. 2014;394:228-41 pubmed publisher
    ..5 as indicated by the absence of slow fiber markers Myh7, Myl2 and Myl3. Similar lesions are also found in other skeletal muscles that contain a high proportion of slow fibers at birth, ..
  6. Harmelink C, Peng Y, Debenedittis P, Chen H, Shou W, Jiao K. Myocardial Mycn is essential for mouse ventricular wall morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2013;373:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, Mycn acts downstream of BMP and NRG1 cardiogenic signaling pathways to promote normal myocardial wall morphogenesis. ..
  7. Nassar R, Malouf N, Mao L, Rockman H, Oakeley A, Frye J, et al. cTnT1, a cardiac troponin T isoform, decreases myofilament tension and affects the left ventricular pressure waveform. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H1147-56 pubmed
    ..In vivo maximum rates of rise and fall of left ventricular pressure decreased, and the half-time of isovolumic relaxation increased, with hcTnT(1) expression...
  8. Zammit P, Kelly R, Franco D, Brown N, Moorman A, Buckingham M. Suppression of atrial myosin gene expression occurs independently in the left and right ventricles of the developing mouse heart. Dev Dyn. 2000;217:75-85 pubmed
    ..alpha-MHC protein also accumulates in the right, but not left, compact ventricular myocardium during this period, suggesting that this transient regionalization contributes to fktal heart ..
  9. Schleef M, Werner K, Satzger U, Kaupmann K, Jockusch H. Chromosomal localization and genomic cloning of the mouse alpha-tropomyosin gene Tpm-1. Genomics. 1993;17:519-21 pubmed
    ..Using interspecies backcrosses, we have localized Tpm-1 on mouse chromosome 9, cen-Cyp1a2-Tpm-1-Mod-1-Mylc-Scn5a, near the d-se region...

More Information


  1. Cohen A, Barton P, Robert B, Garner I, Alonso S, Buckingham M. Promoter analysis of myosin alkali light chain genes expressed in mouse striated muscle. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:10037-52 pubmed
    ..The skeletal muscle gene MLC1F/MLC3F, the ventricular muscle/slow skeletal muscle gene MLC1V(MLC1S), and the atrial muscle/foetal striated muscle gene MLC1A(MLC1emb)...
  2. Robert B, Barton P, Minty A, Daubas P, Weydert A, Bonhomme F, et al. Investigation of genetic linkage between myosin and actin genes using an interspecific mouse back-cross. Nature. 1985;314:181-3 pubmed
    ..No linkage between these genes was observed. ..
  3. Mjaatvedt C, Yamamura H, Capehart A, Turner D, Markwald R. The Cspg2 gene, disrupted in the hdf mutant, is required for right cardiac chamber and endocardial cushion formation. Dev Biol. 1998;202:56-66 pubmed
  4. Issa L, Palmer S, Guven K, Santucci N, Hodgson V, Popovic K, et al. MusTRD can regulate postnatal fiber-specific expression. Dev Biol. 2006;293:104-15 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with our initial predictions for hMusTRD1alpha1 and suggest that slow fiber genes contain a specific common regulatory element that can be targeted by MusTRD proteins. ..
  5. Fraidenraich D, Stillwell E, Romero E, Wilkes D, Manova K, Basson C, et al. Rescue of cardiac defects in id knockout embryos by injection of embryonic stem cells. Science. 2004;306:247-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, ES cells have the potential to reverse congenital defects through Id-dependent local and long-range effects in a mammalian embryo. ..
  6. Cho K, Lee J, Kim K, Lee E, Suh J, Lee H, et al. Fine mapping of the circling (cir) gene on the distal portion of mouse chromosome 9. Comp Med. 2003;53:642-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the circling mouse is a potential animal model for DFNB6 deafness in humans. ..
  7. Barton P, Harris A, Buckingham M. Myosin light chain gene expression in developing and denervated fetal muscle in the mouse. Development. 1989;107:819-24 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in terms of secondary muscle fibre formation, and in relation to the independent regulation of MLC1F and MLC3F mRNAs which are transcribed from the same gene. ..
  8. Barton P, Cohen A, Robert B, Fiszman M, Bonhomme F, Guenet J, et al. The myosin alkali light chains of mouse ventricular and slow skeletal muscle are indistinguishable and are encoded by the same gene. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:8578-84 pubmed
    ..Under these conditions hybridization is seen with an abundant mRNA present in slow skeletal muscle (soleus) which is indistinguishable from ventricular MLC1V mRNA on the basis of size and of thermal ..
  9. Blanchard E, Iizuka K, Christe M, Conner D, Geisterfer Lowrance A, Schoen F, et al. Targeted ablation of the murine alpha-tropomyosin gene. Circ Res. 1997;81:1005-10 pubmed
    ..These findings imply that in heterozygotes there is a regulatory mechanism that maintains the level of myofibrillar tropomyosin despite the reduction in alpha-tropomyosin mRNA. ..
  10. Vincentz J, Barnes R, Firulli B, Conway S, Firulli A. Cooperative interaction of Nkx2.5 and Mef2c transcription factors during heart development. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3809-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular marker and cell death and proliferation analyses provide evidence that ventricular hypoplasia is the result of defective ventricular cell differentiation...
  11. Ohno K, Kanou Y, Oda S, Wakasugi N, Inouye M, Yamamura H. Mapping of the dilute-opisthotonus (dop) gene on chromosome 8 of the rat. Exp Anim. 1996;45:71-5 pubmed
    ..This mutation appears to be homologous to dilute-lethal (d1) of the mouse in terms of clinical symptoms, coat color effect and chromosomal location of the gene loci. Key words: ataxic mutant rat, dilute-opisthotonus (dop), gene mapping. ..
  12. Ozerdem U, Grako K, Dahlin Huppe K, Monosov E, Stallcup W. NG2 proteoglycan is expressed exclusively by mural cells during vascular morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:218-27 pubmed
    ..Additional insight into these and other aspects of vascular morphogenesis should be possible through use of NG2 as a mural cell marker. ..
  13. Lyons G, Schiaffino S, Sassoon D, Barton P, Buckingham M. Developmental regulation of myosin gene expression in mouse cardiac muscle. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:2427-36 pubmed
    ..c.), the newly formed cardiac tube begins to express MHC alpha, MHC beta, MLC1 atrial (MLC1A), and MLC1 ventricular (MLC1V) gene transcripts at high levels throughout the myocardium...
  14. James J, Osinska H, Hewett T, Kimball T, Klevitsky R, Witt S, et al. Transgenic over-expression of a motor protein at high levels results in severe cardiac pathology. Transgenic Res. 1999;8:9-22 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that very high expression levels of a contractile protein can cause a cardiac pathology that is unrelated to its degree of replacement in the sarcomere and the unique role(s) it may assume in motor protein function. ..
  15. Mitchem K, Hibbard E, Beyer L, Bosom K, Dootz G, Dolan D, et al. Mutation of the novel gene Tmie results in sensory cell defects in the inner ear of spinner, a mouse model of human hearing loss DFNB6. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:1887-98 pubmed
    ..The spinner mutant is thus a valuable model for insight into mechanisms of human deafness and development of sensory cell function. ..
  16. Misra C, Sachan N, McNally C, Koenig S, Nichols H, Guggilam A, et al. Congenital heart disease-causing Gata4 mutation displays functional deficits in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002690 pubmed publisher
    Defects of atrial and ventricular septation are the most frequent form of congenital heart disease, accounting for almost 50% of all cases...
  17. Ontell M, Sopper M, Lyons G, Buckingham M, Ontell M. Modulation of contractile protein gene expression in fetal murine crural muscles: emergence of muscle diversity. Dev Dyn. 1993;198:203-13 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  18. Merrick D, Ting T, Stadler L, Smith J. A role for Insulin-like growth factor 2 in specification of the fast skeletal muscle fibre. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:65 pubmed
    ..5-P1). Since specific loss of FMyHC fibres is associated with many skeletal muscle pathologies these data have important medical implications. ..
  19. Houzelstein D, Lyons G, Chamberlain J, Buckingham M. Localization of dystrophin gene transcripts during mouse embryogenesis. J Cell Biol. 1992;119:811-21 pubmed
    ..The findings are discussed in the context of the pathology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. ..
  20. Xin M, Small E, van Rooij E, Qi X, Richardson J, Srivastava D, et al. Essential roles of the bHLH transcription factor Hrt2 in repression of atrial gene expression and maintenance of postnatal cardiac function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7975-80 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor Hairy-related transcription factor 2 (Hrt2) is expressed in ventricular, but not atrial, cardiomyocytes, and in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells...
  21. Chuva de Sousa Lopes S, Hassink R, Feijen A, van Rooijen M, Doevendans P, Tertoolen L, et al. Patterning the heart, a template for human cardiomyocyte development. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1994-2002 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, Mlc-2v may prove to be an adequate ventricular marker in humans in contrast to mouse...
  22. Tanaka M, Chen Z, Bartunkova S, Yamasaki N, Izumo S. The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. Development. 1999;126:1269-80 pubmed
    ..5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos. ..
  23. Washabaugh C, Ontell M, Shan Z, Hoffman E, Ontell M. Role of the nerve in determining fetal skeletal muscle phenotype. Dev Dyn. 1998;211:177-90 pubmed
    ..suggest that: (1) the absence of the nerve to either future fast or slow muscles results in less accumulation of MLC1V transcript...
  24. Marszalek J, Ruiz Lozano P, Roberts E, Chien K, Goldstein L. Situs inversus and embryonic ciliary morphogenesis defects in mouse mutants lacking the KIF3A subunit of kinesin-II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5043-8 pubmed
  25. Shiota M, Heike T, Haruyama M, Baba S, Tsuchiya A, Fujino H, et al. Isolation and characterization of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells with myogenic and neuronal properties. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:1008-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, sphere-derived cells represent a new approach to enhance the multi-differentiation potential of murine bone marrow. ..
  26. Firulli A, McFadden D, Lin Q, Srivastava D, Olson E. Heart and extra-embryonic mesodermal defects in mouse embryos lacking the bHLH transcription factor Hand1. Nat Genet. 1998;18:266-70 pubmed
    ..Heart development was also perturbed and did not progress beyond the cardiac-looping stage. Our results demonstrate important roles for Hand1 in extraembryonic mesodermal and heart development. ..
  27. Ontell M, Ontell M, Sopper M, Mallonga R, Lyons G, Buckingham M. Contractile protein gene expression in primary myotubes of embryonic mouse hindlimb muscles. Development. 1993;117:1435-44 pubmed
    ..These differences indicate that there is no single coordinate pattern of expression of contractile protein genes during initial formation of the muscles of the mouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  28. Zhang W, Behringer R, Olson E. Inactivation of the myogenic bHLH gene MRF4 results in up-regulation of myogenin and rib anomalies. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1388-99 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate an unanticipated regulatory relationship between myogenin and MRF4 and suggest that MRF4 influences rib outgrowth through an indirect mechanism. ..
  29. Lionikas A, Blizard D, Gerhard G, Vandenbergh D, Stout J, Vogler G, et al. Genetic determinants of weight of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle in 500-day-old mice of the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J lineage. Physiol Genomics. 2005;21:184-92 pubmed
    ..In summary, muscle weight in B6/D2 lineage is affected by a polygenic system that has variable influences at different ages, between males and females, and across muscles in a manner independent of muscle type. ..
  30. Lyons G, Buckingham M, Tweedie S, Edwards Y. Carbonic anhydrase III, an early mesodermal marker, is expressed in embryonic mouse skeletal muscle and notochord. Development. 1991;111:233-44 pubmed
    ..In addition to the notochord, CAIII transcripts are detected prenatally in several other non-muscle tissues: in cells of the choroid plexus, endocardial cushion and ureter, and in adipocytes. ..