Gene Symbol: Myl1
Description: myosin, light polypeptide 1
Alias: AI325107, MLC1f, MLC3f, Mylf, myosin light chain 1/3, skeletal muscle isoform, A1 catalytic, A2 catalytic, MLC1/MLC3, MLC1F/MLC3F, myosin light chain A1/A2, myosin light chain alkali 1/2, myosin light chain, alkali, fast skeletal muscle, myosin, light polypeptide 1, alkali; atrial, embryonic, myosin, light polypeptide 4, alkali; atrial, embryonic
Species: mouse
Products:     Myl1

Top Publications

  1. Mock B, Seldin M. A comparison of genetic linkage maps surrounding the Lsh/Ity/Bcg disease resistance locus. Res Immunol. 1989;140:769-74 pubmed
  2. Patapoutian A, Yoon J, Miner J, Wang S, Stark K, Wold B. Disruption of the mouse MRF4 gene identifies multiple waves of myogenesis in the myotome. Development. 1995;121:3347-58 pubmed
    ..Finally, a later and relatively mild phenotype was detected in intercostal muscles of newborn animals. ..
  3. Blaauw B, Canato M, Agatea L, Toniolo L, Mammucari C, Masiero E, et al. Inducible activation of Akt increases skeletal muscle mass and force without satellite cell activation. FASEB J. 2009;23:3896-905 pubmed publisher
    ..We can conclude that during a fast hypertrophic growth myonuclear domain can increase without compromising muscle performance. ..
  4. Masiero E, Agatea L, Mammucari C, Blaauw B, Loro E, Komatsu M, et al. Autophagy is required to maintain muscle mass. Cell Metab. 2009;10:507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that inhibition/alteration of autophagy can contribute to myofiber degeneration and weakness in muscle disorders characterized by accumulation of abnormal mitochondria and inclusions. ..
  5. Grumati P, Coletto L, Sabatelli P, Cescon M, Angelin A, Bertaggia E, et al. Autophagy is defective in collagen VI muscular dystrophies, and its reactivation rescues myofiber degeneration. Nat Med. 2010;16:1313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that defective activation of the autophagic machinery is pathogenic in some congenital muscular dystrophies...
  6. Bothe G, Haspel J, Smith C, Wiener H, Burden S. Selective expression of Cre recombinase in skeletal muscle fibers. Genesis. 2000;26:165-6 pubmed
  7. Raben N, Schreiner C, Baum R, Takikita S, Xu S, Xie T, et al. Suppression of autophagy permits successful enzyme replacement therapy in a lysosomal storage disorder--murine Pompe disease. Autophagy. 2010;6:1078-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The suppression of autophagy, which has proven successful in the Pompe model, is a novel therapeutic approach that may be useful in other diseases with disturbed autophagy...
  8. Cohen S, Brault J, Gygi S, Glass D, Valenzuela D, Gartner C, et al. During muscle atrophy, thick, but not thin, filament components are degraded by MuRF1-dependent ubiquitylation. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1083-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these proteins stabilize the thick filament, their selective ubiquitylation may facilitate thick filament disassembly. However, the thin filament components decreased by a mechanism not requiring MuRF1...
  9. Patel S, Doble B, MacAulay K, Sinclair E, Drucker D, Woodgett J. Tissue-specific role of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in glucose homeostasis and insulin action. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6314-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that there are not only distinct roles for GSK-3alpha and GSK-3beta within the adult but also tissue-specific phenotypes associated with each of these isoforms. ..

More Information


  1. Wredenberg A, Freyer C, Sandstrom M, Katz A, Wibom R, Westerblad H, et al. Respiratory chain dysfunction in skeletal muscle does not cause insulin resistance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:202-7 pubmed
    ..In summary, our findings indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle is not a primary etiological event in DM2. ..
  2. Mammucari C, Milan G, Romanello V, Masiero E, Rudolf R, Del Piccolo P, et al. FoxO3 controls autophagy in skeletal muscle in vivo. Cell Metab. 2007;6:458-71 pubmed
    ..These findings point to FoxO3 and Bnip3 as potential therapeutic targets in muscle wasting disorders and other degenerative and neoplastic diseases in which autophagy is involved. ..
  3. Lyons G, Ontell M, Cox R, Sassoon D, Buckingham M. The expression of myosin genes in developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:1465-76 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the cardiac MLC1A mRNA is initially more abundant than that encoding the skeletal MLC1F isoform. By 12.5 d p.c. the two MLC mRNAs are present at similar levels, and by 15.5 d p.c...
  4. Ryu M, Kim S, Kim Y, Choi M, Tadi S, Lee M, et al. Crif1 deficiency reduces adipose OXPHOS capacity and triggers inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003356 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the OXPHOS status of adipose tissue determines its metabolic and inflammatory responses, and may cause systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. ..
  5. Patel S, MacAulay K, Woodgett J. Tissue-specific analysis of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) in glucose metabolism: effect of strain variation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15845 pubmed publisher
    ..We surmise that the insulin-sensitization observed in the out-bred strain of mice lacking GSK-3? is mediated by indirect means that do not require intrinsic function of GSK-3? in skeletal muscle and liver tissues. ..
  6. Issa L, Palmer S, Guven K, Santucci N, Hodgson V, Popovic K, et al. MusTRD can regulate postnatal fiber-specific expression. Dev Biol. 2006;293:104-15 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with our initial predictions for hMusTRD1alpha1 and suggest that slow fiber genes contain a specific common regulatory element that can be targeted by MusTRD proteins. ..
  7. Mock B, Krall M, Blackwell J, O BRIEN A, Schurr E, Gros P, et al. A genetic map of mouse chromosome 1 near the Lsh-Ity-Bcg disease resistance locus. Genomics. 1990;7:57-64 pubmed
    ..This multipoint linkage analysis of chromosome 1 surrounding the Lsh-Ity-Bcg locus provides a basis for the eventual isolation of the disease gene. ..
  8. Acharyya S, Villalta S, Bakkar N, Bupha Intr T, Janssen P, Carathers M, et al. Interplay of IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in macrophages and myofibers promotes muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:889-901 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results underscore the critical role of NF-kappaB in the progression of muscular dystrophy and suggest the IKK/NF-kappaB signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target for DMD. ..
  9. McGrew M, Bogdanova N, Hasegawa K, Hughes S, Kitsis R, Rosenthal N. Distinct gene expression patterns in skeletal and cardiac muscle are dependent on common regulatory sequences in the MLC1/3 locus. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4524-34 pubmed
    ..Mutation of either the MEF2 or GATA motifs in the MLC3 promoter attenuates its activity in both heart and skeletal muscles, demonstrating that MLC3 expression in these two diverse muscle types is dependent on common regulatory elements. ..
  10. Ontell M, Sopper M, Lyons G, Buckingham M, Ontell M. Modulation of contractile protein gene expression in fetal murine crural muscles: emergence of muscle diversity. Dev Dyn. 1993;198:203-13 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  11. Bi P, Yue F, Sato Y, Wirbisky S, Liu W, Shan T, et al. Stage-specific effects of Notch activation during skeletal myogenesis. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight context-dependent effects of Notch activation during myogenesis, and demonstrate that Notch1 activity improves myotube's function as a stem cell niche. ..
  12. Ontell M, Ontell M, Buckingham M. Muscle-specific gene expression during myogenesis in the mouse. Microsc Res Tech. 1995;30:354-65 pubmed
    ..The differences in gene expression in these two types of muscle suggest that no single coordinated pattern of gene activation is required during the initial formation of the muscles of the mouse. ..
  13. Heineke J, Auger Messier M, Xu J, Sargent M, York A, Welle S, et al. Genetic deletion of myostatin from the heart prevents skeletal muscle atrophy in heart failure. Circulation. 2010;121:419-25 pubmed publisher
    ..As expected, elimination of Mstn selectively in skeletal muscle with a myosin light chain 1f (MLC1f)-cre allele induced robust hypertrophy in all skeletal muscle...
  14. Moore K, Swing D, Copeland N, Jenkins N. The murine dilute suppressor gene encodes a cell autonomous suppressor. Genetics. 1994;138:491-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have further refined the map location of dsu in order to examine a number of possible dsu candidate genes mapping in the region and to provide a genetic basis for the positional cloning of dsu. ..
  15. Kitajima Y, Tashiro Y, Suzuki N, Warita H, Kato M, Tateyama M, et al. Proteasome dysfunction induces muscle growth defects and protein aggregation. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:5204-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The deletion of a component of the proteasome complex contributed to myofiber degeneration and weakness in muscle disorders that are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal inclusions. ..
  16. Sala D, Ivanova S, Plana N, Ribas V, Duran J, Bach D, et al. Autophagy-regulating TP53INP2 mediates muscle wasting and is repressed in diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:1914-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we propose that TP53INP2 repression is part of an adaptive mechanism aimed at preserving muscle mass under conditions in which insulin action is deficient. ..
  17. Nemazanyy I, Blaauw B, Paolini C, Caillaud C, Protasi F, Mueller A, et al. Defects of Vps15 in skeletal muscles lead to autophagic vacuolar myopathy and lysosomal disease. EMBO Mol Med. 2013;5:870-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the activity of the Vps34/Vps15 complex is critical in disease conditions such as AVMs, and possibly a variety of other lysosomal storage diseases. ..
  18. Blaauw B, Mammucari C, Toniolo L, Agatea L, Abraham R, Sandri M, et al. Akt activation prevents the force drop induced by eccentric contractions in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3686-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein levels of utrophin and dysferlin are also increased by Akt activation. ..
  19. Liu Y, Li B, Sun X, Lin A, Wang D. Effect of selenium on the interaction between daunorubicin and cardiac myosin. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;147:240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that selenium in the form of sodium selenite at appropriate dosage (<10.0 ?g Se/ml) diminish the cardiac toxicity of DNR, potentially allowing the use of DNR at higher dosages in clinical cancer chemotherapy. ..
  20. Schönke M, Myers M, Zierath J, Björnholm M. Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase γ1(H151R) overexpression enhances whole body energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;309:E679-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, transgenic activation of skeletal muscle AMPKγ1 in this model plays an important sex-specific role in skeletal muscle metabolism and whole body energy homeostasis. ..
  21. Vincent S, Mayeuf A, Niro C, Saitou M, Buckingham M. Non conservation of function for the evolutionarily conserved prdm1 protein in the control of the slow twitch myogenic program in the mouse embryo. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:3181-91 pubmed
  22. Kubalak S, Miller Hance W, O Brien T, Dyson E, Chien K. Chamber specification of atrial myosin light chain-2 expression precedes septation during murine cardiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:16961-70 pubmed
    ..The region-specific expression of the MLC-2a and MLC-2v genes in their respective chambers during early cardiogenesis provides genetic markers for chamber specification (atrial and ventricular) in both the in vitro and in vivo context. ..
  23. Aydin J, Andersson D, Hänninen S, Wredenberg A, Tavi P, Park C, et al. Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ and decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ in mitochondrial myopathy. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:278-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced SR Ca(2+) release likely decreases ATP expenditure, but it also induces muscle weakness. Increased [Ca(2+)](mit) will stimulate mitochondrial metabolism acutely but may also trigger cell damage. ..
  24. Czosnek H, Barker P, Ruddle F, Robert B. Chromosomal distribution of genes coding for fast twitch skeletal muscle myosin light chains. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1985;11:533-40 pubmed
    ..The genes coding for the light chains of the myosin molecule are dispersed on several chromosomes, while genes coding for the heavy chain of myosin are located on a single, different chromosome. ..
  25. de Theije C, Schols A, Lamers W, Ceelen J, van Gorp R, Hermans J, et al. Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling Impairs Protein Turnover Regulation in Hypoxia-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2018;159:519-534 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, impaired inhibition of mTORC1 activity is GR-dependent in hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy. ..
  26. Niro C, Demignon J, Vincent S, Liu Y, Giordani J, Sgarioto N, et al. Six1 and Six4 gene expression is necessary to activate the fast-type muscle gene program in the mouse primary myotome. Dev Biol. 2010;338:168-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vivo wide transcriptomal analysis of the function of the master myogenic determinants, Six, identifies them as novel markers for the differential activation of a specific muscle program during mammalian somitic myogenesis. ..
  27. Jiang P, Song J, Gu G, Slonimsky E, Li E, Rosenthal N. Targeted deletion of the MLC1f/3f downstream enhancer results in precocious MLC expression and mesoderm ablation. Dev Biol. 2002;243:281-93 pubmed
    ..5, exclusively in skeletal muscle precursor cells. A potent enhancer downstream of the MLC1f/3f locus confers correct temporal and spatial activation of linked reporter gene in transgenic mouse embryos...
  28. Zechner C, Lai L, Zechner J, Geng T, Yan Z, Rumsey J, et al. Total skeletal muscle PGC-1 deficiency uncouples mitochondrial derangements from fiber type determination and insulin sensitivity. Cell Metab. 2010;12:633-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we conclude that PGC-1 coactivators are necessary for the oxidative and mitochondrial programs of skeletal muscle but are dispensable for fundamental fiber type determination and insulin sensitivity. ..
  29. Lyons G, Buckingham M, Tweedie S, Edwards Y. Carbonic anhydrase III, an early mesodermal marker, is expressed in embryonic mouse skeletal muscle and notochord. Development. 1991;111:233-44 pubmed
    ..In addition to the notochord, CAIII transcripts are detected prenatally in several other non-muscle tissues: in cells of the choroid plexus, endocardial cushion and ureter, and in adipocytes. ..
  30. Wicks S, Vandanmagsar B, Haynie K, Fuller S, Warfel J, Stephens J, et al. Impaired mitochondrial fat oxidation induces adaptive remodeling of muscle metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E3300-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At the whole-body level, these adaptations result in resistance to obesity. ..
  31. Frederick D, Loro E, Liu L, Davila A, Chellappa K, Silverman I, et al. Loss of NAD Homeostasis Leads to Progressive and Reversible Degeneration of Skeletal Muscle. Cell Metab. 2016;24:269-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, lifelong overexpression of Nampt preserved muscle NAD levels and exercise capacity in aged mice, supporting a critical role for tissue-autonomous NAD homeostasis in maintaining muscle mass and function. ..
  32. Arguello T, Moraes C. Cre recombinase activity is inhibited in vivo but not ex vivo by a mutation in the asymmetric spacer region of the distal loxP site. Genesis. 2015;53:695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..promoters: calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II alpha (Camk2a-cre) and myosin light polypeptide 1 (Myl1-cre)...
  33. Parsons S, Millay D, Sargent M, Naya F, McNally E, Sweeney H, et al. Genetic disruption of calcineurin improves skeletal muscle pathology and cardiac disease in a mouse model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:10068-78 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that inhibition of Cn may benefit select types of muscular dystrophy...
  34. Burr A, Millay D, Goonasekera S, Park K, Sargent M, Collins J, et al. Na+ dysregulation coupled with Ca2+ entry through NCX1 promotes muscular dystrophy in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1991-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of Sgcd(-/-) mice with ranolazine, a broadly acting Na(+) channel inhibitor that should increase NCX1 forward-mode operation, reduced muscular pathology. ..
  35. Swinehart I, Schlientz A, Quintanilla C, Mortlock D, Wellik D. Hox11 genes are required for regional patterning and integration of muscle, tendon and bone. Development. 2013;140:4574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Hox genes are not simply regulators of skeletal morphology as previously thought, but are key factors that regulate regional patterning and integration of the musculoskeletal system. ..
  36. Delgado Olguin P, Huang Y, Li X, Christodoulou D, Seidman C, Seidman J, et al. Epigenetic repression of cardiac progenitor gene expression by Ezh2 is required for postnatal cardiac homeostasis. Nat Genet. 2012;44:343-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that epigenetic dysregulation in embryonic progenitor cells is a predisposing factor for adult disease and dysregulated stress responses. ..
  37. Sartori R, Schirwis E, Blaauw B, Bortolanza S, Zhao J, Enzo E, et al. BMP signaling controls muscle mass. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data identify a critical role for the BMP pathway in adult muscle maintenance, growth and atrophy. ..
  38. Robert B, Daubas P, Akimenko M, Cohen A, Garner I, Guenet J, et al. A single locus in the mouse encodes both myosin light chains 1 and 3, a second locus corresponds to a related pseudogene. Cell. 1984;39:129-40 pubmed
    ..characterized in the mouse Mus musculus, which are homologous to the mRNAs encoding myosin light chains MLC1F and MLC3F, two proteins with a common -COOH terminal sequence...
  39. Zhang S, Xie H, Xu Y, Li X, Wei R, Zhi W, et al. Regulation of cell proliferation by fast Myosin light chain 1 in myoblasts derived from extraocular muscle, diaphragm and gastrocnemius. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:1374-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the 35 proteins, a fast skeletal muscle isoform myosin light chain 1 (MLC1f) protein was further studied in relation to muscle cell proliferation...
  40. Mansueto G, Armani A, Viscomi C, D Orsi L, De Cegli R, Polishchuk E, et al. Transcription Factor EB Controls Metabolic Flexibility during Exercise. Cell Metab. 2017;25:182-196 pubmed publisher
    ..This coordinated action optimizes mitochondrial substrate utilization, thus enhancing ATP production and exercise capacity. These findings identify TFEB as a critical mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. ..
  41. Wang J, Wang Q, Wang C, Reinholt B, Grant A, Gerrard D, et al. Heterogeneous activation of a slow myosin gene in proliferating myoblasts and differentiated single myofibers. Dev Biol. 2015;402:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Lineage tracing indicates that during development all muscles have activated the fast myosin gene Myl1, but not the slow myosin gene Myh7, which is activated in all slow but a subset of fast myofibers...
  42. Fonseca T, Werneck de Castro J, Castillo M, Bocco B, Fernandes G, McAninch E, et al. Tissue-specific inactivation of type 2 deiodinase reveals multilevel control of fatty acid oxidation by thyroid hormone in the mouse. Diabetes. 2014;63:1594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..D2-generated T3 in BAT accelerates fatty acid oxidation and protects against diet-induced obesity. ..
  43. Amann R, Wyder S, Slavotinek A, Trueb B. The FgfrL1 receptor is required for development of slow muscle fibers. Dev Biol. 2014;394:228-41 pubmed publisher
    ..the slow fibers, fast fibers do not appear to be affected as shown by expression of fast fiber markers Myh3, Myh8, Myl1 and MylPF. At early developmental stages (E10.5, E15...
  44. Robert B, Barton P, Minty A, Daubas P, Weydert A, Bonhomme F, et al. Investigation of genetic linkage between myosin and actin genes using an interspecific mouse back-cross. Nature. 1985;314:181-3 pubmed
    ..No linkage between these genes was observed. ..
  45. Qin B, Zhou J. Src Family Kinases (SFK) Mediate Angiotensin II-Induced Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Hypertension. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0127891 pubmed publisher
  46. Robert B, Weydert A, Caravatti M, Minty A, Cohen A, Daubas P, et al. cDNA recombinant plasmid complementary to mRNAs for light chains 1 and 3 of mouse skeletal muscle myosin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:2437-41 pubmed
    ..Slight hybridization is seen with RNA from heart muscle and embryonic skeletal muscle. The implications of the conservation of the 3'-noncoding regions between the two mRNAs are discussed. ..
  47. Kelly R, Alonso S, Tajbakhsh S, Cossu G, Buckingham M. Myosin light chain 3F regulatory sequences confer regionalized cardiac and skeletal muscle expression in transgenic mice. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:383-96 pubmed
    The myosin light chain IF/3F locus contains two independent promoters, MLC1F and MLC3F, which are differentially activated during skeletal muscle development...
  48. Zammit P, Cohen A, Buckingham M, Kelly R. Integration of embryonic and fetal skeletal myogenic programs at the myosin light chain 1f/3f locus. Dev Biol. 2008;313:420-33 pubmed
    ..The Mlc1f/3f (Myl1) locus encodes two alkali myosin light chains, Mlc1f and Mlc3f, from two promoters that are differentially regulated during development...
  49. Gineste C, Hernandez A, Ivarsson N, Cheng A, Naess K, Wibom R, et al. Cyclophilin D, a target for counteracting skeletal muscle dysfunction in mitochondrial myopathy. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6580-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, CsA treatment prolonged the lifespan of these muscle-specific Tfam KO mice. These results demonstrate that CsA treatment is an efficient therapeutic strategy to slow the development of severe mitochondrial myopathy. ..
  50. Mishra P, Varuzhanyan G, Pham A, Chan D. Mitochondrial Dynamics is a Distinguishing Feature of Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types and Regulates Organellar Compartmentalization. Cell Metab. 2015;22:1033-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that mitochondrial dynamics is tailored to fiber type physiology and provides a rationale for the segmental defects characteristic of aged and diseased muscle fibers. ..
  51. Cox R, Garner I, Buckingham M. Transcriptional regulation of actin and myosin genes during differentiation of a mouse muscle cell line. Differentiation. 1990;43:183-91 pubmed
    ..In our culture system the expression of myosin light chains 1F and 3F, which are encoded by a single gene, is uncoupled, 3F predominating. These data are discussed in the context of gene regulation mechanisms...
  52. Rousseau Merck M, Simon Chazottes D, Arpin M, Pringault E, Louvard D, Guenet J, et al. Localization of the villin gene on human chromosome 2q35-q36 and on mouse chromosome 1. Hum Genet. 1988;78:130-3 pubmed
  53. Lowey S, Risby D. Light chains from fast and slow muscle myosins. Nature. 1971;234:81-5 pubmed