Gene Symbol: Myhs
Description: myosin heavy chain, skeletal muscle
Alias: myosin heavy chain, skeletal muscle
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. Kachinsky A, Dominov J, Miller J. Intermediate filaments in cardiac myogenesis: nestin in the developing mouse heart. J Histochem Cytochem. 1995;43:843-7 pubmed
    ..Nestin expression is the first molecular marker for this distinct midembryonic period of heart development. ..
  2. Bonnin M, Laclef C, Blaise R, Eloy Trinquet S, Relaix F, Maire P, et al. Six1 is not involved in limb tendon development, but is expressed in limb connective tissue under Shh regulation. Mech Dev. 2005;122:573-85 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that the posterior domain of Six1 in connective tissue is adjacent to that of the secreted factor Sonic hedgehog and that Sonic hedgehog is necessary and sufficient for Six1 expression in posterior limb regions. ..
  3. Diagana T, North D, Jabet C, Fiszman M, Takeda S, Whalen R. The transcriptional activity of a muscle-specific promoter depends critically on the structure of the TATA element and its binding protein. J Mol Biol. 1997;265:480-93 pubmed
  4. Gaussin V, Morley G, Cox L, Zwijsen A, Vance K, Emile L, et al. Alk3/Bmpr1a receptor is required for development of the atrioventricular canal into valves and annulus fibrosus. Circ Res. 2005;97:219-26 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our mouse model demonstrated critical roles for Alk3 signaling in the AV myocardium during the development of AV valves and the annulus fibrosus. ..
  5. Chen Z, Friedrich G, Soriano P. Transcriptional enhancer factor 1 disruption by a retroviral gene trap leads to heart defects and embryonic lethality in mice. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2293-301 pubmed
    ..Although transcription of a number of muscle-specific genes believed to be TEF-1 targets appears normal, the defect in cardiogenesis is likely attributable to diminished transcription of one or several cardiac-specific genes. ..
  6. Tevendale M, Watkins M, Rasberry C, Cattanach B, Ferguson Smith A. Analysis of mouse conceptuses with uniparental duplication/deficiency for distal chromosome 12: comparison with chromosome 12 uniparental disomy and implications for genomic imprinting. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;113:215-22 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the developmental abnormalities associated with the altered parent of origin for mouse chromosome 12 can be attributed to the genomic region distal to the T47H breakpoint. ..
  7. Reiner O, Albrecht U, Gordon M, Chianese K, Wong C, Gal Gerber O, et al. Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) expression in the CNS suggests a role in neuronal migration. J Neurosci. 1995;15:3730-8 pubmed
    ..The direct correlation between cortical defects in MDS patients and Lis1 expression in the murine cortex suggest that the mouse is a model system suitable to study the mechanistic basis of this intriguing genetic disease. ..
  8. Kablar B, Krastel K, Tajbakhsh S, Rudnicki M. Myf5 and MyoD activation define independent myogenic compartments during embryonic development. Dev Biol. 2003;258:307-18 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data strongly suggest that Myf5 and MyoD regulatory elements respond differentially in different compartments. ..
  9. Teubner B, Odermatt B, Guldenagel M, Sohl G, Degen J, Bukauskas F, et al. Functional expression of the new gap junction gene connexin47 transcribed in mouse brain and spinal cord neurons. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1117-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, electrical synapses in adult mammalian brain are likely to consist of different connexin proteins depending on the neuronal subtype. ..

More Information


  1. Barbosky L, Lawrence D, Karunamuni G, Wikenheiser J, Doughman Y, Visconti R, et al. Apoptosis in the developing mouse heart. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2592-602 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that cardiomyocyte apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for normal morphogenesis of the outflow tract myocardium in avian and mammalian species. ..
  2. Zappelli F, Willems D, Osada S, Ohno S, Wetsel W, Molinaro M, et al. The inhibition of differentiation caused by TGFbeta in fetal myoblasts is dependent upon selective expression of PKCtheta: a possible molecular basis for myoblast diversification during limb histogenesis. Dev Biol. 1996;180:156-64 pubmed
    ..They also suggest a specific role for protein kinase C theta in determining the fate of different myoblasts during muscle histogenesis. ..
  3. Smith T, Kachinsky A, Miller J. Somite subdomains, muscle cell origins, and the four muscle regulatory factor proteins. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:95-105 pubmed
    ..The transiently distinct expression patterns of the four MRF proteins identify dorsal and ventral subdomains of somites, and suggest that skeletal muscle cells in somites originate at multiple sites and via multiple molecular pathways. ..
  4. Serfas M, Tyner A. HNF-1 alpha and HNF-1 beta expression in mouse intestinal crypts. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:G506-13 pubmed
    ..Although HNF-1 is necessary for transcription of the AFP gene, other factors must be involved in eliciting the cell type-specific pattern of AFP expression in the intestine...
  5. Block N, Zhu Z, Kachinsky A, Dominov J, Miller J. Acceleration of somitic myogenesis in embryos of myogenin promoter-MRF4 transgenic mice. Dev Dyn. 1996;207:382-94 pubmed
    ..MRF function, therefore, appears to be differentially regulated in dermatomal and myotomal cells. ..
  6. McKenzie A, Li X, Largaespada D, Sato A, Kaneda A, Zurawski S, et al. Structural comparison and chromosomal localization of the human and mouse IL-13 genes. J Immunol. 1993;150:5436-44 pubmed
    ..Both genes map to chromosomal locations adjacent to genes encoding other cytokines, including IL-3, GM-CSF, IL-5, and IL-4, suggesting that IL-13 is another member of this cytokine gene family that may have arisen by gene duplication. ..
  7. Leinwand L, Fournier R, Nadal Ginard B, Shows T. Multigene family for sarcomeric myosin heavy chain in mouse and human DNA: localization on a single chromosome. Science. 1983;221:766-9 pubmed
    ..A synteny between myosin heavy chain and two unrelated markers, thymidine kinase and galactokinase, was found to be preserved in the rodent and human genomes. ..
  8. Yuan W, Rao Y, Babiuk R, Greer J, Wu J, Ornitz D. A genetic model for a central (septum transversum) congenital diaphragmatic hernia in mice lacking Slit3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5217-22 pubmed
    ..This study establishes the first genetic model for CDH and identifies a previously unsuspected role for Slit3 in regulating the development of the diaphragm. ..
  9. Czosnek H, Nudel U, Shani M, Barker P, Pravtcheva D, Ruddle F, et al. The genes coding for the muscle contractile proteins, myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain 2, and skeletal muscle actin are located on three different mouse chromosomes. EMBO J. 1982;1:1299-305 pubmed
    ..The skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene and several other actin genes, or pseudogenes, are located on chromosome 3. Additional actin DNA sequences are distributed on other mouse chromosomes. ..
  10. Cachaço A, Pereira C, Pardal R, Bajanca F, Thorsteinsdóttir S. Integrin repertoire on myogenic cells changes during the course of primary myogenesis in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:1069-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, myogenic cells change their integrin expression pattern during the course of primary myogenesis in the mouse, suggesting different roles for fibronectin- and laminin-containing matrices in this process. ..
  11. Schuster Gossler K, Cordes R, Gossler A. Premature myogenic differentiation and depletion of progenitor cells cause severe muscle hypotrophy in Delta1 mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:537-42 pubmed
  12. Suter U, Moskow J, Welcher A, Snipes G, Kosaras B, Sidman R, et al. A leucine-to-proline mutation in the putative first transmembrane domain of the 22-kDa peripheral myelin protein in the trembler-J mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4382-6 pubmed
    ..Our results strengthen the hypothesis that mutations in the Pmp-22 gene can lead to heterogeneous forms of peripheral neuropathies and offer clues toward possible explanations for the dominant inheritance of these disorders. ..
  13. Shih H, Gross M, Kioussi C. Expression pattern of the homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2 during muscle development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:441-51 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results demonstrate that, within muscle anlagen, Pitx2 marks the muscle lineage more completely that any of the known markers, and are consistent with a role for Pitx2 in muscle anlagen formation or maintenance. ..
  14. Chen H, Thalmann I, Adams J, Avraham K, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. cDNA cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of Ocp2, a gene encoding a putative transcription-associated factor predominantly expressed in the auditory organs. Genomics. 1995;27:389-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ocp2 gene was mapped to mouse chromosome 4 as well as 11. Our results suggest that OCP-II may be involved in transcription regulation for the development or maintenance of specialized functions of the inner ear...
  15. Smith T, Bader D. Characterization of Bves expression during mouse development using newly generated immunoreagents. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1701-8 pubmed
  16. Meissner J, Umeda P, Chang K, Gros G, Scheibe R. Activation of the beta myosin heavy chain promoter by MEF-2D, MyoD, p300, and the calcineurin/NFATc1 pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:138-48 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings demonstrate calcium-ionophore-induced activation of the beta MyHC promoter by NFATc1, MyoD, MEF-2D, and p300 in a calcineurin-dependent manner. ..
  17. Komada M, Soriano P. Hrs, a FYVE finger protein localized to early endosomes, is implicated in vesicular traffic and required for ventral folding morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1475-85 pubmed
    ..The vesicular localization of Hrs was disrupted in cells treated with wortmannin, implicating Hrs in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway of membrane trafficking. ..
  18. Wang T, Tamakoshi T, Uezato T, Shu F, Kanzaki Kato N, Fu Y, et al. Forkhead transcription factor Foxf2 (LUN)-deficient mice exhibit abnormal development of secondary palate. Dev Biol. 2003;259:83-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the Foxf2 gene plays key roles in palatogenesis by reshaping the growing tongue. ..
  19. Heimann P, Kuschel T, Jockusch H. Elimination by necrosis, not apoptosis, of embryonic extraocular muscles in the muscular dysgenesis mutant of the mouse. Cell Tissue Res. 2004;315:243-7 pubmed
    ..MDG myotubes in situ are eliminated by necrosis, not apoptosis. ..
  20. Kaul A, Koster M, Neuhaus H, Braun T. Myf-5 revisited: loss of early myotome formation does not lead to a rib phenotype in homozygous Myf-5 mutant mice. Cell. 2000;102:17-9 pubmed
  21. Tozer S, Bonnin M, Relaix F, Di Savino S, Garcia Villalba P, Coumailleau P, et al. Involvement of vessels and PDGFB in muscle splitting during chick limb development. Development. 2007;134:2579-91 pubmed
    ..Finally, we propose that PDGFB promotes the production of extracellular matrix and attracts connective tissue cells to the future splitting site, allowing separation of the muscle masses during the splitting process. ..
  22. Nudel U, Katcoff D, Carmon Y, Zevin Sonkin D, Levi Z, Shaul Y, et al. Identification of recombinant phages containing sequences from different rat myosin heavy chain genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980;8:2133-46 pubmed
    ..Hybridization of size-fractionated ECOR1 digested rat spleen DNA with the cloned probe suggested the existence of at least 5 myosin heavy chain genes. ..
  23. Miner J, Miller J, Wold B. Skeletal muscle phenotypes initiated by ectopic MyoD in transgenic mouse heart. Development. 1992;114:853-60 pubmed
  24. Kalcheva I, Plass C, Sait S, Eddy R, Shows T, Watkins Chow D, et al. Comparative mapping of the imprinted U2afbpL gene on mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 5. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1995;68:19-24 pubmed
    ..The location of the human homologue has been determined using both somatic cell hybrid genetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. These analyses have mapped the human locus U2AFBPL to human chromosome 5q23-->q31. ..
  25. Pisaniello A, Serra C, Rossi D, Vivarelli E, Sorrentino V, Molinaro M, et al. The block of ryanodine receptors selectively inhibits fetal myoblast differentiation. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:1589-97 pubmed
  26. Roth J, Shikama N, Henzen C, Desbaillets I, Lutz W, Marino S, et al. Differential role of p300 and CBP acetyltransferase during myogenesis: p300 acts upstream of MyoD and Myf5. EMBO J. 2003;22:5186-96 pubmed
    ..These data reveal a specific requirement for p300 and its AT activity in the induction of MRF gene expression and myogenic cell fate determination in vivo. ..
  27. Wang J, Chen T, Feng F, Wei H, Pang W, Yang G, et al. KLF15 regulates slow myosin heavy chain expression through NFATc1 in C2C12 myotubes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;446:1231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study contributed to the current knowledge on KLFs in skeletal muscle, and it indicated a need for further intensive studies on the redundant and divergent functions of KLFs. ..
  28. Bajanca F, Luz M, Raymond K, Martins G, Sonnenberg A, Tajbakhsh S, et al. Integrin alpha6beta1-laminin interactions regulate early myotome formation in the mouse embryo. Development. 2006;133:1635-44 pubmed
    ..Engagement of laminin by alpha6beta1 also plays a role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of cells in the dermomyotome prior to their entry into the myotome. ..
  29. Münke M, Francke U. The physical map of Mus musculus chromosome 11 reveals evolutionary relationships with different syntenic groups of genes in Homo sapiens. J Mol Evol. 1987;25:134-40 pubmed
    ..The delineation of conserved chromosome regions has important implications for the understanding of karyotype evolution in mammalian species and for the development of animal models of human genetic diseases. ..
  30. Buckwalter M, Katz R, Camper S. Localization of the panhypopituitary dwarf mutation (df) on mouse chromosome 11 in an intersubspecific backcross. Genomics. 1991;10:515-26 pubmed
    ..The localization of the alpha 1 adrenergic receptor, Adra-1, extends a known region of synteny conservation between mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 5, and suggests that a human counterpart to df would map to human chromosome 5. ..
  31. Borello U, Coletta M, Tajbakhsh S, Leyns L, De Robertis E, Buckingham M, et al. Transplacental delivery of the Wnt antagonist Frzb1 inhibits development of caudal paraxial mesoderm and skeletal myogenesis in mouse embryos. Development. 1999;126:4247-55 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Wnt signals may act by regulating both myogenic commitment and expansion of committed cells in the mouse mesoderm. ..
  32. Velling T, Collo G, Sorokin L, Durbeej M, Zhang H, Gullberg D. Distinct alpha 7A beta 1 and alpha 7B beta 1 integrin expression patterns during mouse development: alpha 7A is restricted to skeletal muscle but alpha 7B is expressed in striated muscle, vasculature, and nervous system. Dev Dyn. 1996;207:355-71 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the alpha 7A and alpha 7B integrin variants are expressed in a developmentally regulated, tissue-specific pattern suggesting different functions for the two splice forms. ..
  33. Ema M, Takahashi S, Rossant J. Deletion of the selection cassette, but not cis-acting elements, in targeted Flk1-lacZ allele reveals Flk1 expression in multipotent mesodermal progenitors. Blood. 2006;107:111-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, Flk1 expression marks progenitors with broad mesodermal potential but is not absolutely required for the development of all mesodermal lineages in which it is expressed. ..
  34. Roller M, Lossie A, Koken M, Smit E, Hagemeijer A, Camper S. Localization of sequences related to the human RAD6 DNA repair gene on mouse chromosomes 11 and 13. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:305-6 pubmed
  35. Tylzanowski P, Mebis L, Luyten F. The Noggin null mouse phenotype is strain dependent and haploinsufficiency leads to skeletal defects. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1599-607 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we have discovered Noggin haploinsufficiency leading to carpal and tarsal fusions reminiscent of some phenotypes reported for NOGGIN haploinsufficiency in humans. ..
  36. Spicer A, Roller M, Camper S, McPherson J, Wasmuth J, Hakim S, et al. The human and mouse receptors for hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAMM, genes (HMMR) map to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter and mouse chromosome 11. Genomics. 1995;30:115-7 pubmed
    ..The RHAMM gene location and its ability to transform cells when overexpressed implicate RHAMM as a possible candidate gene in the pathogenesis of the recently described t(5;14)(q33-q34;q11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias. ..
  37. Jenkins N, Rothe H, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Kolb H. Mapping of the gene for inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase of mouse macrophages to chromosome 11, close to Evi-2, nu, and Idd-4. Genomics. 1994;19:402-4 pubmed
  38. Lonai P, Arman E, Czosnek H, Ruddle F, Blatt C. New murine homeoboxes: structure, chromosomal assignment, and differential expression in adult erythropoiesis. DNA. 1987;6:409-18 pubmed
    ..All four homeoboxes are expressed in the mouse embryo. Of special interest is the expression of mh19, a 4.2-kb transcript of which appears to be connected to the induced differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells. ..
  39. Sartorius C, Lu B, Acakpo Satchivi L, Jacobsen R, Byrnes W, Leinwand L. Myosin heavy chains IIa and IId are functionally distinct in the mouse. J Cell Biol. 1998;141:943-53 pubmed
    ..We conclude that despite the similarity in sequence, MyHC-IIa and -IId have unique roles in the development and function of skeletal muscle. ..
  40. L honoré A, Coulon V, Marcil A, Lebel M, Lafrance Vanasse J, Gage P, et al. Sequential expression and redundancy of Pitx2 and Pitx3 genes during muscle development. Dev Biol. 2007;307:421-33 pubmed
    ..These experiments suggest that Pitx genes are important for myogenesis and that Pitx2 and Pitx3 may have partly redundant roles. ..
  41. Buckwalter M, Lossie A, Scarlett L, Camper S. Localization of the human chromosome 5q genes Gabra-1, Gabrg-2, Il-4, Il-5, and Irf-1 on mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:604-7 pubmed
  42. Jenkins S, Hutson D, Kubalak S. Analysis of the proepicardium-epicardium transition during the malformation of the RXRalpha-/- epicardium. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1091-101 pubmed
    ..We propose that these events contribute to a developmental delay in the formation of the epicardium, which leads to an abnormal epicardium and ultimately contributes to the cardiac malformations seen in the RXRalpha-/-. ..
  43. Kablar B, Asakura A, Krastel K, Ying C, May L, Goldhamer D, et al. MyoD and Myf-5 define the specification of musculature of distinct embryonic origin. Biochem Cell Biol. 1998;76:1079-91 pubmed
  44. Tourtellotte W, Milbrandt J. Sensory ataxia and muscle spindle agenesis in mice lacking the transcription factor Egr3. Nat Genet. 1998;20:87-91 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that type I myotubes are dependent upon Egr3-mediated transcription for proper spindle development. ..
  45. Chen X, Kurre U, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Funk C. cDNA cloning, expression, mutagenesis of C-terminal isoleucine, genomic structure, and chromosomal localizations of murine 12-lipoxygenases. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:13979-87 pubmed
    ..Antibodies prepared against the two forms of 12-lipoxygenase revealed the differential distribution of the two enzymes throughout the mouse. ..
  46. Chen J, Zhou B, Yu Q, Shin S, Jiao K, Schneider M, et al. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor results in hyperplasia of the embryonic left ventricle and abnormalities of sinuatrial valves. Circ Res. 2006;98:923-30 pubmed
    ..In addition, the results suggest that CAR-mediated intercellular contacts may regulate proliferation and differentiation of cardiomyocytes within the embryonic left ventricular wall. ..
  47. Snow H, Riccio L, Mjaatvedt C, Hoffman S, Capehart A. Versican expression during skeletal/joint morphogenesis and patterning of muscle and nerve in the embryonic mouse limb. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005;282:95-105 pubmed
    ..Versican-expressing tissues may reserve space for the future limb skeleton and developing joints and may aid in patterning of muscle and nerve by deterring muscle migration and innervation into these regions. ..
  48. Heidmann O, Buonanno A, Geoffroy B, Robert B, Guenet J, Merlie J, et al. Chromosomal localization of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes in the mouse. Science. 1986;234:866-8 pubmed
  49. Zhou Y, Liu D, Kaminski H. Myosin heavy chain expression in mouse extraocular muscle: more complex than expected. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6355-63 pubmed publisher
  50. Mesbah K, Camus A, Babinet C, Barra J. Mutation in the Trapalpha/Ssr1 gene, encoding translocon-associated protein alpha, results in outflow tract morphogenetic defects. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7760-71 pubmed
  51. Takahashi Y, Shimizu A, Sakai T, Endo Y, Osawa N, Shisa H, et al. Mapping of the nu gene using congenic nude strains and in situ hybridization. J Exp Med. 1992;175:873-6 pubmed
    ..which is responsible for hairlessness and athymus, was determined using six DNA markers (interleukin 3 [Il-3], Myhs, Acrb, Evi-2, Mpo, and Hox-2) on mouse chromosome 11...
  52. Karamboulas C, Dakubo G, Liu J, De Repentigny Y, Yutzey K, Wallace V, et al. Disruption of MEF2 activity in cardiomyoblasts inhibits cardiomyogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4315-21 pubmed
    ..Our results show that MEF2C, or genes containing MEF2 DNA-binding sites, is required for the efficient differentiation of cardiomyoblasts into cardiomyocytes, suggesting conservation in the role of MEF2 from Drosophila to mammals. ..
  53. Jiang Z, Liang P, Leng R, Guo Z, Liu Y, Liu X, et al. E2F1 and p53 are dispensable, whereas p21(Waf1/Cip1) cooperates with Rb to restrict endoreduplication and apoptosis during skeletal myogenesis. Dev Biol. 2000;227:8-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, combined inactivation of Rb and p21(Waf1/Cip1) augments endoreduplication and apoptosis, whereas E2F1 and p53 are dispensable during aberrant myogenesis in Rb-deficient fetuses. ..
  54. Venters S, Thorsteinsdottir S, Duxson M. Early development of the myotome in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 1999;216:219-32 pubmed
    ..This, along with their distinct morphology, suggests these cells may form a separate lineage of pioneer myogenic cells. ..
  55. Jung J, Kim T, Lyons G, Kim H, Lee Y. Jumonji regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation via interaction with retinoblastoma protein. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30916-23 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that JMJ down-regulates the cell growth via interaction with Rb, which would provide important insights into the cardiac defects observed in jmj mutant mice. ..
  56. Li S, Zhou D, Lu M, Morrisey E. Advanced cardiac morphogenesis does not require heart tube fusion. Science. 2004;305:1619-22 pubmed
  57. Li Z, Mericskay M, Agbulut O, Butler Browne G, Carlsson L, Thornell L, et al. Desmin is essential for the tensile strength and integrity of myofibrils but not for myogenic commitment, differentiation, and fusion of skeletal muscle. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:129-44 pubmed
    ..The results presented here show that desmin is essential to maintain the structural integrity of highly solicited skeletal muscle. ..