Gene Symbol: Myh3
Description: myosin, heavy polypeptide 3, skeletal muscle, embryonic
Alias: MyHC-emb, Myhs-e, Myhse, myosin-3, embryonic skeletal myosin heavy chain isoform, myosin heavy chain 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Myh3

Top Publications

  1. Niro C, Demignon J, Vincent S, Liu Y, Giordani J, Sgarioto N, et al. Six1 and Six4 gene expression is necessary to activate the fast-type muscle gene program in the mouse primary myotome. Dev Biol. 2010;338:168-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vivo wide transcriptomal analysis of the function of the master myogenic determinants, Six, identifies them as novel markers for the differential activation of a specific muscle program during mammalian somitic myogenesis. ..
  2. Ontell M, Ontell M, Sopper M, Mallonga R, Lyons G, Buckingham M. Contractile protein gene expression in primary myotubes of embryonic mouse hindlimb muscles. Development. 1993;117:1435-44 pubmed
    ..These differences indicate that there is no single coordinate pattern of expression of contractile protein genes during initial formation of the muscles of the mouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  3. Zhang W, Behringer R, Olson E. Inactivation of the myogenic bHLH gene MRF4 results in up-regulation of myogenin and rib anomalies. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1388-99 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate an unanticipated regulatory relationship between myogenin and MRF4 and suggest that MRF4 influences rib outgrowth through an indirect mechanism. ..
  4. Tonami K, Hata S, Ojima K, Ono Y, Kurihara Y, Amano T, et al. Calpain-6 deficiency promotes skeletal muscle development and regeneration. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003668 pubmed publisher
  5. Vincent S, Mayeuf A, Niro C, Saitou M, Buckingham M. Non conservation of function for the evolutionarily conserved prdm1 protein in the control of the slow twitch myogenic program in the mouse embryo. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:3181-91 pubmed
  6. Hagiwara N, Ma B, Ly A. Slow and fast fiber isoform gene expression is systematically altered in skeletal muscle of the Sox6 mutant, p100H. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:301-11 pubmed
    ..Together with our earlier report, demonstrating early postnatal muscle defects in the Sox6 null-p100H mutant, the present results suggest that Sox6 likely plays an important role in muscle development...
  7. Park J, Kang H, Kang S, Lee J, Hur J, Ge K, et al. A multifunctional protein, EWS, is essential for early brown fat lineage determination. Dev Cell. 2013;26:393-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, Ews null BATs and brown preadipocytes ectopically express myogenic genes. These results demonstrate that EWS is essential for early brown fat lineage determination. ..
  8. Remmers E, Goldmuntz E, Cash J, Crofford L, Misiewicz Poltorak B, Zha H, et al. Genetic map of nine polymorphic loci comprising a single linkage group on rat chromosome 10: evidence for linkage conservation with human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11. Genomics. 1992;14:618-23 pubmed
    ..Five genes, embryonic skeletal myosin heavy chain (MYH3), androgen binding protein/sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), asialoglycoprotein receptor (hepatic lectin)-1 (..
  9. Dennehey B, Leinwand L, Krauter K. Diversity in transcriptional start site selection and alternative splicing affects the 5'-UTR of mouse striated muscle myosin transcripts. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2006;27:559-75 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that alternative TSS usage and alternative splicing in the 5'-UTR are a general feature of murine Myh gene expression and that Myh gene regulation is more complex than previously appreciated. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Robbins J, Gulick J, Sanchez A, Howles P, Doetschman T. Mouse embryonic stem cells express the cardiac myosin heavy chain genes during development in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:11905-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that EB transcribe the appropriate tissue- and developmental stage-specific myosin heavy chain genes and therefore serve as a model system for studying early cardiogenic processes at the molecular level. ..
  2. Lu B, Allen D, Leinwand L, Lyons G. Spatial and temporal changes in myosin heavy chain gene expression in skeletal muscle development. Dev Biol. 1999;216:312-26 pubmed
    ..The changes in MyHC RNA and protein expression are distinct in different muscles and are restricted in some cases to particular regions of the muscle and do not always reflect their distribution in the adult. ..
  3. Valdez M, Richardson J, Klein W, Olson E. Failure of Myf5 to support myogenic differentiation without myogenin, MyoD, and MRF4. Dev Biol. 2000;219:287-98 pubmed
  4. Weydert A, Daubas P, Caravatti M, Minty A, Bugaisky G, Cohen A, et al. Sequential accumulation of mRNAs encoding different myosin heavy chain isoforms during skeletal muscle development in vivo detected with a recombinant plasmid identified as coding for an adult fast myosin heavy chain from mouse skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:13867-74 pubmed
    ..There is thus a rapid transition after birth from fetal to adult skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain mRNA sequences. ..
  5. Weiss A, McDonough D, Wertman B, Acakpo Satchivi L, Montgomery K, Kucherlapati R, et al. Organization of human and mouse skeletal myosin heavy chain gene clusters is highly conserved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2958-63 pubmed
  6. Leinwand L, Fournier R, Nadal Ginard B, Shows T. Multigene family for sarcomeric myosin heavy chain in mouse and human DNA: localization on a single chromosome. Science. 1983;221:766-9 pubmed
    ..A synteny between myosin heavy chain and two unrelated markers, thymidine kinase and galactokinase, was found to be preserved in the rodent and human genomes. ..
  7. Berk M, Desai S, Heyman H, Colmenares C. Mice lacking the ski proto-oncogene have defects in neurulation, craniofacial, patterning, and skeletal muscle development. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2029-39 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a model in which ski activities are required for the successful expansion of a subset of precursors in the neuroepithelial or skeletal muscle lineages. ..
  8. Smith T, Miller J. Distinct myogenic programs of embryonic and fetal mouse muscle cells: expression of the perinatal myosin heavy chain isoform in vitro. Dev Biol. 1992;149:16-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, the myogenic program of fetal, but not embryonic, mouse myogenic cells includes expression of the perinatal MHC isoform upon differentiation in culture. ..
  9. Oh M, Rybkin I, Copeland V, Czubryt M, Shelton J, van Rooij E, et al. Calcineurin is necessary for the maintenance but not embryonic development of slow muscle fibers. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6629-38 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that developmental patterning of slow fibers is independent of calcineurin, while the maintenance of the slow-fiber phenotype in the adult requires calcineurin activity...
  10. Weydert A, Daubas P, Lazaridis I, Barton P, Garner I, Leader D, et al. Genes for skeletal muscle myosin heavy chains are clustered and are not located on the same mouse chromosome as a cardiac myosin heavy chain gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:7183-7 pubmed
    ..This result is in contrast to that for other contractile protein genes such as the alkali myosin light chain and the actin multigene families, which are dispersed in the genome. ..
  11. Miner J, Miller J, Wold B. Skeletal muscle phenotypes initiated by ectopic MyoD in transgenic mouse heart. Development. 1992;114:853-60 pubmed
  12. Daou N, Lecolle S, Lefebvre S, Della Gaspera B, Charbonnier F, Chanoine C, et al. A new role for the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in neonatal myosin heavy chain expression via the NFATc2/MyoD complex during mouse myogenesis. Development. 2013;140:4914-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway plays a new role in establishing the early muscle fiber type in immature myofibers during embryogenesis. ..
  13. Patapoutian A, Yoon J, Miner J, Wang S, Stark K, Wold B. Disruption of the mouse MRF4 gene identifies multiple waves of myogenesis in the myotome. Development. 1995;121:3347-58 pubmed
    ..Finally, a later and relatively mild phenotype was detected in intercostal muscles of newborn animals. ..
  14. Sanchez A, Jones W, Gulick J, Doetschman T, Robbins J. Myosin heavy chain gene expression in mouse embryoid bodies. An in vitro developmental study. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:22419-26 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that developing EBs closely mimic the pre- and early postsomitic patterns of in vivo expression of the cardiac MHC genes and thus provide a useful system in which to study early aspects of mammalian cardiogenesis. ..
  15. Zappelli F, Willems D, Osada S, Ohno S, Wetsel W, Molinaro M, et al. The inhibition of differentiation caused by TGFbeta in fetal myoblasts is dependent upon selective expression of PKCtheta: a possible molecular basis for myoblast diversification during limb histogenesis. Dev Biol. 1996;180:156-64 pubmed
    ..They also suggest a specific role for protein kinase C theta in determining the fate of different myoblasts during muscle histogenesis. ..
  16. Ontell M, Ontell M, Buckingham M. Muscle-specific gene expression during myogenesis in the mouse. Microsc Res Tech. 1995;30:354-65 pubmed
    ..The differences in gene expression in these two types of muscle suggest that no single coordinated pattern of gene activation is required during the initial formation of the muscles of the mouse. ..
  17. Hayashi S, Manabe I, Suzuki Y, Relaix F, Oishi Y. Klf5 regulates muscle differentiation by directly targeting muscle-specific genes in cooperation with MyoD in mice. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Klf5 is an essential regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation, acting in concert with myogenic transcription factors such as MyoD and Mef2. ..
  18. Campos Y, Qiu X, Zanoteli E, Moshiach S, Vergani N, Bongiovanni A, et al. Ozz-E3 ubiquitin ligase targets sarcomeric embryonic myosin heavy chain during muscle development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9866 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify Ozz-E3 as the ubiquitin ligase complex that interacts with and regulates myosin within its fully assembled cytoskeletal structure. ..
  19. Cenik B, Garg A, McAnally J, Shelton J, Richardson J, Bassel Duby R, et al. Severe myopathy in mice lacking the MEF2/SRF-dependent gene leiomodin-3. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:1569-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of the sarcomere assembly and muscle dysfunction associated with nemaline myopathy. ..
  20. Lyons G, Schiaffino S, Sassoon D, Barton P, Buckingham M. Developmental regulation of myosin gene expression in mouse cardiac muscle. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:2427-36 pubmed
    ..This dynamic pattern of changes in the myosin phenotype in the prenatal mouse heart suggests that there are different regulatory mechanisms for cell-specific expression of myosin isoforms during cardiac development. ..
  21. Pun S, Sigrist M, Santos A, Ruegg M, Sanes J, Jessell T, et al. An intrinsic distinction in neuromuscular junction assembly and maintenance in different skeletal muscles. Neuron. 2002;34:357-70 pubmed
    ..Our results show that postsynaptic differentiation processes intrinsic to FaSyn and DeSyn muscles influence the formation of NMJs during development and their maintenance in the adult. ..
  22. Espinoza Lewis R, Yang Q, Liu J, Huang Z, Hu X, Chen D, et al. Poly(C)-binding protein 1 (Pcbp1) regulates skeletal muscle differentiation by modulating microRNA processing in myoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9540-9550 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study, therefore, uncovers the important function of Pcbp1 in skeletal muscle and the microRNA pathway, signifying its potential as a therapeutic target for muscle disease. ..
  23. Asakura A, Tapscott S. Apoptosis of epaxial myotome in Danforth's short-tail (Sd) mice in somites that form following notochord degeneration. Dev Biol. 1998;203:276-89 pubmed
    ..The apoptosis of epaxial muscle in somites that formed after notochord degeneration is consistent with a role for the notochord in the survival and differentiation of the dorsal myotome. ..
  24. Weydert A, Barton P, Harris A, Pinset C, Buckingham M. Developmental pattern of mouse skeletal myosin heavy chain gene transcripts in vivo and in vitro. Cell. 1987;49:121-9 pubmed
    ..In vitro, in the absence of the nerve, embryonic, perinatal, and adult IIB MHC mRNAs accumulate. The level of the latter two isomRNAs is influenced by culture conditions. ..
  25. Lechner B, Lim J, Mercado M, Fallon J. Developmental regulation of biglycan expression in muscle and tendon. Muscle Nerve. 2006;34:347-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that biglycan has a particularly important function during muscle and connective tissue development. Moreover, biglycan may play a role in the pathogenesis of collagen VI-associated congenital muscular dystrophies. ..
  26. Flucher B, Conti A, Takeshima H, Sorrentino V. Type 3 and type 1 ryanodine receptors are localized in triads of the same mammalian skeletal muscle fibers. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:621-30 pubmed
    ..The localization of RyR3 in skeletal muscle triads, together with RyR1, is consistent with an accessory function of RyR3 in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. ..
  27. Bertrand A, Renou L, Papadopoulos A, Beuvin M, Lacene E, Massart C, et al. DelK32-lamin A/C has abnormal location and induces incomplete tissue maturation and severe metabolic defects leading to premature death. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1037-48 pubmed publisher
    ..And importantly, L-CMD patients should be investigated for putative metabolic disorders. ..
  28. Chen H, Chen W, Yan W, Huang Y, Chang S, Fu W, et al. NRIP is newly identified as a Z-disc protein, activating calmodulin signaling for skeletal muscle contraction and regeneration. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:4196-209 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, NRIP is a novel Z-disc protein that is important for skeletal muscle strength and regenerative capacity. ..
  29. Block N, Zhu Z, Kachinsky A, Dominov J, Miller J. Acceleration of somitic myogenesis in embryos of myogenin promoter-MRF4 transgenic mice. Dev Dyn. 1996;207:382-94 pubmed
    ..MRF function, therefore, appears to be differentially regulated in dermatomal and myotomal cells. ..
  30. Amann R, Wyder S, Slavotinek A, Trueb B. The FgfrL1 receptor is required for development of slow muscle fibers. Dev Biol. 2014;394:228-41 pubmed publisher
    ..contrast to the slow fibers, fast fibers do not appear to be affected as shown by expression of fast fiber markers Myh3, Myh8, Myl1 and MylPF. At early developmental stages (E10.5, E15...
  31. Sakakibara I, Santolini M, Ferry A, Hakim V, Maire P. Six homeoproteins and a Iinc-RNA at the fast MYH locus lock fast myofiber terminal phenotype. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004386 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional fast-sarcomeric unit formation is achieved by the coordinate expression of fast MYHs and linc-MYH, under the control of a common Six-bound enhancer. ..
  32. Cox R, Weydert A, Barlow D, Buckingham M. Three linked myosin heavy chain genes clustered within 370 kb of each other show independent transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation during differentiation of a mouse muscle cell line. Dev Biol. 1991;143:36-43 pubmed
    ..Post-transcriptional mechanisms also regulate cytoplasmic RNA accumulation of these MHC genes. ..
  33. Nagandla H, Lopez S, Yu W, Rasmussen T, Tucker H, Schwartz R, et al. Defective myogenesis in the absence of the muscle-specific lysine methyltransferase SMYD1. Dev Biol. 2016;410:86-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to the previously described functions for Smyd1 in heart development and skeletal muscle sarcomerogenesis, these results point to a novel role for Smyd1 in myoblast differentiation. ..
  34. Rawls A, Valdez M, Zhang W, Richardson J, Klein W, Olson E. Overlapping functions of the myogenic bHLH genes MRF4 and MyoD revealed in double mutant mice. Development. 1998;125:2349-58 pubmed
  35. Zhao W, Dhoot G. Both smooth and skeletal muscle precursors are present in foetal mouse oesophagus and they follow different differentiation pathways. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:587-602 pubmed
  36. Rawls A, Morris J, Rudnicki M, Braun T, Arnold H, Klein W, et al. Myogenin's functions do not overlap with those of MyoD or Myf-5 during mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 1995;172:37-50 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the functions of myogenin do not overlap with those of MyoD or Myf-5 and support the view that myogenin acts in a genetic pathway downstream of MyoD and Myf-5. ..
  37. Wang Y, Schnegelsberg P, Dausman J, Jaenisch R. Functional redundancy of the muscle-specific transcription factors Myf5 and myogenin. Nature. 1996;379:823-5 pubmed
    ..We report here that mice homozygous for this myogenin gene knock-in (ki) developed a normal rib cage and were viable, therefore demonstrating functional redundancy of Myf5 and myogenin for rib formation. ..
  38. Lyons G, Ontell M, Cox R, Sassoon D, Buckingham M. The expression of myosin genes in developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:1465-76 pubmed
    ..The data presented are the first detailed study of myosin gene expression at these early stages of skeletal muscle development. ..
  39. He K, Hu J, Yu H, Wang L, Tang F, Gu J, et al. Serine/Threonine Kinase 40 (Stk40) Functions as a Novel Regulator of Skeletal Muscle Differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:351-360 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study reveals that Stk40 is required for fetal skeletal muscle development and provides molecular insights into the control of the HDAC5-MEF2 axis in skeletal myogenesis. ..
  40. Darling D, Stearman R, Qi Y, Qiu M, Feller J. Expression of Zfhep/deltaEF1 protein in palate, neural progenitors, and differentiated neurons. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:709-17 pubmed
    ..In vitro studies have implicated Zfhep as a repressor of myogenesis, however, we find that Zfhep protein expression increases during muscle differentiation. ..