Gene Symbol: Myh2
Description: myosin, heavy polypeptide 2, skeletal muscle, adult
Alias: MHC2A, MyHC-IIa, Myh2a, Myhs-f, Myhs-f1, Myhsf1, myosin-2, myosin heavy chain 2A, skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain II-a
Species: mouse
Products:     Myh2

Top Publications

  1. Usami A, Abe S, Ide Y. Myosin heavy chain isoforms of the murine masseter muscle during pre- and post-natal development. Anat Histol Embryol. 2003;32:244-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the development of murine masseter muscle is closely associated with facial development. ..
  2. Jacobelli J, Bennett F, Pandurangi P, Tooley A, Krummel M. Myosin-IIA and ICAM-1 regulate the interchange between two distinct modes of T cell migration. J Immunol. 2009;182:2041-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This can provide T lymphocytes with motile and adhesive properties that are uniquely suited toward alternative requirements for immune surveillance and response. ..
  3. Parker Thornburg J, Bauer B, Palermo J, Robbins J. Structural and developmental analysis of two linked myosin heavy chain genes. Dev Biol. 1992;150:99-107 pubmed
    ..Transcripts from this gene, when compared to those from the MHC2A and beta-MHC genes, are the predominant MHC transcripts found in the diaphragm, tongue, soleus, and masseter, ..
  4. Weydert A, Barton P, Harris A, Pinset C, Buckingham M. Developmental pattern of mouse skeletal myosin heavy chain gene transcripts in vivo and in vitro. Cell. 1987;49:121-9 pubmed
    ..In vitro, in the absence of the nerve, embryonic, perinatal, and adult IIB MHC mRNAs accumulate. The level of the latter two isomRNAs is influenced by culture conditions. ..
  5. Weydert A, Daubas P, Caravatti M, Minty A, Bugaisky G, Cohen A, et al. Sequential accumulation of mRNAs encoding different myosin heavy chain isoforms during skeletal muscle development in vivo detected with a recombinant plasmid identified as coding for an adult fast myosin heavy chain from mouse skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:13867-74 pubmed
    ..There is thus a rapid transition after birth from fetal to adult skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain mRNA sequences. ..
  6. van Rooij E, Quiat D, Johnson B, Sutherland L, Qi X, Richardson J, et al. A family of microRNAs encoded by myosin genes governs myosin expression and muscle performance. Dev Cell. 2009;17:662-73 pubmed publisher
  7. Sartorius C, Lu B, Acakpo Satchivi L, Jacobsen R, Byrnes W, Leinwand L. Myosin heavy chains IIa and IId are functionally distinct in the mouse. J Cell Biol. 1998;141:943-53 pubmed
    ..We conclude that despite the similarity in sequence, MyHC-IIa and -IId have unique roles in the development and function of skeletal muscle. ..
  8. Agbulut O, Noirez P, Butler Browne G, Jockusch H. Specific isomyosin proportions in hyperexcitable and physiologically denervated mouse muscle. FEBS Lett. 2004;561:191-4 pubmed
    ..In the SMA mutant 'muscle deficient', all four adult isomyosins are expressed in the TA. These findings may be relevant for the future diagnosis of neurological disorders both in mouse disease models and in human patients. ..
  9. Ajima R, Akazawa H, Kodama M, Takeshita F, Otsuka A, Kohno T, et al. Deficiency of Myo18B in mice results in embryonic lethality with cardiac myofibrillar aberrations. Genes Cells. 2008;13:987-99 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Thus, Myo18B is a unique unconventional myosin that is predominantly expressed in myocytes and whose expression is essential for the development and/or maintenance of myofibrillar structure. ..

More Information


  1. Chan S, Doreian B, Smith C. Dynamin and myosin regulate differential exocytosis from mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:1351-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, activity-dependent dephosphorylation of dynamin is hypothesized to represent a key molecular step in the sympatho-adrenal stress response. ..
  2. Siles L, Sánchez Tilló E, Lim J, Darling D, Kroll K, Postigo A. ZEB1 imposes a temporary stage-dependent inhibition of muscle gene expression and differentiation via CtBP-mediated transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1368-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results set ZEB1 as an important regulator of the temporal pattern of gene expression controlling muscle differentiation. ..
  3. Ontell M, Ontell M, Sopper M, Mallonga R, Lyons G, Buckingham M. Contractile protein gene expression in primary myotubes of embryonic mouse hindlimb muscles. Development. 1993;117:1435-44 pubmed
    ..These differences indicate that there is no single coordinate pattern of expression of contractile protein genes during initial formation of the muscles of the mouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  4. Otto A, Macharia R, Matsakas A, Valasek P, Mankoo B, Patel K. A hypoplastic model of skeletal muscle development displaying reduced foetal myoblast cell numbers, increased oxidative myofibres and improved specific tension capacity. Dev Biol. 2010;343:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In spite of these changes, the muscle from Meox2 mutant mice is able to generate increased levels of specific tension compared to that of the wild type. ..
  5. Kojima T, Yoshikawa Y, Takada S, Sato M, Nakamura T, Takahashi N, et al. Genomic organization of the Shc-related phosphotyrosine adapters and characterization of the full-length Sck/ShcB: specific association of p68-Sck/ShcB with pp135. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:1039-47 pubmed
    ..The Sck-pp135 interaction was reduced by Src kinase inhibitors. These results suggest that Sck, but not N-Shc nor Shc, transmit signals in conjunction with pp135 following Src activation and/or calcium entry in the cell. ..
  6. Lee Y, Lee S. Regulation of GDF-11 and myostatin activity by GASP-1 and GASP-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these findings suggest that both GASP-1 and GASP-2 are important modulators of GDF-11 and MSTN activity in vivo. ..
  7. Shi H, Scheffler J, Pleitner J, Zeng C, Park S, Hannon K, et al. Modulation of skeletal muscle fiber type by mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. FASEB J. 2008;22:2990-3000 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the MAPK signaling, most likely the ERK1/2 pathway, is necessary to preserve the fast-twitch fiber phenotype with a concomitant repression of slow-twitch fiber program. ..
  8. Ozdemir T, Xu L, SIEDLECKI C, Brown J. Substrate curvature sensing through Myosin IIa upregulates early osteogenesis. Integr Biol (Camb). 2013;5:1407-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results shed light on mechanisms underlying geometry sensing by highlighting the role of Myosin IIa in addition to ROCKII and could ultimately contribute to scaffold design strategies. ..
  9. Allen D, Leinwand L. Intracellular calcium and myosin isoform transitions. Calcineurin and calcium-calmodulin kinase pathways regulate preferential activation of the IIa myosin heavy chain promoter. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45323-30 pubmed
    ..has a significant effect on the activity of the adult fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC) promoters in the order of MyHC IIa> IId/x > IIb...
  10. Jiang C, Wang J, Yue F, Kuang S. The brain expressed x-linked gene 1 (Bex1) regulates myoblast fusion. Dev Biol. 2016;409:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results elucidate a novel role of Bex1 in myogenesis through regulating myoblast fusion. ..
  11. von Bülow G, Russell H, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Bram R. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of murine transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) with chromosomal localization in human and mouse. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:628-32 pubmed
    ..This work identifies conserved domains within TACI that may mediate the cellular distribution and signal transduction function of the protein and extend the details of homology between mouse Chr 11 and human 17p. ..
  12. Weiss A, McDonough D, Wertman B, Acakpo Satchivi L, Montgomery K, Kucherlapati R, et al. Organization of human and mouse skeletal myosin heavy chain gene clusters is highly conserved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2958-63 pubmed
  13. Bakkar N, Ladner K, Canan B, Liyanarachchi S, Bal N, Pant M, et al. IKK? and alternative NF-?B regulate PGC-1? to promote oxidative muscle metabolism. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:497-511 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide insight on PGC-1? regulation during skeletal myogenesis and reveal a unique function of alternative NF-?B signaling in promoting an oxidative metabolic phenotype. ..
  14. Sakakibara I, Santolini M, Ferry A, Hakim V, Maire P. Six homeoproteins and a Iinc-RNA at the fast MYH locus lock fast myofiber terminal phenotype. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004386 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional fast-sarcomeric unit formation is achieved by the coordinate expression of fast MYHs and linc-MYH, under the control of a common Six-bound enhancer. ..
  15. Zhao Y, Wang J, Jiang H, Yu Z, Li X, Shi J. Following OGD/R, annexin 1 nuclear translocation and subsequent induction of apoptosis in neurons are assisted by myosin IIA in a TRPM7 kinase-dependent manner. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;51:729-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, TRPM7 kinase modulates OGD/R-induced neuronal apoptosis via annexin 1 carried by myosin IIA, while nuclear formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-annexin 1 binding and importin ? are involved in nuclear translocation. ..
  16. Chung M, Kawamoto S. IRF-2 is involved in up-regulation of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-A gene expression during phorbol ester-induced promyelocytic HL-60 differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:56042-52 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that IRF-2 contributes to transcriptional activation of the NMHC-A gene via 32kb-150 during TPA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. ..
  17. Scotti M, Kherdjemil Y, Roux M, Kmita M. A Hoxa13:Cre mouse strain for conditional gene manipulation in developing limb, hindgut, and urogenital system. Genesis. 2015;53:366-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our data show that the Hoxa13:Cre allele is a useful tool for conditional gene manipulation in the urogenital system, posterior digestive tract, autopod and part of the limb musculature. ..
  18. Flucher B, Conti A, Takeshima H, Sorrentino V. Type 3 and type 1 ryanodine receptors are localized in triads of the same mammalian skeletal muscle fibers. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:621-30 pubmed
    ..The localization of RyR3 in skeletal muscle triads, together with RyR1, is consistent with an accessory function of RyR3 in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. ..
  19. Colley W, Altshuller Y, Sue Ling C, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Cloning and expression analysis of murine phospholipase D1. Biochem J. 1997;326 ( Pt 3):745-53 pubmed
    ..Thus the two PLDs probably carry out distinct roles in restricted subsets of cells rather than ubiquitous roles in all cells. ..
  20. Rossi D, Hardiman G, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Zlotnik A, et al. Cloning and characterization of a new type of mouse chemokine. Genomics. 1998;47:163-70 pubmed
    ..The novel location of this gene from other chemokine gene clusters adds to the notion that CX3C is a fundamentally new class of chemokine. ..
  21. Cortez Toledo O, Schnair C, Sangngern P, Metzger D, Chao L. Nur77 deletion impairs muscle growth during developmental myogenesis and muscle regeneration in mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171268 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the findings presented here demonstrate Nur77 as an important regulator of muscle growth both during prenatal and postnatal myogenesis. ..
  22. Heude E, Bouhali K, Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Couly G, Janvier P, et al. Jaw muscularization requires Dlx expression by cranial neural crest cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of Dlx genes in defining gnathostome jaw identity could, therefore, be secondary to a more primitive function in the genesis of the oral skeletomuscular system. ..
  23. Schaeper U, Vogel R, Chmielowiec J, Huelsken J, Rosario M, Birchmeier W. Distinct requirements for Gab1 in Met and EGF receptor signaling in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15376-81 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that Gab1 induces different biological responses through the recruitment of distinct effectors and that different modes of recruitment for Gab1 are required in different organs. ..
  24. Stark D, Coffey N, Pancoast H, Arnold L, Walker J, Vallée J, et al. Ephrin-A3 promotes and maintains slow muscle fiber identity during postnatal development and reinnervation. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:1077-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that Eph/ephrin interactions guide the fiber type specificity of neuromuscular interactions during development and adult life. ..
  25. Grifone R, Jarry T, Dandonneau M, Grenier J, Duprez D, Kelly R. Properties of branchiomeric and somite-derived muscle development in Tbx1 mutant embryos. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The critical requirement for Tbx1 during muscle development is thus in the robust onset of myogenic specification in pharyngeal mesoderm. ..
  26. Bröhl D, Vasyutina E, Czajkowski M, Griger J, Rassek C, Rahn H, et al. Colonization of the satellite cell niche by skeletal muscle progenitor cells depends on Notch signals. Dev Cell. 2012;23:469-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Notch signals control homing of satellite cells, stimulating them to contribute to their own microenvironment and to adhere to myofibers. ..
  27. Ebina M, Shibazaki M, Kudo K, Kasai S, Kikuchi H. Correlation of dysfunction of nonmuscle myosin IIA with increased induction of Cyp1a1 in Hepa-1 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1809:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a new insight into the correlation between the function of nonmuscle myosin II and gene induction. ..
  28. Shindo M, Nakano H, Kuroyanagi H, Shirasawa T, Mihara M, Gilbert D, et al. cDNA cloning, expression, subcellular localization, and chromosomal assignment of mammalian aurora homologues, aurora-related kinase (ARK) 1 and 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;244:285-92 pubmed
    ..Interspecific backcross mapping revealed that Ark1 is located in a distal region of mouse chromosome 2, while Ark2 is located in a central region of mouse chromosome 11. ..
  29. Shworak N, Liu J, Petros L, Zhang L, Kobayashi M, Copeland N, et al. Multiple isoforms of heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase. Isolation, characterization, and expression of human cdnas and identification of distinct genomic loci. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5170-84 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the extensive number of 3OST genes with diverse expression patterns of multiple transcripts suggests that the novel 3-OST enzymes, like 3-OST-1, regulate important biologic properties of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. ..
  30. Chal J, Oginuma M, Al Tanoury Z, Gobert B, Sumara O, Hick A, et al. Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to muscle fiber to model Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Nat Biotechnol. 2015;33:962-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibers derived from ES cells of mdx mice exhibit an abnormal branched phenotype resembling that described in vivo, thus providing an attractive model to study the origin of the pathological defects associated with DMD. ..
  31. Jacobelli J, Estin Matthews M, Chen S, Krummel M. Activated T cell trans-endothelial migration relies on myosin-IIA contractility for squeezing the cell nucleus through endothelial cell barriers. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75151 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that therapeutic targeting of this molecule may allow for differential attenuation of tissue-specific inflammatory responses. ..
  32. Zhang W, Behringer R, Olson E. Inactivation of the myogenic bHLH gene MRF4 results in up-regulation of myogenin and rib anomalies. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1388-99 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate an unanticipated regulatory relationship between myogenin and MRF4 and suggest that MRF4 influences rib outgrowth through an indirect mechanism. ..
  33. Lu B, Allen D, Leinwand L, Lyons G. Spatial and temporal changes in myosin heavy chain gene expression in skeletal muscle development. Dev Biol. 1999;216:312-26 pubmed
    ..The changes in MyHC RNA and protein expression are distinct in different muscles and are restricted in some cases to particular regions of the muscle and do not always reflect their distribution in the adult. ..
  34. Hogan A, Heyner S, Charron M, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Glucose transporter gene expression in early mouse embryos. Development. 1991;113:363-72 pubmed
    ..Genetic mapping studies of glucose transporters in the mouse show that Glut-1 is located on chromosome 4, Glut-2 on chromosome 3, Glut-3 on chromosome 6, and Glut-4 on chromosome 11. ..
  35. Bao J, Ma X, Liu C, Adelstein R. Replacement of nonmuscle myosin II-B with II-A rescues brain but not cardiac defects in mice. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22102-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, although NMHC II-A can substitute for NMHC II-B to maintain integrity of the spinal canal, NMHC II-B plays an isoform-specific role during cytokinesis in cardiac myocytes and in migration of the facial and pontine neurons. ..
  36. Luo W, Yu C, Lieu Z, Allard J, Mogilner A, Sheetz M, et al. Analysis of the local organization and dynamics of cellular actin networks. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:1057-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that such networks are critical for connecting distant parts of the cell to maintain the mechanical coherence of the cytoplasm. ..
  37. Sigoillot S, Bourgeois F, Karmouch J, Molgó J, Dobbertin A, Chevalier C, et al. Neuromuscular junction immaturity and muscle atrophy are hallmarks of the ColQ-deficient mouse, a model of congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency. FASEB J. 2016;30:2382-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Chevalier, C., Houlgatte, R., Léger, J., Legay, C. Neuromuscular junction immaturity and muscle atrophy are hallmarks of the ColQ-deficient mouse, a model of congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency. ..
  38. Daou N, Lecolle S, Lefebvre S, Della Gaspera B, Charbonnier F, Chanoine C, et al. A new role for the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in neonatal myosin heavy chain expression via the NFATc2/MyoD complex during mouse myogenesis. Development. 2013;140:4914-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway plays a new role in establishing the early muscle fiber type in immature myofibers during embryogenesis. ..
  39. Tanaka C, Ito S, Nishio N, Kodera Y, Sakurai H, Suzuki H, et al. GADD34 suppresses wound healing by upregulating expression of myosin IIA. Transgenic Res. 2010;19:637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..WT mice expressed higher amounts of myosin IIA in migrating macrophages and myofibroblasts than did GADD34 KO mice. These results indicate that GADD34 negatively regulates cell migration in wound healing via expression of myosin IIA. ..
  40. Kardon G, Harfe B, Tabin C. A Tcf4-positive mesodermal population provides a prepattern for vertebrate limb muscle patterning. Dev Cell. 2003;5:937-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that Tcf4-expressing cells establish a prepattern in the limb mesoderm that determines the sites of myogenic differentiation and thus establishes the basic pattern of limb muscles. ..
  41. Iresjö B, Lundholm K. Myosin heavy chain 2A and ?-actin expression in human and murine skeletal muscles at feeding; particularly amino acids. J Transl Med. 2012;10:238 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myosin heavy chain 2A transcripts decreased significantly in skeletal muscle tissue from overnight parenterally fed patients but ..
  42. Merrick D, Ting T, Stadler L, Smith J. A role for Insulin-like growth factor 2 in specification of the fast skeletal muscle fibre. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:65 pubmed
    ..5-P1). Since specific loss of FMyHC fibres is associated with many skeletal muscle pathologies these data have important medical implications. ..
  43. Geurts A, Collier L, Geurts J, Oseth L, Bell M, Mu D, et al. Gene mutations and genomic rearrangements in the mouse as a result of transposon mobilization from chromosomal concatemers. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e156 pubmed
    ..Additionally, these mice may serve as a model for chromosome rearrangements caused by transposable elements during the evolution of vertebrate genomes. ..
  44. Watanabe R, Chano T, Inoue H, Isono T, Koiwai O, Okabe H. Rb1cc1 is critical for myoblast differentiation through Rb1 regulation. Virchows Arch. 2005;447:643-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that Rb1cc1 is a potent regulator of the Rb1 pathway and a novel mediator that plays a crucial role in muscular differentiation. Rb1cc1 expression is, thus, a prerequisite for myogenic differentiation. ..
  45. Kablar B, Tajbakhsh S, Rudnicki M. Transdifferentiation of esophageal smooth to skeletal muscle is myogenic bHLH factor-dependent. Development. 2000;127:1627-39 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that transdifferentiation is the fate of all smooth muscle cells in the upper esophagus and is normally initiated by Myf5. ..
  46. Ontell M, Sopper M, Lyons G, Buckingham M, Ontell M. Modulation of contractile protein gene expression in fetal murine crural muscles: emergence of muscle diversity. Dev Dyn. 1993;198:203-13 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  47. Leinwand L, Fournier R, Nadal Ginard B, Shows T. Multigene family for sarcomeric myosin heavy chain in mouse and human DNA: localization on a single chromosome. Science. 1983;221:766-9 pubmed
    ..A synteny between myosin heavy chain and two unrelated markers, thymidine kinase and galactokinase, was found to be preserved in the rodent and human genomes. ..
  48. Smith T, Miller J. Distinct myogenic programs of embryonic and fetal mouse muscle cells: expression of the perinatal myosin heavy chain isoform in vitro. Dev Biol. 1992;149:16-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, the myogenic program of fetal, but not embryonic, mouse myogenic cells includes expression of the perinatal MHC isoform upon differentiation in culture. ..
  49. Schoenauer R, Lange S, Hirschy A, Ehler E, Perriard J, Agarkova I. Myomesin 3, a novel structural component of the M-band in striated muscle. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:338-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that each member of the myomesin family is a component of one of the distinct ultrastructures, the M-lines, which modulate the mechanical properties of the M-bands in different muscle types. ..
  50. Swailes N, Colegrave M, Knight P, Peckham M. Non-muscle myosins 2A and 2B drive changes in cell morphology that occur as myoblasts align and fuse. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3561-70 pubmed
  51. Oh M, Rybkin I, Copeland V, Czubryt M, Shelton J, van Rooij E, et al. Calcineurin is necessary for the maintenance but not embryonic development of slow muscle fibers. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6629-38 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that developmental patterning of slow fibers is independent of calcineurin, while the maintenance of the slow-fiber phenotype in the adult requires calcineurin activity...
  52. Wylie S, Chantler P. Myosin IIA drives neurite retraction. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:4654-66 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Y27632 did not inhibit outgrowth, a myosin IIB-dependent process. We conclude that the conventional myosin motor, myosin IIA, drives neurite retraction. ..