Gene Symbol: Myh11
Description: myosin, heavy polypeptide 11, smooth muscle
Alias: AV071570, SM1, SM2, smMHC, myosin-11, myosin heavy chain 11, smooth muscle, myosin heavy chain, smooth muscle isoform
Species: mouse
Products:     Myh11

Top Publications

  1. Miano J, Cserjesi P, Ligon K, Periasamy M, Olson E. Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain exclusively marks the smooth muscle lineage during mouse embryogenesis. Circ Res. 1994;75:803-12 pubmed
    ..The SM-MHC promoter should therefore serve as a useful model for defining the mechanisms that govern SMC transcription during development and disease. ..
  2. Morano I, Chai G, Baltas L, Lamounier Zepter V, Lutsch G, Kott M, et al. Smooth-muscle contraction without smooth-muscle myosin. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:371-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that phase 1 becomes indispensable for survival and normal growth soon after birth, particularly for functions such as homeostasis and circulation. ..
  3. Caubit X, Lye C, Martin E, Coré N, Long D, Vola C, et al. Teashirt 3 is necessary for ureteral smooth muscle differentiation downstream of SHH and BMP4. Development. 2008;135:3301-10 pubmed publisher
  4. Nie X, Sun J, Gordon R, Cai C, Xu P. SIX1 acts synergistically with TBX18 in mediating ureteral smooth muscle formation. Development. 2010;137:755-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings uncover an essential role for Six1 in establishing a functionally normal ureter and provide new insights into the molecular basis of urinary tract malformations in BOR patients. ..
  5. Mao X, Debenedittis P, Sun Y, Chen J, Yuan K, Jiao K, et al. Vascular smooth muscle cell Smad4 gene is important for mouse vascular development. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, deletion of Smad4 more specifically in SMC with the inducible smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC)-Cre mice, in which decreased cell proliferation was observed only in the artery but not the heart, also caused ..
  6. Martin E, Caubit X, Airik R, Vola C, Fatmi A, Kispert A, et al. TSHZ3 and SOX9 regulate the timing of smooth muscle cell differentiation in the ureter by reducing myocardin activity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63721 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the dynamic expression of Sox9 and the interaction between TSHZ3, SOX9 and MYOCD provide a mechanism that regulates the pace of progression of the myogenic program in the ureter. ..
  7. Jing X, Gao Y, Xiao S, Qin Q, Wei X, Yan Y, et al. Hypoxia induced the differentiation of Tbx18-positive epicardial cells to CoSMCs. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30468 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that hypoxia intervention was sufficient to induce the differentiation of Tbx18-positive epicardial cells to CoSMCs. Furthermore, this differentiation was achieved primarily via HIF-1α-mediated regulation of Snail. ..
  8. Castilla L, Perrat P, Martinez N, Landrette S, Keys R, Oikemus S, et al. Identification of genes that synergize with Cbfb-MYH11 in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4924-9 pubmed
    ..leukemia subtype M4 with eosinophilia is associated with a chromosome 16 inversion that creates a fusion gene CBFB-MYH11. We have previously shown that CBFB-MYH11 is necessary but not sufficient for leukemogenesis...
  9. Perlegas D, Xie H, Sinha S, Somlyo A, Owens G. ANG II type 2 receptor regulates smooth muscle growth and force generation in late fetal mouse development. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H96-102 pubmed
    ..Taken together, results indicate that functional AT(2)R are expressed in fetal aorta and mediate reduced force development but do not significantly contribute to regulation of SMC differentiation. ..

More Information


  1. Babu G, Pyne G, Zhou Y, Okwuchukuasanya C, Brayden J, Osol G, et al. Isoform switching from SM-B to SM-A myosin results in decreased contractility and altered expression of thin filament regulatory proteins. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;287:C723-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the presence or absence of SM-B myosin is a critical determinant of smooth muscle contraction and that its loss leads to additional changes in thin filament regulatory proteins. ..
  2. Lagha M, Brunelli S, Messina G, Cumano A, Kume T, Relaix F, et al. Pax3:Foxc2 reciprocal repression in the somite modulates muscular versus vascular cell fate choice in multipotent progenitors. Dev Cell. 2009;17:892-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides insight into how cell fate choices are orchestrated by these lineage genes in the dermomyotome. ..
  3. Mamo T, Wittern A, Kleppa M, Bohnenpoll T, Weiss A, Kispert A. BMP4 uses several different effector pathways to regulate proliferation and differentiation in the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the developing mouse ureter. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:3553-3563 pubmed publisher
  4. Wu B, Zhang Z, Lui W, Chen X, Wang Y, Chamberlain A, et al. Endocardial cells form the coronary arteries by angiogenesis through myocardial-endocardial VEGF signaling. Cell. 2012;151:1083-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This information may help develop better cell therapies for coronary artery disease...
  5. Wystub K, Besser J, Bachmann A, Boettger T, Braun T. miR-1/133a clusters cooperatively specify the cardiomyogenic lineage by adjustment of myocardin levels during embryonic heart development. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003793 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that myocardin positively regulates expression of miR-1/133a, thus constituting a negative feedback loop that is essential for early cardiac development. ..
  6. Tuck S, Maghni K, Poirier A, Babu G, Periasamy M, Bates J, et al. Time course of airway mechanics of the (+)insert myosin isoform knockout mouse. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:326-32 pubmed
    ..8 +/- 5.6%. We conclude that the presence of the (+)insert myosin isoform in the airways increases the rate of bronchoconstriction. ..
  7. Minchin J, Williams V, Hinits Y, Low S, Tandon P, Fan C, et al. Oesophageal and sternohyal muscle fibres are novel Pax3-dependent migratory somite derivatives essential for ingestion. Development. 2013;140:2972-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate Pax3-expressing somite cells as a source of OSM and SHM fibres, and highlight a conserved role of Pax3 genes in the genesis of these feeding muscles of vertebrates. ..
  8. Halim D, Wilson M, Oliver D, Brosens E, Verheij J, Han Y, et al. Loss of LMOD1 impairs smooth muscle cytocontractility and causes megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in humans and mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E2739-E2747 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define LMOD1 as a disease gene for MMIHS and suggest its role in establishing normal smooth muscle cytoskeletal-contractile coupling. ..
  9. Karagiannis P, Babu G, Periasamy M, Brozovich F. The smooth muscle myosin seven amino acid heavy chain insert's kinetic role in the crossbridge cycle for mouse bladder. J Physiol. 2003;547:463-73 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the seven amino acid insert modulates the kinetics and/or states of the AMATPase, which could lead to differences in the kinetics of contraction between fast and slow smooth muscle. ..
  10. Watanabe M, Sakomura Y, Kurabayashi M, Manabe I, Aikawa M, Kuro O M, et al. Structure and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM1/2) gene. Circ Res. 1996;78:978-89 pubmed
    We have previously shown that smooth muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms (SMs), including SM1, SM2, and SMemb, are differentially expressed during vascular development, and in vascular lesions, such as atherosclerosis...
  11. Martin A, Bhatti S, Pyne Geithman G, Farjah M, Manaves V, Walker L, et al. Expression and function of COOH-terminal myosin heavy chain isoforms in mouse smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C238-45 pubmed
    Isoforms of the smooth muscle myosin motor, SM1 and SM2, differ in length at the carboxy terminal tail region. Their proportion changes with development, hormonal status and disease, but their function is unknown...
  12. Jayewickreme C, Shivdasani R. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1. Dev Biol. 2015;405:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors. ..
  13. Young K, Krebs L, Tweedie E, Conley B, Mancini M, Arthur H, et al. Endoglin is required in Pax3-derived cells for embryonic blood vessel formation. Dev Biol. 2016;409:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a requirement for endoglin in descendants of Pax3-expressing vascular cell precursors, and thus provides new insight into the cellular basis underlying adult vascular diseases such as HHT. ..
  14. Turner C, Badu Nkansah K, Crowley D, van der Flier A, Hynes R. α5 and αv integrins cooperate to regulate vascular smooth muscle and neural crest functions in vivo. Development. 2015;142:797-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of cultured α5/αv-deficient vSMCs suggests that this is achieved, at least in part, through proper assembly of RGD-containing extracellular matrix proteins and the correct incorporation and activation of latent TGF-β. ..
  15. Chang A, Raftrey B, D Amato G, Surya V, Poduri A, Chen H, et al. DACH1 stimulates shear stress-guided endothelial cell migration and coronary artery growth through the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis. Genes Dev. 2017;31:1308-1324 pubmed publisher
    ..This activity is suppressed once arteries reach a mature morphology and acquire high, laminar flow that down-regulates DACH1. Thus, we identified a mechanism by which blood flow quality balances artery growth and maturation. ..
  16. Shiroyanagi Y, Liu B, Cao M, Agras K, Li J, Hsieh M, et al. Urothelial sonic hedgehog signaling plays an important role in bladder smooth muscle formation. Differentiation. 2007;75:968-77 pubmed
    ..Based on Shh expression by urothelium and the effects of Shh inhibition on bladder SM induction, we hypothesize that urothelial-derived Shh orchestrates induction of SM in the fetal mouse bladder. ..
  17. Hypolite J, Chang S, LaBelle E, Babu G, Periasamy M, Wein A, et al. Deletion of SM-B, the high ATPase isoform of myosin, upregulates the PKC-mediated signal transduction pathway in murine urinary bladder smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F658-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, similar changes are also present in PBOO-induced DSM compensatory response in the rabbit model in which SM-B is downregulated. ..
  18. Babu G, Celia G, Rhee A, Yamamura H, Takahashi K, Brozovich F, et al. Effects of h1-calponin ablation on the contractile properties of bladder versus vascular smooth muscle in mice lacking SM-B myosin. J Physiol. 2006;577:1033-42 pubmed
  19. Yoshida T, Gan Q, Franke A, Ho R, Zhang J, Chen Y, et al. Smooth and cardiac muscle-selective knock-out of Kruppel-like factor 4 causes postnatal death and growth retardation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on the heart revealed that Klf4 bound to the promoter region of the Gata4 gene. Results provide novel evidence that Klf4 plays a key role in late fetal and/or postnatal cardiac development. ..
  20. Greif D, Kumar M, Lighthouse J, Hum J, An A, Ding L, et al. Radial construction of an arterial wall. Dev Cell. 2012;23:482-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of such radial signaling pathways may underlie vessel-specific differences and pathological changes in arterial wall size and structure. ..
  21. Miller C, Sassoon D. Wnt-7a maintains appropriate uterine patterning during the development of the mouse female reproductive tract. Development. 1998;125:3201-11 pubmed
  22. Xu J, Nie X, Cai X, Cai C, Xu P. Tbx18 is essential for normal development of vasculature network and glomerular mesangium in the mammalian kidney. Dev Biol. 2014;391:17-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced proliferation in glomerular tuft and increased apoptosis in perivascular mesenchyme were observed in Tbx18(-/-) kidneys. Thus, our analyses have identified a novel role of Tbx18 in kidney vasculature development. ..
  23. Hicks A, Campeau L, Burmeister D, Bishop C, Andersson K. Lack of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (Nmnat2): consequences for mouse bladder development and function. Neurourol Urodyn. 2013;32:1130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moderate loss of Nmnat2 has no effect on bladder development, survival, and has only modest effects on bladder function later in life. ..
  24. Cossette S, Misra R. The identification of different endothelial cell populations within the mouse proepicardium. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that EC exist in the proepicardium before coronary vasculogenesis, and support a model in which there is a heterogeneous origin for EC in the proepicardium. ..
  25. Rossdeutsch A, Smart N, Dubé K, Turner M, Riley P. Essential role for thymosin ?4 in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell development and vessel wall stability. Circ Res. 2012;111:e89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for understanding congenital anomalies that may be causative for adult-onset vascular instability. ..
  26. Misra A, Sheikh A, Kumar A, Luo J, Zhang J, Hinton R, et al. Integrin β3 inhibition is a therapeutic strategy for supravalvular aortic stenosis. J Exp Med. 2016;213:451-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, integrin β3-mediated signaling in SMCs links elastin deficiency and pathological stenosis, and inhibiting this pathway is an attractive therapeutic strategy for SVAS. ..
  27. Volz K, Jacobs A, Chen H, Poduri A, McKay A, Riordan D, et al. Pericytes are progenitors for coronary artery smooth muscle. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are the first demonstration that pericytes are progenitors for smooth muscle, and their presence in adult hearts reveals a new potential cell type for targeting during cardiovascular disease. ..
  28. Wang W, Van de Water T, Lufkin T. Inner ear and maternal reproductive defects in mice lacking the Hmx3 homeobox gene. Development. 1998;125:621-34 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, expression of both Hmx1 and Hmx2 is downregulated in the Hmx3 null uterus, suggesting a hierarchical relationship among the three Hmx genes during pregnancy. ..
  29. Kim I, Ramakrishna S, Gusarova G, Yoder H, Costa R, Kalinichenko V. The forkhead box m1 transcription factor is essential for embryonic development of pulmonary vasculature. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22278-86 pubmed
    ..In summary, development of mouse lungs depends on the Foxm1 transcription factor, which regulates expression of genes essential for mesenchyme proliferation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and vasculogenesis. ..
  30. Kuo Y, Gerstein R, Castilla L. Cbfbeta-SMMHC impairs differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors and reveals an essential role for RUNX in early B-cell development. Blood. 2008;111:1543-51 pubmed
    The core-binding factor (CBF)-associated leukemia fusion protein CBFbeta-SMMHC impairs myeloid and lymphoid differentiation...
  31. Weaver M, Batts L, Hogan B. Tissue interactions pattern the mesenchyme of the embryonic mouse lung. Dev Biol. 2003;258:169-84 pubmed
    ..We propose a model for how factors made by two epithelial cell populations, the inner endoderm and the outer jacket of mesothelium, coordinately regulate the proliferation and differentiation of the lung mesoderm. ..
  32. Smith C, Baek S, Sung C, Tallquist M. Epicardial-derived cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and fate specification require PDGF receptor signaling. Circ Res. 2011;108:e15-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Signaling through both PDGF receptors is necessary for epicardial EMT and formation of epicardial-mesenchymal derivatives. PDGF receptors also have independent functions in the development of specific epicardial-derived cell fates. ..
  33. Liu B, Feng D, Lin G, Cao M, Kan Y, Cunha G, et al. Signalling molecules involved in mouse bladder smooth muscle cellular differentiation. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes downstream of Shh are differentially expressed in the prospective submucosa vs. the peripheral bladder mesenchyme as a function gestation age and smooth muscle differentiation...
  34. Iwata H, Manabe I, Fujiu K, Yamamoto T, Takeda N, Eguchi K, et al. Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to vascular inflammation but do not differentiate into smooth muscle cell lineages. Circulation. 2010;122:2048-57 pubmed publisher
    ..It appears that bone marrow-derived SM ?-actin(+) cells are of monocyte/macrophage lineage and are involved in vascular remodeling. It is very unlikely that these cells acquire the definitive SM cell lineage. ..
  35. Davis C, Haberland M, Arnold M, Sutherland L, McDonald O, Richardson J, et al. PRISM/PRDM6, a transcriptional repressor that promotes the proliferative gene program in smooth muscle cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2626-36 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PRISM acts as a novel epigenetic regulator of SMC phenotypic plasticity by suppressing differentiation and maintaining the proliferative potential of vascular SMCs. ..
  36. Turlo K, Noel O, Vora R, Larussa M, Fassler R, Hall Glenn F, et al. An essential requirement for ?1 integrin in the assembly of extracellular matrix proteins within the vascular wall. Dev Biol. 2012;365:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..It further establishes a critical role of ?1 integrin in the protection against aneurysms that is particularly confined to the ascending aorta and its branches. ..
  37. Löhn M, Kämpf D, Gui Xuan C, Haller H, Luft F, Gollasch M. Regulation of arterial tone by smooth muscle myosin type II. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;283:C1383-9 pubmed
    ..Thus PKC-dependent phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins may be responsible for sustained contraction in vascular SM. ..
  38. Ustiyan V, Wang I, Ren X, Zhang Y, Snyder J, Xu Y, et al. Forkhead box M1 transcriptional factor is required for smooth muscle cells during embryonic development of blood vessels and esophagus. Dev Biol. 2009;336:266-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Foxm1 is critical for proliferation of smooth muscle cells and is required for proper embryonic development of blood vessels and esophagus. ..
  39. Geng X, Cha B, Mahamud M, Lim K, Silasi Mansat R, Uddin M, et al. Multiple mouse models of primary lymphedema exhibit distinct defects in lymphovenous valve development. Dev Biol. 2016;409:218-233 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have provided the first and the most comprehensive analysis of LVV development. Furthermore, our work suggests that aberrant LVVs contribute to lymphedema. ..
  40. Zhao L, Melenhorst J, Alemu L, Kirby M, Anderson S, Kench M, et al. KIT with D816 mutations cooperates with CBFB-MYH11 for leukemogenesis in mice. Blood. 2012;119:1511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore important to verify that KIT mutations cooperate with CBFB-MYH11, the fusion gene generated by inv(16), for leukemogenesis...
  41. de Lange W, Halabi C, Beyer A, Sigmund C. Germ line activation of the Tie2 and SMMHC promoters causes noncell-specific deletion of floxed alleles. Physiol Genomics. 2008;35:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..used to generate endothelium-specific (Tie2) and smooth muscle-specific [smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (Smmhc)] knockout mice exhibit activity in the female and male germ lines, respectively...
  42. Zhao W, Dhoot G. Both smooth and skeletal muscle precursors are present in foetal mouse oesophagus and they follow different differentiation pathways. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:587-602 pubmed
  43. Feng X, Krebs L, Gridley T. Patent ductus arteriosus in mice with smooth muscle-specific Jag1 deletion. Development. 2010;137:4191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This new model for a common congenital heart defect provides novel insights into the genetic programs that underlie ductus arteriosus development and closure. ..
  44. Kuang S, Kwartler C, Byanova K, Pham J, Gong L, Prakash S, et al. Rare, nonsynonymous variant in the smooth muscle-specific isoform of myosin heavy chain, MYH11, R247C, alters force generation in the aorta and phenotype of smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2012;110:1411-22 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in myosin heavy chain (MYH11) cause autosomal dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections...
  45. Löfgren M, Ekblad E, Morano I, Arner A. Nonmuscle Myosin motor of smooth muscle. J Gen Physiol. 2003;121:301-10 pubmed
    ..High ADP binding and low phosphate dependence of nonmuscle myosin would influence both velocity of actin translocation and force generation to promote slow motility and economical force maintenance of the cell. ..
  46. Xu K, Nieuwenhuis E, Cohen B, Wang W, Canty A, Danska J, et al. Lunatic Fringe-mediated Notch signaling is required for lung alveogenesis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;298:L45-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, these results demonstrate that Lfng functions to enhance Notch signaling in myofibroblast precursor cells and thereby to coordinate differentiation and mobilization of myofibroblasts required for alveolar septation. ..
  47. Chi M, Zhou Y, Vedamoorthyrao S, Babu G, Periasamy M. Ablation of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain SM2 increases smooth muscle contraction and results in postnatal death in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18614-8 pubmed publisher
    The physiological relevance of smooth muscle myosin isoforms SM1 and SM2 has not been understood...
  48. Wang X, Astrof S. Neural crest cell-autonomous roles of fibronectin in cardiovascular development. Development. 2016;143:88-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate an essential role of the localized synthesis of Fn1 in cardiovascular development and spatial regulation of Notch signaling. ..
  49. Greulich F, Farin H, Schuster Gossler K, Kispert A. Tbx18 function in epicardial development. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;96:476-83 pubmed publisher
  50. Patzak A, Petzhold D, Wronski T, Martinka P, Babu G, Periasamy M, et al. Constriction velocities of renal afferent and efferent arterioles of mice are not related to SMB expression. Kidney Int. 2005;68:2726-34 pubmed
  51. Weiss A, Leinwand L. The mammalian myosin heavy chain gene family. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1996;12:417-39 pubmed
    ..The regulation of MYH genes expressed in skeletal muscle and the potential functional implications that distinct MYH isoforms may have on muscle physiology are addressed. ..
  52. Castilla L, Wijmenga C, Wang Q, Stacy T, Speck N, Eckhaus M, et al. Failure of embryonic hematopoiesis and lethal hemorrhages in mouse embryos heterozygous for a knocked-in leukemia gene CBFB-MYH11. Cell. 1996;87:687-96 pubmed
    The fusion oncogene CBFB-MYH11 is generated by a chromosome 16 inversion in human acute myeloid leukemia subtype M4Eo...
  53. Deng Z, Liu P, Marlton P, Claxton D, Lane S, Callen D, et al. Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain locus (MYH11) maps to 16p13.13-p13.12 and establishes a new region of conserved synteny between human 16p and mouse 16. Genomics. 1993;18:156-9 pubmed
    The human smooth muscle myosin heavy chain locus (MYH11) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to the middle of the p arm of chromosome 16 using a genomic cosmid clone containing coding sequences of the gene as probe...