Gene Symbol: Myh1
Description: myosin, heavy polypeptide 1, skeletal muscle, adult
Alias: A530084A17Rik, IId, IId/x, MHC-2X/D, MHC2X/D, MYHC-IIX, MdMs, MyHC-IId/x, MyHC-IIx/d, Myhs-f, Myhs-f2, Myhsf2, myosin-1, myHC-2x, myosin heavy chain 1, myosin heavy chain 2X, myosin heavy chain, skeletal muscle, adult 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Myh1

Top Publications

  1. Takeda S, North D, Lakich M, Russell S, Whalen R. A possible regulatory role for conserved promoter motifs in an adult-specific muscle myosin gene from mouse. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:16957-67 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest an important functional role for these AT-rich sequence motifs in the regulation of genes of the MHC family. ..
  2. Weydert A, Barton P, Harris A, Pinset C, Buckingham M. Developmental pattern of mouse skeletal myosin heavy chain gene transcripts in vivo and in vitro. Cell. 1987;49:121-9 pubmed
    ..In vitro, in the absence of the nerve, embryonic, perinatal, and adult IIB MHC mRNAs accumulate. The level of the latter two isomRNAs is influenced by culture conditions. ..
  3. Weydert A, Daubas P, Caravatti M, Minty A, Bugaisky G, Cohen A, et al. Sequential accumulation of mRNAs encoding different myosin heavy chain isoforms during skeletal muscle development in vivo detected with a recombinant plasmid identified as coding for an adult fast myosin heavy chain from mouse skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:13867-74 pubmed
    ..There is thus a rapid transition after birth from fetal to adult skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain mRNA sequences. ..
  4. Leinwand L, Fournier R, Nadal Ginard B, Shows T. Multigene family for sarcomeric myosin heavy chain in mouse and human DNA: localization on a single chromosome. Science. 1983;221:766-9 pubmed
    ..A synteny between myosin heavy chain and two unrelated markers, thymidine kinase and galactokinase, was found to be preserved in the rodent and human genomes. ..
  5. Parker Thornburg J, Bauer B, Palermo J, Robbins J. Structural and developmental analysis of two linked myosin heavy chain genes. Dev Biol. 1992;150:99-107 pubmed
    ..Transcripts from this gene, when compared to those from the MHC2A and beta-MHC genes, are the predominant MHC transcripts found in the diaphragm, tongue, soleus, and masseter, indicating that it encodes a major skeletal MHC isoform. ..
  6. van Rooij E, Quiat D, Johnson B, Sutherland L, Qi X, Richardson J, et al. A family of microRNAs encoded by myosin genes governs myosin expression and muscle performance. Dev Cell. 2009;17:662-73 pubmed publisher
  7. Weydert A, Daubas P, Lazaridis I, Barton P, Garner I, Leader D, et al. Genes for skeletal muscle myosin heavy chains are clustered and are not located on the same mouse chromosome as a cardiac myosin heavy chain gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:7183-7 pubmed
    ..This result is in contrast to that for other contractile protein genes such as the alkali myosin light chain and the actin multigene families, which are dispersed in the genome. ..
  8. Issa M, Muruganandan S, Ernst M, Parlee S, Zabel B, Butcher E, et al. Chemokine-like receptor 1 regulates skeletal muscle cell myogenesis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;302:C1621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CMKLR1 is essential for myogenic differentiation of C(2)C(12) cells in vitro, and the CMKLR1 null mice have a subtle skeletal muscle deficit beginning from embryonic life that persists during postnatal life. ..
  9. Zhou H, Wan B, Grubisic I, Kaplan T, Tjian R. TAF7L modulates brown adipose tissue formation. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the presence of the tissue-specific TAF7L subunit in TFIID functions to promote long-range chromatin interactions during BAT lineage specification. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Sigoillot S, Bourgeois F, Karmouch J, Molgó J, Dobbertin A, Chevalier C, et al. Neuromuscular junction immaturity and muscle atrophy are hallmarks of the ColQ-deficient mouse, a model of congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency. FASEB J. 2016;30:2382-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Chevalier, C., Houlgatte, R., Léger, J., Legay, C. Neuromuscular junction immaturity and muscle atrophy are hallmarks of the ColQ-deficient mouse, a model of congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency. ..
  2. Daou N, Lecolle S, Lefebvre S, Della Gaspera B, Charbonnier F, Chanoine C, et al. A new role for the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in neonatal myosin heavy chain expression via the NFATc2/MyoD complex during mouse myogenesis. Development. 2013;140:4914-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway plays a new role in establishing the early muscle fiber type in immature myofibers during embryogenesis. ..
  3. Kardon G, Harfe B, Tabin C. A Tcf4-positive mesodermal population provides a prepattern for vertebrate limb muscle patterning. Dev Cell. 2003;5:937-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that Tcf4-expressing cells establish a prepattern in the limb mesoderm that determines the sites of myogenic differentiation and thus establishes the basic pattern of limb muscles. ..
  4. Ikeda T, Kanazawa T, Otsuka S, Ichii O, Hashimoto Y, Kon Y. Expression of caspase family and muscle- and apoptosis-specific genes during skeletal myogenesis in mouse embryo. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1161-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the activation of Casps in skeletal myogenesis is deeply associated with myoblast differentiation, but not directly related to apoptosis. ..
  5. Salamon M, Millino C, Raffaello A, Mongillo M, Sandri C, Bean C, et al. Human MYO18B, a novel unconventional myosin heavy chain expressed in striated muscles moves into the myonuclei upon differentiation. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:137-49 pubmed
    ..In some cases, cardiomyocytes show a partial sarcomeric pattern of MYO18B alternating that of alpha-actinin-2. In skeletal muscle the cytoplasmic MYO18B results much more evident in the fast type fibers. ..
  6. Oh M, Rybkin I, Copeland V, Czubryt M, Shelton J, van Rooij E, et al. Calcineurin is necessary for the maintenance but not embryonic development of slow muscle fibers. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6629-38 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that developmental patterning of slow fibers is independent of calcineurin, while the maintenance of the slow-fiber phenotype in the adult requires calcineurin activity...
  7. Merrick D, Ting T, Stadler L, Smith J. A role for Insulin-like growth factor 2 in specification of the fast skeletal muscle fibre. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:65 pubmed
    ..5-P1). Since specific loss of FMyHC fibres is associated with many skeletal muscle pathologies these data have important medical implications. ..
  8. Ontell M, Sopper M, Lyons G, Buckingham M, Ontell M. Modulation of contractile protein gene expression in fetal murine crural muscles: emergence of muscle diversity. Dev Dyn. 1993;198:203-13 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  9. Smith T, Miller J. Distinct myogenic programs of embryonic and fetal mouse muscle cells: expression of the perinatal myosin heavy chain isoform in vitro. Dev Biol. 1992;149:16-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, the myogenic program of fetal, but not embryonic, mouse myogenic cells includes expression of the perinatal MHC isoform upon differentiation in culture. ..
  10. Usami A, Abe S, Ide Y. Myosin heavy chain isoforms of the murine masseter muscle during pre- and post-natal development. Anat Histol Embryol. 2003;32:244-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the development of murine masseter muscle is closely associated with facial development. ..
  11. Tylzanowski P, Mebis L, Luyten F. The Noggin null mouse phenotype is strain dependent and haploinsufficiency leads to skeletal defects. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1599-607 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we have discovered Noggin haploinsufficiency leading to carpal and tarsal fusions reminiscent of some phenotypes reported for NOGGIN haploinsufficiency in humans. ..
  12. Bakkar N, Ladner K, Canan B, Liyanarachchi S, Bal N, Pant M, et al. IKK? and alternative NF-?B regulate PGC-1? to promote oxidative muscle metabolism. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:497-511 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide insight on PGC-1? regulation during skeletal myogenesis and reveal a unique function of alternative NF-?B signaling in promoting an oxidative metabolic phenotype. ..
  13. Sakakibara I, Santolini M, Ferry A, Hakim V, Maire P. Six homeoproteins and a Iinc-RNA at the fast MYH locus lock fast myofiber terminal phenotype. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004386 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional fast-sarcomeric unit formation is achieved by the coordinate expression of fast MYHs and linc-MYH, under the control of a common Six-bound enhancer. ..
  14. Scotti M, Kherdjemil Y, Roux M, Kmita M. A Hoxa13:Cre mouse strain for conditional gene manipulation in developing limb, hindgut, and urogenital system. Genesis. 2015;53:366-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our data show that the Hoxa13:Cre allele is a useful tool for conditional gene manipulation in the urogenital system, posterior digestive tract, autopod and part of the limb musculature. ..
  15. Majmundar A, Lee D, Skuli N, Mesquita R, Kim M, Yodh A, et al. HIF modulation of Wnt signaling regulates skeletal myogenesis in vivo. Development. 2015;142:2405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide the first evidence that HIF1? regulates skeletal myogenesis in vivo and establish a novel link between HIF and Wnt signaling in this context. ..
  16. Kraft Sheleg O, Zaffryar Eilot S, Genin O, Yaseen W, Soueid Baumgarten S, Kessler O, et al. Localized LoxL3-Dependent Fibronectin Oxidation Regulates Myofiber Stretch and Integrin-Mediated Adhesion. Dev Cell. 2016;36:550-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify a mechanism whereby localized LoxL3 secretion from myofiber termini oxidizes FN, enabling enhanced integrin activation at the tips of myofibers and ensuring correct positioning and anchoring of myofibers along the MTJ. ..
  17. Heude E, Bouhali K, Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Couly G, Janvier P, et al. Jaw muscularization requires Dlx expression by cranial neural crest cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of Dlx genes in defining gnathostome jaw identity could, therefore, be secondary to a more primitive function in the genesis of the oral skeletomuscular system. ..
  18. Schaeper U, Vogel R, Chmielowiec J, Huelsken J, Rosario M, Birchmeier W. Distinct requirements for Gab1 in Met and EGF receptor signaling in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15376-81 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that Gab1 induces different biological responses through the recruitment of distinct effectors and that different modes of recruitment for Gab1 are required in different organs. ..
  19. Cox R, Weydert A, Barlow D, Buckingham M. Three linked myosin heavy chain genes clustered within 370 kb of each other show independent transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation during differentiation of a mouse muscle cell line. Dev Biol. 1991;143:36-43 pubmed
    ..Post-transcriptional mechanisms also regulate cytoplasmic RNA accumulation of these MHC genes. ..
  20. Dennehey B, Leinwand L, Krauter K. Diversity in transcriptional start site selection and alternative splicing affects the 5'-UTR of mouse striated muscle myosin transcripts. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2006;27:559-75 pubmed
    ..with polysomes and their spatial-temporal expression largely mirrored that of the major transcripts in wild-type, Myh1 null, Myh4 null, injured, and uninjured muscle, except that one form of Myh7, detected in heart, was not detected ..
  21. Cortez Toledo O, Schnair C, Sangngern P, Metzger D, Chao L. Nur77 deletion impairs muscle growth during developmental myogenesis and muscle regeneration in mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171268 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the findings presented here demonstrate Nur77 as an important regulator of muscle growth both during prenatal and postnatal myogenesis. ..
  22. Bröhl D, Vasyutina E, Czajkowski M, Griger J, Rassek C, Rahn H, et al. Colonization of the satellite cell niche by skeletal muscle progenitor cells depends on Notch signals. Dev Cell. 2012;23:469-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Notch signals control homing of satellite cells, stimulating them to contribute to their own microenvironment and to adhere to myofibers. ..
  23. Sun T, Jayatilake D, Afink G, Ataliotis P, Nister M, Richardson W, et al. A human YAC transgene rescues craniofacial and neural tube development in PDGFRalpha knockout mice and uncovers a role for PDGFRalpha in prenatal lung growth. Development. 2000;127:4519-29 pubmed
    ..In addition, we found that the YAC transgene did not prolong survival of Patch mutant mice, indicating that genetic defects outside the PDGFRalpha locus contribute to the early embryonic lethality of Patch mice. ..
  24. Allen D, Leinwand L. Postnatal myosin heavy chain isoform expression in normal mice and mice null for IIb or IId myosin heavy chains. Dev Biol. 2001;229:383-95 pubmed sarcomeric MyHCs was analyzed in the hindlimb muscles of wild-type mice and in mice null for the MyHC IIb or IId/x genes at several time points from 1 day of postnatal life (dpn) to 20 dpn...
  25. Petchey L, Risebro C, Vieira J, Roberts T, Bryson J, Greensmith L, et al. Loss of Prox1 in striated muscle causes slow to fast skeletal muscle fiber conversion and dilated cardiomyopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:9515-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies conserved roles for Prox1 between cardiac and skeletal muscle, specifically implicated in slow-twitch fiber-type specification, function, and cardiomyopathic disease. ..
  26. Ontell M, Ontell M, Sopper M, Mallonga R, Lyons G, Buckingham M. Contractile protein gene expression in primary myotubes of embryonic mouse hindlimb muscles. Development. 1993;117:1435-44 pubmed
    ..These differences indicate that there is no single coordinate pattern of expression of contractile protein genes during initial formation of the muscles of the mouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  27. Otto A, Macharia R, Matsakas A, Valasek P, Mankoo B, Patel K. A hypoplastic model of skeletal muscle development displaying reduced foetal myoblast cell numbers, increased oxidative myofibres and improved specific tension capacity. Dev Biol. 2010;343:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In spite of these changes, the muscle from Meox2 mutant mice is able to generate increased levels of specific tension compared to that of the wild type. ..
  28. Zhang J, Elzey B, Williams G, Lu S, Law D, Horowits R. Ultrastructural and biochemical localization of N-RAP at the interface between myofibrils and intercalated disks in the mouse heart. Biochemistry. 2001;40:14898-906 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that N-RAP remains tightly bound to myofibrils and fasciae adherentes during biochemical purification and may be a key constituent in the mechanical link between these two structures. ..
  29. Acakpo Satchivi L, Edelmann W, Sartorius C, Lu B, Wahr P, Watkins S, et al. Growth and muscle defects in mice lacking adult myosin heavy chain genes. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:1219-29 pubmed
    ..We describe mice carrying null mutations in each of two predominant adult fast MyHC genes, IIb and IId/x...
  30. Harrison B, Bell M, Allen D, Byrnes W, Leinwand L. Skeletal muscle adaptations in response to voluntary wheel running in myosin heavy chain null mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;92:313-22 pubmed
    ..Despite reduced running performance compared with nontransgenic C57BL/6 mice (NTG), both MHC IIb and MHC IId/x null animals exhibited increased muscle fiber size and muscle oxidative capacity with wheel running...
  31. Jiang C, Wang J, Yue F, Kuang S. The brain expressed x-linked gene 1 (Bex1) regulates myoblast fusion. Dev Biol. 2016;409:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results elucidate a novel role of Bex1 in myogenesis through regulating myoblast fusion. ..
  32. Ajima R, Akazawa H, Kodama M, Takeshita F, Otsuka A, Kohno T, et al. Deficiency of Myo18B in mice results in embryonic lethality with cardiac myofibrillar aberrations. Genes Cells. 2008;13:987-99 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Thus, Myo18B is a unique unconventional myosin that is predominantly expressed in myocytes and whose expression is essential for the development and/or maintenance of myofibrillar structure. ..
  33. Shi H, Scheffler J, Pleitner J, Zeng C, Park S, Hannon K, et al. Modulation of skeletal muscle fiber type by mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. FASEB J. 2008;22:2990-3000 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the MAPK signaling, most likely the ERK1/2 pathway, is necessary to preserve the fast-twitch fiber phenotype with a concomitant repression of slow-twitch fiber program. ..
  34. Derbré F, Droguet M, Léon K, Troadec S, Pennec J, Giroux Metges M, et al. Single Muscle Immobilization Decreases Single-Fibre Myosin Heavy Chain Polymorphism: Possible Involvement of p38 and JNK MAP Kinases. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158630 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of p38 and JNK could be a potential mechanism involved in these contractile phenotype modifications during muscle immobilization. ..
  35. Zhou H, Black S, Benson T, Weintraub N, Chen W. Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy 2/Seipin Is Not Required for Brown Adipogenesis but Regulates Brown Adipose Tissue Development and Function. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2027-38 pubmed publisher
  36. Quinn M, Goh Q, Kurosaka M, Gamage D, Petrany M, Prasad V, et al. Myomerger induces fusion of non-fusogenic cells and is required for skeletal muscle development. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15665 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify myomerger as a fundamental myoblast fusion protein and establish a system that begins to reconstitute mammalian cell fusion. ..
  37. Weiss A, McDonough D, Wertman B, Acakpo Satchivi L, Montgomery K, Kucherlapati R, et al. Organization of human and mouse skeletal myosin heavy chain gene clusters is highly conserved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2958-63 pubmed
  38. Satoskar A, Tanner S, Weinstein M, Qualman S, de la Chapelle A. Baalc, a marker of mesoderm and muscle. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:463-73 pubmed
    ..Scattered expression in adult bone marrow hematopoietic cells and weak expression in the brain neuropil also occurred. In conclusion, BAALC/Baalc is a marker of the mesodermal lineage, especially muscle. ..
  39. Cohen S, Brault J, Gygi S, Glass D, Valenzuela D, Gartner C, et al. During muscle atrophy, thick, but not thin, filament components are degraded by MuRF1-dependent ubiquitylation. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1083-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these proteins stabilize the thick filament, their selective ubiquitylation may facilitate thick filament disassembly. However, the thin filament components decreased by a mechanism not requiring MuRF1...
  40. Block N, Zhu Z, Kachinsky A, Dominov J, Miller J. Acceleration of somitic myogenesis in embryos of myogenin promoter-MRF4 transgenic mice. Dev Dyn. 1996;207:382-94 pubmed
    ..MRF function, therefore, appears to be differentially regulated in dermatomal and myotomal cells. ..
  41. Millay D, O Rourke J, Sutherland L, Bezprozvannaya S, Shelton J, Bassel Duby R, et al. Myomaker is a membrane activator of myoblast fusion and muscle formation. Nature. 2013;499:301-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a long-sought myogenic fusion protein that controls mammalian myoblast fusion and provide new insights into the molecular underpinnings of muscle formation. ..
  42. Zappelli F, Willems D, Osada S, Ohno S, Wetsel W, Molinaro M, et al. The inhibition of differentiation caused by TGFbeta in fetal myoblasts is dependent upon selective expression of PKCtheta: a possible molecular basis for myoblast diversification during limb histogenesis. Dev Biol. 1996;180:156-64 pubmed
    ..They also suggest a specific role for protein kinase C theta in determining the fate of different myoblasts during muscle histogenesis. ..
  43. Wooldridge A, Fortner C, Lontay B, Akimoto T, Neppl R, Facemire C, et al. Deletion of the protein kinase A/protein kinase G target SMTNL1 promotes an exercise-adapted phenotype in vascular smooth muscle. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11850-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest roles for SMTNL1 in cGMP/cAMP-mediated adaptations to exercise through mechanisms involving direct modulation of contractile activity. ..
  44. Issa L, Palmer S, Guven K, Santucci N, Hodgson V, Popovic K, et al. MusTRD can regulate postnatal fiber-specific expression. Dev Biol. 2006;293:104-15 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with our initial predictions for hMusTRD1alpha1 and suggest that slow fiber genes contain a specific common regulatory element that can be targeted by MusTRD proteins. ..
  45. Pryce B, Al Zahrani K, Dufresne S, Belkina N, Labrèche C, Patino Lopez G, et al. Deletion of the Ste20-like kinase SLK in skeletal muscle results in a progressive myopathy and muscle weakness. Skelet Muscle. 2017;7:3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that SLK is dispensable for muscle development and regeneration but is required for myofiber stability and optimal force generation. ..
  46. Bi P, Ramirez Martinez A, Li H, Cannavino J, McAnally J, Shelton J, et al. Control of muscle formation by the fusogenic micropeptide myomixer. Science. 2017;356:323-327 pubmed publisher
    ..Myomixer together with Myomaker can also induce fibroblast-fibroblast fusion and fibroblast-myoblast fusion. We conclude that the Myomixer-Myomaker pair controls the critical step in myofiber formation during muscle development. ..
  47. Tevendale M, Watkins M, Rasberry C, Cattanach B, Ferguson Smith A. Analysis of mouse conceptuses with uniparental duplication/deficiency for distal chromosome 12: comparison with chromosome 12 uniparental disomy and implications for genomic imprinting. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;113:215-22 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the developmental abnormalities associated with the altered parent of origin for mouse chromosome 12 can be attributed to the genomic region distal to the T47H breakpoint. ..
  48. HUANG A, Riordan T, Pryce B, Weibel J, Watson S, Long F, et al. Musculoskeletal integration at the wrist underlies the modular development of limb tendons. Development. 2015;142:2431-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent individuation of these tendons depends on muscle activity. These results establish an integrated model for limb tendon development that provides a framework for future analyses of tendon and musculoskeletal phenotypes. ..
  49. Agbulut O, Vignaud A, Hourde C, Mouisel E, Fougerousse F, Butler Browne G, et al. Slow myosin heavy chain expression in the absence of muscle activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the maintenance of the relative expression of slow MHC protein is independent of neuromuscular activity in mice. ..
  50. Salbaum J, Kappen C. Cloning and expression of nope, a new mouse gene of the immunoglobulin superfamily related to guidance receptors. Genomics. 2000;64:15-23 pubmed
    ..In the adult brain, Nope can be detected in the hippocampus. Radiation hybrid mapping of Nope, Punc, and Neogenin placed all three genes in close vicinity on mouse chromosome 9. ..
  51. Meissner J, Chang K, Kubis H, Nebreda A, Gros G, Scheibe R. The p38alpha/beta mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate recruitment of CREB-binding protein to preserve fast myosin heavy chain IId/x gene activity in myotubes. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7265-75 pubmed fiber type-specific gene expression that includes down-regulation of the adult fast fiber myosin heavy chain IId/x (MyHCIId/x) gene...
  52. Kutchuk L, Laitala A, Soueid Bomgarten S, Shentzer P, Rosendahl A, Eilot S, et al. Muscle composition is regulated by a Lox-TGFβ feedback loop. Development. 2015;142:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results allow a better understanding of diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, in which LOX and TGFβ signaling have been implicated and the balance between muscle constituents is disturbed. ..
  53. Allen D, Sartorius C, Sycuro L, Leinwand L. Different pathways regulate expression of the skeletal myosin heavy chain genes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43524-33 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identified two elements critical for regulating MyHC-IId/x expression: a 130-base pair enhancer element and a CArG-like element that inhibited IId/x promoter activity in ..