Gene Symbol: Myf5
Description: myogenic factor 5
Alias: B130010J22Rik, Myf-5, bHLHc2, myogenic factor 5, myogenic regulatory factor MYF-5
Species: mouse
Products:     Myf5

Top Publications

  1. Kablar B, Tajbakhsh S, Rudnicki M. Transdifferentiation of esophageal smooth to skeletal muscle is myogenic bHLH factor-dependent. Development. 2000;127:1627-39 pubmed
    ..Moreover, transdifferentiation was markedly delayed or absent only in the absence of Myf5, suggesting that appropriate initiation and progression of smooth-to-skeletal muscle transdifferentiation is Myf5-..
  2. Kassar Duchossoy L, Gayraud Morel B, Gomès D, Rocancourt D, Buckingham M, Shinin V, et al. Mrf4 determines skeletal muscle identity in Myf5:Myod double-mutant mice. Nature. 2004;431:466-71 pubmed
    ..Two determination factors of the basic helix-loop-helix myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) family, Myf5 and Myod, are thought to direct this transition because double-mutant mice totally lack skeletal muscle fibres and ..
  3. Haldar M, Karan G, Tvrdik P, Capecchi M. Two cell lineages, myf5 and myf5-independent, participate in mouse skeletal myogenesis. Dev Cell. 2008;14:437-45 pubmed publisher
    In skeletal muscle development, the myogenic regulatory factors myf5 and myoD play redundant roles in the specification and maintenance of myoblasts, whereas myf6 has a downstream role in differentiating myocytes and myofibers...
  4. Bober E, Lyons G, Braun T, Cossu G, Buckingham M, Arnold H. The muscle regulatory gene, Myf-6, has a biphasic pattern of expression during early mouse development. J Cell Biol. 1991;113:1255-65 pubmed
    ..The reappearance of Myf-6 mRNA in fetal skeletal muscle coincides approximately with secondary muscle fiber formation and the onset of innervation. ..
  5. Borycki A, Brunk B, Tajbakhsh S, Buckingham M, Chiang C, Emerson C. Sonic hedgehog controls epaxial muscle determination through Myf5 activation. Development. 1999;126:4053-63 pubmed
    ..during somite myogenesis in the mouse embryo, we have analyzed the expression of the myogenic determination genes, Myf5 and MyoD, and other regulatory genes in somites of Shh null embryos and in explants of presomitic mesoderm from ..
  6. Dong F, Sun X, Liu W, Ai D, Klysik E, Lu M, et al. Pitx2 promotes development of splanchnic mesoderm-derived branchiomeric muscle. Development. 2006;133:4891-9 pubmed
    ..Conditional inactivation in mice and manipulation of Pitx2 expression in chick mandible cultures revealed an autonomous function in expansion and survival of branchial arch mesoderm. ..
  7. Hrabe de Angelis M, McIntyre J, Gossler A. Maintenance of somite borders in mice requires the Delta homologue DII1. Nature. 1997;386:717-21 pubmed
  8. Zhang W, Behringer R, Olson E. Inactivation of the myogenic bHLH gene MRF4 results in up-regulation of myogenin and rib anomalies. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1388-99 pubmed
    The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins MyoD, myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 can initiate myogenesis when expressed in nonmuscle cells...
  9. Shneider N, Mentis G, Schustak J, O Donovan M. Functionally reduced sensorimotor connections form with normal specificity despite abnormal muscle spindle development: the role of spindle-derived neurotrophin 3. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4719-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that spindle-derived factors regulate the strength of the connections but not their initial formation or their specificity. ..

More Information


  1. Tajbakhsh S, Buckingham M. Mouse limb muscle is determined in the absence of the earliest myogenic factor myf-5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:747-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, myogenic precursor cells in the somite, which, according to the avian model, migrate from the ventral/lateral edge of the dermomyotome to form peripheral muscle masses, are also negative for these factors. ..
  2. Tajbakhsh S, Rocancourt D, Buckingham M. Muscle progenitor cells failing to respond to positional cues adopt non-myogenic fates in myf-5 null mice. Nature. 1996;384:266-70 pubmed
    ..In its absence, muscle progenitors, having activated myf-5, remain multipotent and differentiate into other somitic derivatives according to their local environment. ..
  3. Gayraud Morel B, Chretien F, Flamant P, Gomès D, Zammit P, Tajbakhsh S. A role for the myogenic determination gene Myf5 in adult regenerative myogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;312:13-28 pubmed
    The myogenic determination genes Myf5, Myod and Mrf4 direct skeletal muscle cell fate prenatally...
  4. Blanar M, Crossley P, Peters K, Steingr msson E, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. Meso1, a basic-helix-loop-helix protein involved in mammalian presomitic mesoderm development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:5870-4 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that Meso1 may be a key regulatory gene involved in the early events of vertebrate mesoderm differentiation...
  5. Mielcarek M, Piotrowska I, Schneider A, Günther S, Braun T. VITO-2, a new SID domain protein, is expressed in the myogenic lineage during early mouse embryonic development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:129-37 pubmed publisher
    ..5 while Myf-5 mutant mice lack expression of VITO-1 and VITO-2 in somites until E10.5. ..
  6. Gensch N, Borchardt T, Schneider A, Riethmacher D, Braun T. Different autonomous myogenic cell populations revealed by ablation of Myf5-expressing cells during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 2008;135:1597-604 pubmed publisher
    The development of myogenic cells is mainly determined by expression of two myogenic factors, Myf5 and Myod1 (MyoD), which genetically compensate for each other during embryogenesis...
  7. Grifone R, Demignon J, Houbron C, Souil E, Niro C, Seller M, et al. Six1 and Six4 homeoproteins are required for Pax3 and Mrf expression during myogenesis in the mouse embryo. Development. 2005;132:2235-49 pubmed
    ..b>Myf5 expression is correctly initiated but becomes restricted to the caudal region of each somite...
  8. Summerbell D, Ashby P, Coutelle O, Cox D, Yee S, Rigby P. The expression of Myf5 in the developing mouse embryo is controlled by discrete and dispersed enhancers specific for particular populations of skeletal muscle precursors. Development. 2000;127:3745-57 pubmed vertebrate embryos is controlled by a transcriptional cascade that includes the four myogenic regulatory factors Myf5, Myogenin, MRF4 and MyoD...
  9. Seale P, Rudnicki M. A new look at the origin, function, and "stem-cell" status of muscle satellite cells. Dev Biol. 2000;218:115-24 pubmed
    ..Manipulation of such tissue-specific stem cells may eventually revolutionize therapies for degenerative diseases, including muscular dystrophy. ..
  10. Schulz T, Huang P, Huang T, Xue R, McDougall L, Townsend K, et al. Brown-fat paucity due to impaired BMP signalling induces compensatory browning of white fat. Nature. 2013;495:379-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This sophisticated regulatory mechanism of body temperature may participate in the control of energy balance and metabolic disease. ..
  11. Braun T, Buschhausen Denker G, Bober E, Tannich E, Arnold H. A novel human muscle factor related to but distinct from MyoD1 induces myogenic conversion in 10T1/2 fibroblasts. EMBO J. 1989;8:701-9 pubmed
    ..Two additional short segments with high serine and threonine content are conserved between the two proteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  12. Vivian J, Olson E, Klein W. Thoracic skeletal defects in myogenin- and MRF4-deficient mice correlate with early defects in myotome and intercostal musculature. Dev Biol. 2000;224:29-41 pubmed
    ..combinations displayed ventral myotome defects, including a failure to express normal levels of myf5. The results suggested that the early muscle defects observed in myogenin and MRF4 mutants may cause subsequent ..
  13. Cossu G, Kelly R, Tajbakhsh S, Di Donna S, Vivarelli E, Buckingham M. Activation of different myogenic pathways: myf-5 is induced by the neural tube and MyoD by the dorsal ectoderm in mouse paraxial mesoderm. Development. 1996;122:429-37 pubmed
    ..The possible developmental significance of these observations is discussed and a model of myogenic determination in mammals is proposed. ..
  14. Carvajal J, Cox D, Summerbell D, Rigby P. A BAC transgenic analysis of the Mrf4/Myf5 locus reveals interdigitated elements that control activation and maintenance of gene expression during muscle development. Development. 2001;128:1857-68 pubmed
    The muscle-specific transcription factors Myf5 and Mrf4 are two of the four myogenic regulatory factors involved in the transcriptional cascade responsible for skeletal myogenesis in the vertebrate embryo...
  15. Le Grand F, Jones A, Seale V, Scime A, Rudnicki M. Wnt7a activates the planar cell polarity pathway to drive the symmetric expansion of satellite stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:535-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Wnt7a signaling through the planar cell polarity pathway controls the homeostatic level of satellite stem cells and hence regulates the regenerative potential of muscle...
  16. Kablar B, Krastel K, Ying C, Tapscott S, Goldhamer D, Rudnicki M. Myogenic determination occurs independently in somites and limb buds. Dev Biol. 1999;206:219-31 pubmed
    ..Therefore, cells are recruited into the MyoD-dependent myogenic lineage through activation of the -20-kb MyoD enhancer and this occurs independently in somites and limb buds. ..
  17. Mankoo B, Collins N, Ashby P, Grigorieva E, Pevny L, Candia A, et al. Mox2 is a component of the genetic hierarchy controlling limb muscle development. Nature. 1999;400:69-73 pubmed mammalian embryos are those encoding the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs; MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and MRF4) and Pax3, a paired-type homeobox gene that is critical for the development of limb musculature...
  18. Giordani J, Bajard L, Demignon J, Daubas P, Buckingham M, Maire P. Six proteins regulate the activation of Myf5 expression in embryonic mouse limbs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11310-5 pubmed
    b>Myf5, a member of the myogenic regulatory factor family, plays a major role in determining myogenic cell fate at the onset of skeletal muscle formation in the embryo...
  19. Ishibashi J, Perry R, Asakura A, Rudnicki M. MyoD induces myogenic differentiation through cooperation of its NH2- and COOH-terminal regions. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:471-82 pubmed
    MyoD and Myf5 are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that play key but redundant roles in specifying myogenic progenitors during embryogenesis...
  20. Relaix F, Rocancourt D, Mansouri A, Buckingham M. A Pax3/Pax7-dependent population of skeletal muscle progenitor cells. Nature. 2005;435:948-53 pubmed
  21. Huh M, Parker M, Scime A, Parks R, Rudnicki M. Rb is required for progression through myogenic differentiation but not maintenance of terminal differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:865-76 pubmed
    ..b>Myf5-Cre mice, lacking pRb in myoblasts, died immediately at birth and exhibited high numbers of apoptotic nuclei and an ..
  22. Lagha M, Sato T, Regnault B, Cumano A, Zuniga A, Licht J, et al. Transcriptome analyses based on genetic screens for Pax3 myogenic targets in the mouse embryo. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:696 pubmed publisher
    ..Myogenic determination genes, such as Myf5 are controlled positively, whereas the effect of Pax3 on genes encoding inhibitors of myogenesis provides a ..
  23. Anderson C, Williams V, Moyon B, Daubas P, Tajbakhsh S, Buckingham M, et al. Sonic hedgehog acts cell-autonomously on muscle precursor cells to generate limb muscle diversity. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2103-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Shh directly induces ventral MPCs to initiate Myf5 transcription and myogenesis through essential Gli-binding sites located in the Myf5 limb enhancer...
  24. Zammit P, Carvajal J, Golding J, Morgan J, Summerbell D, Zolnerciks J, et al. Myf5 expression in satellite cells and spindles in adult muscle is controlled by separate genetic elements. Dev Biol. 2004;273:454-65 pubmed
    The myogenic regulatory factor Myf5 is integral to the initiation and control of skeletal muscle formation...
  25. Kassar Duchossoy L, Giacone E, Gayraud Morel B, Jory A, Gomès D, Tajbakhsh S. Pax3/Pax7 mark a novel population of primitive myogenic cells during development. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1426-31 pubmed
    ..These findings identify critical cell populations during lineage restriction, and provide a framework for defining myogenic cell states for therapeutic studies. ..
  26. Bober E, Franz T, Arnold H, Gruss P, Tremblay P. Pax-3 is required for the development of limb muscles: a possible role for the migration of dermomyotomal muscle progenitor cells. Development. 1994;120:603-12 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that Pax-3 is necessary for the formation of limb muscles, affecting either the generation of myogenic precursors in the somitic dermomyotome or the migration of these cells into the limb field. ..
  27. Ott M, Bober E, Lyons G, Arnold H, Buckingham M. Early expression of the myogenic regulatory gene, myf-5, in precursor cells of skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo. Development. 1991;111:1097-107 pubmed in situ hybridization the expression of myf-5, the murine homologue of the human myogenic regulatory sequence myf5, during embryogenesis in the mouse...
  28. Brunelli S, Relaix F, Baesso S, Buckingham M, Cossu G. Beta catenin-independent activation of MyoD in presomitic mesoderm requires PKC and depends on Pax3 transcriptional activity. Dev Biol. 2007;304:604-14 pubmed
    ..Canonical beta-catenin dependent Wnt signalling preferentially activates Myf5. We now show, in explant experiments with presomitic mesoderm, that the expression of another myogenic ..
  29. Daubas P, Crist C, Bajard L, Relaix F, Pecnard E, Rocancourt D, et al. The regulatory mechanisms that underlie inappropriate transcription of the myogenic determination gene Myf5 in the central nervous system. Dev Biol. 2009;327:71-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Myf5 is a key myogenic determination factor, specifically present at sites of myogenesis...
  30. Kablar B, Krastel K, Ying C, Asakura A, Tapscott S, Rudnicki M. MyoD and Myf-5 differentially regulate the development of limb versus trunk skeletal muscle. Development. 1997;124:4729-38 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations strongly support the hypothesis that Myf-5 and MyoD play unique roles in the development of epaxial and hypaxial muscle, respectively. ..
  31. Borello U, Berarducci B, Murphy P, Bajard L, Buffa V, Piccolo S, et al. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway regulates Gli-mediated Myf5 expression during somitogenesis. Development. 2006;133:3723-32 pubmed
    Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates the activation of the myogenic determination gene Myf5 at the onset of myogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown...
  32. Bajard L, Relaix F, Lagha M, Rocancourt D, Daubas P, Buckingham M. A novel genetic hierarchy functions during hypaxial myogenesis: Pax3 directly activates Myf5 in muscle progenitor cells in the limb. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2450-64 pubmed
    ..At these sites, expression of Myf5 is compromised, showing that Pax3 acts genetically upstream of this myogenic determination gene...
  33. Sabourin L, Girgis Gabardo A, Seale P, Asakura A, Rudnicki M. Reduced differentiation potential of primary MyoD-/- myogenic cells derived from adult skeletal muscle. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:631-43 pubmed
    ..We interpret these data to suggest that MyoD-/- myogenic cells represent an intermediate stage between a quiescent satellite cell and a myogenic precursor cell. ..
  34. Tajbakhsh S, Rocancourt D, Cossu G, Buckingham M. Redefining the genetic hierarchies controlling skeletal myogenesis: Pax-3 and Myf-5 act upstream of MyoD. Cell. 1997;89:127-38 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Pax-3 and Myf-5 define two distinct myogenic pathways, and MyoD acts genetically downstream of these genes for myogenesis in the body. This genetic hierarchy does not appear to operate for head muscle formation. ..
  35. Sanchez Gurmaches J, Hung C, Sparks C, Tang Y, Li H, Guertin D. PTEN loss in the Myf5 lineage redistributes body fat and reveals subsets of white adipocytes that arise from Myf5 precursors. Cell Metab. 2012;16:348-62 pubmed
    ..By lineage tracing and gene expression analysis in mice, we provide evidence that mesenchymal precursors expressing Myf5--which are thought to give rise only to brown adipocytes and skeletal muscle--also give rise to a subset of white ..
  36. Waddell J, Zhang P, Wen Y, Gupta S, Yevtodiyenko A, Schmidt J, et al. Dlk1 is necessary for proper skeletal muscle development and regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15055 pubmed publisher
  37. Vinagre T, Moncaut N, Carapuco M, Novoa A, Bom J, Mallo M. Evidence for a myotomal Hox/Myf cascade governing nonautonomous control of rib specification within global vertebral domains. Dev Cell. 2010;18:655-61 pubmed publisher
    ..rib-containing and rib-less areas is first interpreted in the myotome through the regional-specific control of Myf5 and Myf6 expression...
  38. Sato T, Rocancourt D, Marques L, Thorsteinsdóttir S, Buckingham M. A Pax3/Dmrt2/Myf5 regulatory cascade functions at the onset of myogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000897 pubmed publisher
    ..This depends on activation, in the epaxial dermomyotome, of the myogenic determination gene, Myf5, through its early epaxial enhancer...
  39. Günther S, Mielcarek M, Kruger M, Braun T. VITO-1 is an essential cofactor of TEF1-dependent muscle-specific gene regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:791-802 pubmed
    ..We conclude that VITO-1 is a crucial new cofactor of the muscle regulatory programme. ..
  40. Henderson D, Conway S, Copp A. Rib truncations and fusions in the Sp2H mouse reveal a role for Pax3 in specification of the ventro-lateral and posterior parts of the somite. Dev Biol. 1999;209:143-58 pubmed
    ..of gene expression markers of lateral sclerotome (tenascin-C and scleraxis) and myotome (myogenin, MyoD, and Myf5)...
  41. Wang J, Kumar R, Biggs V, Lee H, Chen Y, Kagey M, et al. The Msx1 Homeoprotein Recruits Polycomb to the Nuclear Periphery during Development. Dev Cell. 2011;21:575-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings illustrate a hitherto unappreciated spatial coordination of transcription factors with the Polycomb complex for appropriate regulation of gene expression programs during development. ..
  42. Summerbell D, Halai C, Rigby P. Expression of the myogenic regulatory factor Mrf4 precedes or is contemporaneous with that of Myf5 in the somitic bud. Mech Dev. 2002;117:331-5 pubmed
    ..In the somites of the mouse embryo the order of expression is thought to be Myf5, Myogenin, Mrf4 and MyoD...
  43. Kelly R, Jerome Majewska L, Papaioannou V. The del22q11.2 candidate gene Tbx1 regulates branchiomeric myogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:2829-40 pubmed
    ..In the absence of Tbx1, the myogenic determination genes Myf5 and MyoD fail to be normally activated in pharyngeal mesoderm...
  44. Kablar B, Belliveau A. Presence of neurotrophic factors in skeletal muscle correlates with survival of spinal cord motor neurons. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:659-69 pubmed
    ..may be important for the survival of specific subpopulations of developing spinal cord motor neurons, we used Myf5 and MyoD (myogenic regulatory factors) knockouts, containing differentially committed myogenic precursor cells (..
  45. Bajanca F, Luz M, Raymond K, Martins G, Sonnenberg A, Tajbakhsh S, et al. Integrin alpha6beta1-laminin interactions regulate early myotome formation in the mouse embryo. Development. 2006;133:1635-44 pubmed
    ..Assembly of the myotomal laminin matrix occurs as epaxial myogenic precursor cells enter the myotome. Most Myf5-positive and myogenin-negative myogenic precursor cells localise near assembled laminin, while myogenin-expressing ..
  46. Rawls A, Valdez M, Zhang W, Richardson J, Klein W, Olson E. Overlapping functions of the myogenic bHLH genes MRF4 and MyoD revealed in double mutant mice. Development. 1998;125:2349-58 pubmed
    The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes - MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and MRF4 - exhibit distinct, but overlapping expression patterns during development of the skeletal muscle lineage and loss-of-function mutations in these genes ..
  47. Seale P, Bjork B, Yang W, Kajimura S, Chin S, Kuang S, et al. PRDM16 controls a brown fat/skeletal muscle switch. Nature. 2008;454:961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show by in vivo fate mapping that brown, but not white, fat cells arise from precursors that express Myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage...
  48. Lagha M, Kormish J, Rocancourt D, Manceau M, Epstein J, Zaret K, et al. Pax3 regulation of FGF signaling affects the progression of embryonic progenitor cells into the myogenic program. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insight into the Pax-initiated regulatory network that modulates stem cell maintenance versus tissue differentiation. ..
  49. Ribas R, Moncaut N, Siligan C, Taylor K, Cross J, Rigby P, et al. Members of the TEAD family of transcription factors regulate the expression of Myf5 in ventral somitic compartments. Dev Biol. 2011;355:372-80 pubmed publisher
    The transcriptional regulation of the Mrf4/Myf5 locus depends on a multitude of enhancers that, in equilibria with transcription balancing sequences and the promoters, regulate the expression of the two genes throughout embryonic ..
  50. Grifone R, Demignon J, Giordani J, Niro C, Souil E, Bertin F, et al. Eya1 and Eya2 proteins are required for hypaxial somitic myogenesis in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2007;302:602-16 pubmed
    ..These results establish a new hierarchy of genes controlling early steps of hypaxial myogenic commitment in the mouse embryo. ..
  51. Sambasivan R, Gayraud Morel B, Dumas G, Cimper C, Paisant S, Kelly R, et al. Distinct regulatory cascades govern extraocular and pharyngeal arch muscle progenitor cell fates. Dev Cell. 2009;16:810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that either Myf5 or Mrf4 is necessary for initiating extraocular myogenesis...
  52. Patapoutian A, Yoon J, Miner J, Wang S, Stark K, Wold B. Disruption of the mouse MRF4 gene identifies multiple waves of myogenesis in the myotome. Development. 1995;121:3347-58 pubmed
    ..Finally, a later and relatively mild phenotype was detected in intercostal muscles of newborn animals. ..
  53. Beylkin D, Allen D, Leinwand L. MyoD, Myf5, and the calcineurin pathway activate the developmental myosin heavy chain genes. Dev Biol. 2006;294:541-53 pubmed
    ..Some common features are shared between the promoters of these two genes; however, the mechanisms of their regulation appear distinct. ..