Gene Symbol: Myd88
Description: myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88
Alias: myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88
Species: mouse
Products:     Myd88

Top Publications

  1. Altemeier W, Liles W, Villagra Garcia A, Matute Bello G, Glenny R. Ischemia-reperfusion lung injury is attenuated in MyD88-deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77123 pubmed publisher
    ..Because all known TLRs, with the exception of TLR3, signal via the MyD88 adapter protein, we hypothesized that lung ischemia-reperfusion injury was mediated by MyD88-dependent signaling...
  2. Lamagna C, Scapini P, Van Ziffle J, DeFranco A, Lowell C. Hyperactivated MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells, through specific deletion of Lyn kinase, causes severe autoimmunity and inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..pathways in DCs contributed to the inflammatory/autoimmune phenotype, we crossed the lyn(f/f) Cd11c-cre(+) mice to myd88(f/f) animals, generating double-mutant mice lacking both Lyn and the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation ..
  3. Madeira M, Queiroz Junior C, Cisalpino D, Werneck S, Kikuchi H, Fujise O, et al. MyD88 is essential for alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide in mice. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2013;28:415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) -dependent and -independent pathways, which may involve the adaptor Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-domain-containing ..
  4. Xie G, Welte T, Wang J, Whiteman M, Wicker J, Saxena V, et al. A West Nile virus NS4B-P38G mutant strain induces adaptive immunity via TLR7-MyD88-dependent and independent signaling pathways. Vaccine. 2013;31:4143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated NS4B-P38G mutant infection in myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) and Toll-like receptor 7-deficient (TLR7(-/-)) mice and found they had enhanced susceptibility compared to ..
  5. Teichmann L, Schenten D, Medzhitov R, Kashgarian M, Shlomchik M. Signals via the adaptor MyD88 in B cells and DCs make distinct and synergistic contributions to immune activation and tissue damage in lupus. Immunity. 2013;38:528-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Fas(lpr) mice entirely depends on the TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 in B cells...
  6. Bauer C, Kielian T, Wyatt T, Romberger D, West W, Gleason A, et al. Myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent signaling is critical for acute organic dust-induced airway inflammation in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;48:781-9 pubmed publisher
    ..airway inflammation, this study targeted the common adaptor protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and investigated the relative contributions of receptors upstream from this adaptor...
  7. Chiu I, Heesters B, Ghasemlou N, von Hehn C, Zhao F, Tran J, et al. Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation. Nature. 2013;501:52-7 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that bacteria directly activate nociceptors, and that the immune response mediated through TLR2, MyD88, T cells, B cells, and neutrophils and monocytes is not necessary for Staphylococcus aureus-induced pain in mice...
  8. Downes C, Wong C, Henley K, Guio Aguilar P, Zhang M, Ates R, et al. MyD88 is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell-mediated neuroprotection seen after stroke. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57948 pubmed publisher
    ..of TLR signalling, this study investigated the role of the TLR adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in the control of CNS and peripheral inflammation...
  9. Meier A, Alter G, Frahm N, Sidhu H, Li B, Bagchi A, et al. MyD88-dependent immune activation mediated by human immunodeficiency virus type 1-encoded Toll-like receptor ligands. J Virol. 2007;81:8180-91 pubmed
    ..RNA of HIV-1 encodes multiple uridine-rich Toll-like receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) ligands that induce strong MyD88-dependent plasmacytoid dendritic cell and monocyte activation, as well as accessory cell-dependent T-cell ..

More Information


  1. Slack E, Robinson M, Hernanz Falcón P, Brown G, Williams D, Schweighoffer E, et al. Syk-dependent ERK activation regulates IL-2 and IL-10 production by DC stimulated with zymosan. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1600-12 pubmed
    ..dendritic cells (DC) and engages multiple innate receptors, including the Syk-coupled receptor dectin-1 and the MyD88-coupled receptor TLR2...
  2. Slack E, Hapfelmeier S, Stecher B, Velykoredko Y, Stoel M, Lawson M, et al. Innate and adaptive immunity cooperate flexibly to maintain host-microbiota mutualism. Science. 2009;325:617-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Spontaneous hyper-activation of adaptive immunity against the intestinal microbiota, secondary to innate immune deficiency, may clarify the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory diseases where immune dysfunction is implicated. ..
  3. Massacand J, Stettler R, Meier R, Humphreys N, Grencis R, Marsland B, et al. Helminth products bypass the need for TSLP in Th2 immune responses by directly modulating dendritic cell function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13968-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show that the primary function of TSLP is to directly suppress IL-12 secretion, thus supporting Th2 immune responses...
  4. Hammer G, Turer E, Taylor K, Fang C, Advincula R, Oshima S, et al. Expression of A20 by dendritic cells preserves immune homeostasis and prevents colitis and spondyloarthritis. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:1184-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of DC-specific epistasis in compound mice lacking both A20 and the signaling adaptor MyD88 specifically in DCs showed that A20 restricted both MyD88-independent signals, which drive activation of DCs and T ..
  5. He S, Liang Y, Shao F, Wang X. Toll-like receptors activate programmed necrosis in macrophages through a receptor-interacting kinase-3-mediated pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20054-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that there are multiple upstream necrosis-initiating signaling pathways converging on the RIP3 during an innate immune response to viral and bacterial infections in mammals. ..
  6. Weiss D, Raupach B, Takeda K, Akira S, Zychlinsky A. Toll-like receptors are temporally involved in host defense. J Immunol. 2004;172:4463-9 pubmed
    ..We propose a model where the sequential activation of TLRs tailors the immune response to different microbes. ..
  7. Liu X, Zhan Z, Li D, Xu L, Ma F, Zhang P, et al. Intracellular MHC class II molecules promote TLR-triggered innate immune responses by maintaining activation of the kinase Btk. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Then, Btk interacted with the adaptor molecules MyD88 and TRIF and thereby promoted TLR signaling...
  8. Davis C, Mann E, Behrens M, Gaidarova S, Rebek M, Rebek J, et al. MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling by IL-1 in neurons probed by bifunctional Toll/IL-1 receptor domain/BB-loop mimetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2953-8 pubmed
    ..depend on the recruitment of the cytosolic adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) to the IL-1RI/IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) complex through homomeric Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR)-TIR ..
  9. Revaz Breton M, Ronet C, Ives A, Torre Y, Masina S, Tacchini Cottier F, et al. The MyD88 protein 88 pathway is differently involved in immune responses induced by distinct substrains of Leishmania major. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..The TLR adaptator myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) has been implicated in the Th1 immune response associated with the resistant phenotype observed in C57BL/6 mice ..
  10. Cai S, Batra S, Shen L, Wakamatsu N, Jeyaseelan S. Both TRIF- and MyD88-dependent signaling contribute to host defense against pulmonary Klebsiella infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:6629-38 pubmed publisher
    Klebsiella pneumoniae causes extensive lung damage. TLR signaling involves adaptors TRIF and MyD88. However, the relative contribution of TRIF and MyD88 signaling in host defense against pulmonary K...
  11. Scanga C, Bafica A, Feng C, Cheever A, Hieny S, Sher A. MyD88-deficient mice display a profound loss in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with partially impaired Th1 cytokine and nitric oxide synthase 2 expression. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2400-4 pubmed
    ..b>MyD88(-/-) mice were used to examine whether TLRs play any role in protection against aerogenic M...
  12. Zhang X, Shan P, Jiang G, Cohn L, Lee P. Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency causes pulmonary emphysema. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:3050-9 pubmed
    ..Our data identify a role for TLR4 in maintaining constitutive lung integrity by modulating oxidant generation and provide insights into the development of emphysema. ..
  13. Phipps S, Lam C, Kaiko G, Foo S, Collison A, Mattes J, et al. Toll/IL-1 signaling is critical for house dust mite-specific helper T cell type 2 and type 17 [corrected] responses. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:883-93 pubmed publisher
  14. Archer K, Alexopoulou L, Flavell R, Roy C. Multiple MyD88-dependent responses contribute to pulmonary clearance of Legionella pneumophila. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:21-36 pubmed publisher
    b>MyD88-dependent signalling is important for secretion of early inflammatory cytokines and host protection in response to Legionella pneumophila infection. Although toll-like receptor (TLR)2 contributes to MyD88-dependent clearance of L...
  15. Janssens S, Burns K, Tschopp J, Beyaert R. Regulation of interleukin-1- and lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB activation by alternative splicing of MyD88. Curr Biol. 2002;12:467-71 pubmed
    b>MyD88 is an adaptor protein that is involved in interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)- and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced activation of NF-kappaB...
  16. Tian J, Avalos A, Mao S, Chen B, Senthil K, Wu H, et al. Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation by DNA-containing immune complexes is mediated by HMGB1 and RAGE. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:487-96 pubmed
    ..was an essential component of DNA-containing immune complexes that stimulated cytokine production through a TLR9-MyD88 pathway involving the multivalent receptor RAGE...
  17. Gais P, Reim D, Jusek G, Rossmann Bloeck T, Weighardt H, Pfeffer K, et al. Cutting edge: Divergent cell-specific functions of MyD88 for inflammatory responses and organ injury in septic peritonitis. J Immunol. 2012;188:5833-7 pubmed publisher
    Although global MyD88 deficiency attenuates lethal inflammation in sepsis, cell-specific functions of MyD88 remain largely unknown...
  18. Hacker H, Redecke V, Blagoev B, Kratchmarova I, Hsu L, Wang G, et al. Specificity in Toll-like receptor signalling through distinct effector functions of TRAF3 and TRAF6. Nature. 2006;439:204-7 pubmed
    ..Using MyD88 as a prototypical adaptor, we identified TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) as a new component of TIR ..
  19. Yang Q, Li J, Lu F, Wen A, Xiang J, Zhang L, et al. Upregulated expression of toll-like receptor 4 in monocytes correlates with severity of acute cerebral infarction. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:1588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of TLR4 and MyD88 by PBMs was determined by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and nuclear factor-..
  20. Debus A, Gläsner J, Rollinghoff M, Gessner A. High levels of susceptibility and T helper 2 response in MyD88-deficient mice infected with Leishmania major are interleukin-4 dependent. Infect Immun. 2003;71:7215-8 pubmed
    Myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) is a general adaptor for the signaling cascade through receptors of the Toll/IL-1R family...
  21. Li Y, Si R, Feng Y, Chen H, Zou L, Wang E, et al. Myocardial ischemia activates an injurious innate immune signaling via cardiac heat shock protein 60 and Toll-like receptor 4. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:31308-19 pubmed publisher
    ..IRAK-1 activation within 30 min in wild-type (WT), TLR2(-/-), or Trif(-/-) mice, but not in TLR4(def) or MyD88(-/-) mice...
  22. Sun Y, Karmakar M, Roy S, Ramadan R, Williams S, Howell S, et al. TLR4 and TLR5 on corneal macrophages regulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis by signaling through MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. J Immunol. 2010;185:4272-83 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? (TRIF)-dependent phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 in addition to TIR-containing adaptor protein/MyD88-dependent phosphorylation of I?B and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF?B...
  23. Zhang X, Majlessi L, Deriaud E, Leclerc C, Lo Man R. Coactivation of Syk kinase and MyD88 adaptor protein pathways by bacteria promotes regulatory properties of neutrophils. Immunity. 2009;31:761-71 pubmed publisher
    ..however, they secreted high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in a DAP12 adaptor-Syk kinase and MyD88 adaptor-dependent manner...
  24. Rodriguez N, Wantia N, Fend F, Dürr S, Wagner H, Miethke T. Differential involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in host survival during pulmonary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:1145-55 pubmed
    ..All TLR2(-/-) x TLR4(d/d) mice succumbed to the infection, while about 50% of TLR2(-/-) mice died. Taken together, the function of TLR2 and TLR4 is required to survive pulmonary infection with C. pneumoniae. ..
  25. Gandhapudi S, Chilton P, Mitchell T. TRIF is required for TLR4 mediated adjuvant effects on T cell clonal expansion. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56855 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of TLR4 by its ligands is mediated by engagement of the adapter proteins MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88) and TRIF (Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing ..
  26. Sutmuller R, den Brok M, Kramer M, Bennink E, Toonen L, Kullberg B, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 controls expansion and function of regulatory T cells. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:485-94 pubmed
    ..we report that the TLR2 ligand Pam3Cys, but not LPS (TLR4) or CpG (TLR9), directly acts on purified Tregs in a MyD88-dependent fashion...
  27. Didierlaurent A, Brissoni B, Velin D, Aebi N, Tardivel A, Käslin E, et al. Tollip regulates proinflammatory responses to interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:735-42 pubmed
    ..Tollip therefore controls the magnitude of inflammatory cytokine production in response to IL-1beta and LPS. ..
  28. Prinz M, Garbe F, Schmidt H, Mildner A, Gutcher I, Wolter K, et al. Innate immunity mediated by TLR9 modulates pathogenicity in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:456-64 pubmed
    ..during sterile autoimmunity, we studied the role of different TLRs as well as their common signaling adaptor MyD88 in the development of EAE. We found that MyD88 mice were completely EAE resistant...
  29. O Connell R, Saha S, Vaidya S, Bruhn K, Miranda G, Zarnegar B, et al. Type I interferon production enhances susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Exp Med. 2004;200:437-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results highlight the disparate roles of type I IFNs during bacterial versus viral infections and stress the importance of proper IFN modulation in host defense. ..
  30. Ehses J, Lacraz G, Giroix M, Schmidlin F, Coulaud J, Kassis N, et al. IL-1 antagonism reduces hyperglycemia and tissue inflammation in the type 2 diabetic GK rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13998-4003 pubmed publisher
    ..Islets from mice deficient in IL-1beta or MyD88 challenged with glucose and palmitate in vitro also produced significantly less IL-6 and chemokines...
  31. Seki E, Tsutsui H, Iimuro Y, Naka T, Son G, Akira S, et al. Contribution of Toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling to murine liver regeneration. Hepatology. 2005;41:443-50 pubmed
    ..When the receptors are activated, cells bearing TLRs produce various proinflammatory cytokines in a MyD88-dependent manner...
  32. Sun D, Ding A. MyD88-mediated stabilization of interferon-gamma-induced cytokine and chemokine mRNA. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:375-81 pubmed
    The MyD88 adaptor protein is critical in Toll-like receptor and interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling, but has not been linked to interferon-gamma receptor (IFN-gammaR) signaling...
  33. Wang P, Hou J, Lin L, Wang C, Liu X, Li D, et al. Inducible microRNA-155 feedback promotes type I IFN signaling in antiviral innate immunity by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 1. J Immunol. 2010;185:6226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we show that RNA virus infection induces miR-155 expression in macrophages via TLR/MyD88-independent but retinoic acid-inducible gene I/JNK/NF-?B-dependent pathway...
  34. Gorina R, Font Nieves M, Márquez Kisinousky L, Santalucia T, Planas A. Astrocyte TLR4 activation induces a proinflammatory environment through the interplay between MyD88-dependent NF?B signaling, MAPK, and Jak1/Stat1 pathways. Glia. 2011;59:242-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Tools used to interfere with this system include small interference RNA, inhibitory drugs, and MyD88 or Stat1 deficient mice...
  35. Drouin Ouellet J, Gibrat C, Bousquet M, Calon F, Kriz J, Cicchetti F. The role of the MYD88-dependent pathway in MPTP-induced brain dopaminergic degeneration. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:137 pubmed publisher
    ..These include tumor necrosis factor, prostaglandins and oxidative-related stress components. However, the role of innate immunity has not been established in PD...
  36. Lombardo E, Alvarez Barrientos A, Maroto B, Bosca L, Knaus U. TLR4-mediated survival of macrophages is MyD88 dependent and requires TNF-alpha autocrine signalling. J Immunol. 2007;178:3731-9 pubmed
    ..inhibitors allowed us to show that TLR4 and TLR2 stimulation promotes long-term survival of macrophages in a MyD88-, PI3K-, ERK-, and NF-kappaB-dependent manner...
  37. Wen L, Ley R, Volchkov P, Stranges P, Avanesyan L, Stonebraker A, et al. Innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in the development of Type 1 diabetes. Nature. 2008;455:1109-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that specific pathogen-free NOD mice lacking MyD88 protein (an adaptor for multiple innate immune receptors that recognize microbial stimuli) do not develop T1D...
  38. Loof T, Goldmann O, Medina E. Immune recognition of Streptococcus pyogenes by dendritic cells. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2785-92 pubmed publisher
    ..pyogenes, we evaluated the response of bone marrow-derived DCs obtained from mice deficient in MyD88, an adapter molecule used by almost all TLRs, following S. pyogenes stimulation...
  39. Ubeda C, Lipuma L, Gobourne A, Viale A, Leiner I, Equinda M, et al. Familial transmission rather than defective innate immunity shapes the distinct intestinal microbiota of TLR-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1445-56 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA sequencing to characterize the complex bacterial populations inhabiting the ileum and cecum of TLR- and MyD88-deficient mice...
  40. De Trez C, Pajak B, Brait M, Glaichenhaus N, Urbain J, Moser M, et al. TLR4 and Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta, but not MyD88, regulate Escherichia coli-induced dendritic cell maturation and apoptosis in vivo. J Immunol. 2005;175:839-46 pubmed
    ..coli. Together, these results suggest that E. coli bacteremia directly impacts on DC maturation and survival in vivo through a TLR4-TRIF-dependent signaling pathway. ..
  41. Ruckdeschel K, Pfaffinger G, Haase R, Sing A, Weighardt H, Hacker G, et al. Signaling of apoptosis through TLRs critically involves toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta, but not MyD88, in bacteria-infected murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2004;173:3320-8 pubmed
    ..Experiments using murine macrophages defective for MyD88 or Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) revealed that deficiency of TRIF, but not of ..
  42. Yauch L, Mansour M, Shoham S, Rottman J, Levitz S. Involvement of CD14, toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and MyD88 in the host response to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in vivo. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5373-82 pubmed
    ..In these studies, mice deficient in CD14, TLR2, TLR4, and the TLR-associated adaptor protein, MyD88, were utilized to investigate the contribution of TLRs and CD14 to in vivo host defenses against C. neoformans...
  43. Tezuka H, Abe Y, Iwata M, Takeuchi H, Ishikawa H, Matsushita M, et al. Regulation of IgA production by naturally occurring TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells. Nature. 2007;448:929-33 pubmed
    ..The presence of a naturally occurring TNF-alpha/iNOS-producing dendritic-cell subset may explain the predominance of IgA production in the MALT, critical for gut homeostasis. ..
  44. Hardiman G, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Garcia D, Naylor S, et al. Genetic structure and chromosomal mapping of MyD88. Genomics. 1997;45:332-9 pubmed
    The myeloid differentiation (MyD) marker MyD88 was initially characterized as a primary response gene, upregulated in mouse M1 myeloleukemic cells in response to differentiation induced by interleukin-6...
  45. Bugl S, Wirths S, Radsak M, Schild H, Stein P, André M, et al. Steady-state neutrophil homeostasis is dependent on TLR4/TRIF signaling. Blood. 2013;121:723-33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in vivo feedback is impaired in TLR4-/- and TRIF-/-, but not MyD88-/- animals...
  46. Megías J, Yáñez A, Moriano S, O Connor J, Gozalbo D, Gil M. Direct Toll-like receptor-mediated stimulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells occurs in vivo and promotes differentiation toward macrophages. Stem Cells. 2012;30:1486-95 pubmed publisher
    ..c-Kit(+) Sca-1(+) IL-7R?(-) [LKS] cells) toward macrophages (Mph), through a myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent pathway...
  47. Gong J, Xu J, Zhu W, Gao X, Li N, Li J. Epithelial-specific blockade of MyD88-dependent pathway causes spontaneous small intestinal inflammation. Clin Immunol. 2010;136:245-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that MyD88 dependent TLR signaling at intestinal epithelium is critical for mucosal immune homeostasis...
  48. Netea M, Joosten L, Lewis E, Jensen D, Voshol P, Kullberg B, et al. Deficiency of interleukin-18 in mice leads to hyperphagia, obesity and insulin resistance. Nat Med. 2006;12:650-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, rIL-18 reversed hyperglycemia in Il18-/- mice through activation of STAT3 phosphorylation. These findings indicate a new role of IL-18 in the homeostasis of energy intake and insulin sensitivity. ..
  49. Pichlmair A, Schulz O, Tan C, Näslund T, Liljestrom P, Weber F, et al. RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5'-phosphates. Science. 2006;314:997-1001 pubmed
  50. Santos Sierra S, Deshmukh S, Kalnitski J, Küenzi P, Wymann M, Golenbock D, et al. Mal connects TLR2 to PI3Kinase activation and phagocyte polarization. EMBO J. 2009;28:2018-27 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR2-dependent signalling is currently believed to essentially require both adaptor proteins MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) and Mal/TIRAP (MyD88-adapter-like/TIR-domain-containing adaptor ..
  51. Mancuso G, Gambuzza M, Midiri A, Biondo C, Papasergi S, Akira S, et al. Bacterial recognition by TLR7 in the lysosomes of conventional dendritic cells. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:587-94 pubmed publisher
    ..induced interferon in conventional dendritic cells by a mechanism that required Toll-like receptor 7, the adaptor MyD88 and the transcription factor IRF1, all of which localized together with bacterial products in degradative vacuoles ..
  52. Kumar H, Kawai T, Akira S. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response. Biochem J. 2009;420:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways. ..
  53. Kagan J, Su T, Horng T, Chow A, Akira S, Medzhitov R. TRAM couples endocytosis of Toll-like receptor 4 to the induction of interferon-beta. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:361-8 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces two distinct signaling pathways controlled by the TIRAP-MyD88 and TRAM-TRIF pairs of adaptor proteins, which elicit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons, respectively...