Gene Symbol: Myc
Description: myelocytomatosis oncogene
Alias: AU016757, Myc2, Niard, Nird, bHLHe39, myc proto-oncogene protein, c-myc proto-oncogene, transcription factor p64
Species: mouse
Products:     Myc

Top Publications

  1. Kopecky B, Jahan I, Fritzsch B. Correct timing of proliferation and differentiation is necessary for normal inner ear development and auditory hair cell viability. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:132-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Pax2-Cre N-Myc conditional knockout (CKO) mice highlighted the need of N-Myc for proper neurosensory development and possible ..
  2. Robbiani D, Bothmer A, Callen E, Reina San Martin B, Dorsett Y, Difilippantonio S, et al. AID is required for the chromosomal breaks in c-myc that lead to c-myc/IgH translocations. Cell. 2008;135:1028-38 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most well characterized oncogenic translocations juxtaposes c-myc and the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus (IgH) and is found in Burkitt's lymphomas in humans and plasmacytomas in ..
  3. Wang J, Gostissa M, Yan C, Goff P, Hickernell T, Hansen E, et al. Mechanisms promoting translocations in editing and switching peripheral B cells. Nature. 2009;460:231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..either V(D)J recombination or CSR can initiate chromosomal translocations, including oncogenic IgH locus (Igh) to c-myc (also known as Myc) translocations of peripheral B cell lymphomas...
  4. Smith K, Singh A, Dalton S. Myc represses primitive endoderm differentiation in pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:343-54 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myc has previously been shown to be critical for murine embryonic stem cell (mESC) maintenance, while also enhancing ..
  5. Cole A, Myant K, Reed K, Ridgway R, Athineos D, van den Brink G, et al. Cyclin D2-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 is required for efficient proliferation and tumorigenesis following Apc loss. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of β-catenin/T-cell factor 4 signaling and hence transcription of Wnt target genes such as c-Myc. Our and other previous studies have shown that although cyclin D1 is required for adenoma formation, it is not ..
  6. Kim J, Eltoum I, Roh M, Wang J, Abdulkadir S. Interactions between cells with distinct mutations in c-MYC and Pten in prostate cancer. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000542 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have modeled sporadic oncogene activation using a transgenic mouse in which c-MYC is focally activated in prostate luminal epithelial cells...
  7. Harper J, Mould A, Andrews R, Bikoff E, Robertson E. The transcriptional repressor Blimp1/Prdm1 regulates postnatal reprogramming of intestinal enterocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10585-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, those required for processing maternal milk were markedly reduced. Thus, we conclude Blimp1 governs the developmental switch responsible for postnatal intestinal maturation. ..
  8. Bechard M, Dalton S. Subcellular localization of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta controls embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2092-104 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT1), and c-myc have well-established roles in promoting the maintenance of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
  9. Nahar R, Ramezani Rad P, Mossner M, Duy C, Cerchietti L, Geng H, et al. Pre-B cell receptor-mediated activation of BCL6 induces pre-B cell quiescence through transcriptional repression of MYC. Blood. 2011;118:4174-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Inducible activation of BCL6 downstream of the pre-B cell receptor results in transcriptional repression of MYC and CCND2...

More Information


  1. Jones L, Wei G, Sevcikova S, Phan V, Jain S, Shieh A, et al. Gain of MYC underlies recurrent trisomy of the MYC chromosome in acute promyelocytic leukemia. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2581-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been hypothesized that gain of the MYC protooncogene is of central importance in trisomy 8, but the experimental data to support this are limited and ..
  2. Couillard M, Trudel M. C-myc as a modulator of renal stem/progenitor cell population. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:405-14 pubmed publisher
    The role of c-myc has been well-studied in gene regulation and oncogenesis but remains elusive in murine development from midgestation...
  3. Kopecky B, Santi P, Johnson S, Schmitz H, Fritzsch B. Conditional deletion of N-Myc disrupts neurosensory and non-sensory development of the ear. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1373-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The proto-oncogene N-Myc is a member of the Myc family that regulates proliferation...
  4. Laurenti E, Varnum Finney B, Wilson A, Ferrero I, Blanco Bose W, Ehninger A, et al. Hematopoietic stem cell function and survival depend on c-Myc and N-Myc activity. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;3:611-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Myc activity is emerging as a key element in acquisition and maintenance of stem cell properties...
  5. Vallespinós M, Fernandez D, Rodriguez L, Alvaro Blanco J, Baena E, Ortiz M, et al. B Lymphocyte commitment program is driven by the proto-oncogene c-Myc. J Immunol. 2011;186:6726-36 pubmed publisher
    c-Myc, a member of the Myc family of transcription factors, is involved in numerous biological functions including the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cell types...
  6. Lorenz A, Deutschmann M, Ahlfeld J, Prix C, Koch A, Smits R, et al. Severe alterations of cerebellar cortical development after constitutive activation of Wnt signaling in granule neuron precursors. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3326-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we conclude that cerebellar granule neurons essentially require appropriate levels of Wnt signaling to balance their proliferation and differentiation. ..
  7. Nie Z, Hu G, Wei G, Cui K, Yamane A, Resch W, et al. c-Myc is a universal amplifier of expressed genes in lymphocytes and embryonic stem cells. Cell. 2012;151:68-79 pubmed publisher
    The c-Myc HLH-bZIP protein has been implicated in physiological or pathological growth, proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and differentiation at the cellular, tissue, or organismal levels via regulation of numerous target genes...
  8. Duy C, Yu J, Nahar R, Swaminathan S, Kweon S, Polo J, et al. BCL6 is critical for the development of a diverse primary B cell repertoire. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that negative regulation of Arf by BCL6 is required for pre-B cell self-renewal and the formation of a diverse polyclonal B cell repertoire. ..
  9. Uslu V, Petretich M, Ruf S, Langenfeld K, Fonseca N, Marioni J, et al. Long-range enhancers regulating Myc expression are required for normal facial morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 2014;46:753-8 pubmed publisher
    ..over the syntenic mouse region, we show that this interval contains very remote cis-acting enhancers that control Myc expression in the developing face...
  10. Young R, Polsky A, Refaeli Y. TC-PTP is required for the maintenance of MYC-driven B-cell lymphomas. Blood. 2009;114:5016-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that TC-PTP may be a tumor-promoting gene that is regulated by MYC overexpression in B cells...
  11. Pello O, De Pizzol M, Mirolo M, Soucek L, Zammataro L, Amabile A, et al. Role of c-MYC in alternative activation of human macrophages and tumor-associated macrophage biology. Blood. 2012;119:411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we report that alternative polarization of macrophages requires the transcription factor c-MYC. In macrophages, IL-4 and different stimuli sustaining M2-like polarization induce c-MYC expression and its ..
  12. Moumen M, Chiche A, Deugnier M, Petit V, Gandarillas A, Glukhova M, et al. The proto-oncogene Myc is essential for mammary stem cell function. Stem Cells. 2012;30:1246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammary BCs and luminal progenitors express high levels of the transcription factor Myc. Here, we show that deletion of Myc from mammary basal epithelial cells led to impaired stem cell self-renewal as ..
  13. Burns J, Yoo J, Atala A, Jackson J. MYC gene delivery to adult mouse utricles stimulates proliferation of postmitotic supporting cells in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48704 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient expression of the induced pluripotency transcription factors, Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc reprograms fibroblasts into neural progenitors under neural-promoting culture conditions, so as a first step, we ..
  14. Koh C, Gurel B, Sutcliffe S, Aryee M, Schultz D, Iwata T, et al. Alterations in nucleolar structure and gene expression programs in prostatic neoplasia are driven by the MYC oncogene. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We verify that activation of the MYC oncogene, which is overexpressed in most human PIN and prostatic adenocarcinomas, leads to formation of enlarged ..
  15. Sodir N, Swigart L, Karnezis A, Hanahan D, Evan G, Soucek L. Endogenous Myc maintains the tumor microenvironment. Genes Dev. 2011;25:907-16 pubmed publisher
    The ubiquitous deregulation of Myc in human cancers makes it an intriguing therapeutic target, a notion supported by recent studies in Ras-driven lung tumors showing that inhibiting endogenous Myc triggers ubiquitous tumor regression...
  16. Kapeli K, Hurlin P. Differential regulation of N-Myc and c-Myc synthesis, degradation, and transcriptional activity by the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38498-508 pubmed publisher
    b>Myc transcription factors are important regulators of proliferation and can promote oncogenesis when deregulated...
  17. Wang R, Dillon C, Shi L, Milasta S, Carter R, Finkelstein D, et al. The transcription factor Myc controls metabolic reprogramming upon T lymphocyte activation. Immunity. 2011;35:871-82 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription factors potentially responsible for the activation-induced T cell metabolic transcriptome, HIF1? and Myc, were induced upon T cell activation, but only the acute deletion of Myc markedly inhibited activation-induced ..
  18. Rahl P, Lin C, Seila A, Flynn R, McCuine S, Burge C, et al. c-Myc regulates transcriptional pause release. Cell. 2010;141:432-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, we find that the transcription factor c-Myc, a key regulator of cellular proliferation, plays a major role in Pol II pause release rather than Pol II ..
  19. Bonal C, Thorel F, Ait Lounis A, Reith W, Trumpp A, Herrera P. Pancreatic inactivation of c-Myc decreases acinar mass and transdifferentiates acinar cells into adipocytes in mice. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:309-319.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor c-Myc is one of the main regulators of these processes in many organs...
  20. Kidder B, Yang J, Palmer S. Stat3 and c-Myc genome-wide promoter occupancy in embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3932 pubmed publisher
    ..Stat3 and c-Myc TFs are essential for maintaining mouse ES cell self-renewal...
  21. Athineos D, Sansom O. Myc heterozygosity attenuates the phenotypes of APC deficiency in the small intestine. Oncogene. 2010;29:2585-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that the proto-oncogene c-Myc is essential for all the phenotypes that occur after APC loss in the murine small intestine...
  22. Iwata T, Schultz D, Hicks J, Hubbard G, Mutton L, Lotan T, et al. MYC overexpression induces prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and loss of Nkx3.1 in mouse luminal epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9427 pubmed publisher
    Lo-MYC and Hi-MYC mice develop prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma as a result of MYC overexpression in the mouse prostate...
  23. Varlakhanova N, Cotterman R, Devries W, Morgan J, Donahue L, Murray S, et al. myc maintains embryonic stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal. Differentiation. 2010;80:9-19 pubmed publisher
    While endogenous Myc (c-myc) and Mycn (N-myc) have been reported to be separately dispensable for murine embryonic stem cell (mESC) function, myc greatly enhances induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell formation and overexpressed c-myc ..
  24. Calado D, Sasaki Y, Godinho S, Pellerin A, Köchert K, Sleckman B, et al. The cell-cycle regulator c-Myc is essential for the formation and maintenance of germinal centers. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:1092-100 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of c-Myc, a key cell-cycle regulator, in this process has been questioned...
  25. Wang J, Wang H, Li Z, Wu Q, Lathia J, McLendon R, et al. c-Myc is required for maintenance of glioma cancer stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3769 pubmed publisher
    ..As the c-Myc oncoprotein has recognized roles in normal stem cell biology, we hypothesized that c-Myc may contribute to cancer ..
  26. Zheng H, Ying H, Yan H, Kimmelman A, Hiller D, Chen A, et al. Pten and p53 converge on c-Myc to control differentiation, self-renewal, and transformation of normal and neoplastic stem cells in glioblastoma. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2008;73:427-37 pubmed publisher
    ..stem cells (NSCs), which revealed that dual, but not singular, inactivation of p53 and Pten promotes cellular c-Myc activation...
  27. Murphy D, Junttila M, Pouyet L, Karnezis A, Shchors K, Bui D, et al. Distinct thresholds govern Myc's biological output in vivo. Cancer Cell. 2008;14:447-57 pubmed publisher
    Deregulated Myc triggers a variety of intrinsic tumor suppressor programs that serve to restrain Myc's oncogenic potential...
  28. Cannell I, Kong Y, Johnston S, Chen M, Collins H, Dobbyn H, et al. p38 MAPK/MK2-mediated induction of miR-34c following DNA damage prevents Myc-dependent DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5375-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Inappropriate expression of the proto-oncogene c-Myc is known to cause DNA damage...
  29. Nepal R, Tong L, Kolaj B, Edelmann W, Martin A. Msh2-dependent DNA repair mitigates a unique susceptibility of B cell progenitors to c-Myc-induced lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18698-703 pubmed publisher
    C-Myc is one of the most common targets of genetic alterations in human cancers. Although overexpression of c-Myc in the B cell compartment predisposes to lymphomas, secondary mutations are required for disease manifestation...
  30. Conacci Sorrell M, Ngouenet C, Eisenman R. Myc-nick: a cytoplasmic cleavage product of Myc that promotes alpha-tubulin acetylation and cell differentiation. Cell. 2010;142:480-93 pubmed publisher
    The Myc oncoprotein family comprises transcription factors that control multiple cellular functions and are widely involved in oncogenesis...
  31. Barna M, Pusic A, Zollo O, Costa M, Kondrashov N, Rego E, et al. Suppression of Myc oncogenic activity by ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency. Nature. 2008;456:971-5 pubmed publisher
    The Myc oncogene regulates the expression of several components of the protein synthetic machinery, including ribosomal proteins, initiation factors of translation, RNA polymerase III and ribosomal DNA...
  32. Jensen K, Collins C, Nascimento E, Tan D, Frye M, Itami S, et al. Lrig1 expression defines a distinct multipotent stem cell population in mammalian epidermis. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:427-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Lrig1 is a Myc target gene; loss of Lrig1 increases the proliferative capacity of stem cells in culture and results in epidermal ..
  33. Nascimento E, Cox C, MacArthur S, Hussain S, Trotter M, Blanco S, et al. The opposing transcriptional functions of Sin3a and c-Myc are required to maintain tissue homeostasis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1395-405 pubmed publisher
    How the proto-oncogene c-Myc balances the processes of stem-cell self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation in adult tissues is largely unknown...
  34. Berta M, Baker C, Cottle D, Watt F. Dose and context dependent effects of Myc on epidermal stem cell proliferation and differentiation. EMBO Mol Med. 2010;2:16-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Myc is activated in many tumours, yet, paradoxically, stimulates differentiation in mammalian epidermis...
  35. Kim J, Woo A, Chu J, Snow J, Fujiwara Y, Kim C, et al. A Myc network accounts for similarities between embryonic stem and cancer cell transcription programs. Cell. 2010;143:313-24 pubmed publisher
    c-Myc (Myc) is an important transcriptional regulator in embryonic stem (ES) cells, somatic cell reprogramming, and cancer...
  36. Stoelzle T, Schwarb P, Trumpp A, Hynes N. c-Myc affects mRNA translation, cell proliferation and progenitor cell function in the mammary gland. BMC Biol. 2009;7:63 pubmed publisher
    The oncoprotein c-Myc has been intensely studied in breast cancer and mouse mammary tumor models, but relatively little is known about the normal physiological role of c-Myc in the mammary gland...
  37. Dominguez Frutos E, López Hernández I, Vendrell V, Neves J, Gallozzi M, Gutsche K, et al. N-myc controls proliferation, morphogenesis, and patterning of the inner ear. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7178-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Myc family members play crucial roles in regulating cell proliferation, size, and differentiation during organogenesis. Both N-myc and c-myc are expressed throughout inner ear development...
  38. Dominguez Sola D, Victora G, Ying C, Phan R, Saito M, Nussenzweig M, et al. The proto-oncogene MYC is required for selection in the germinal center and cyclic reentry. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:1083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the GC reaction required biphasic regulation of expression of the cell-cycle regulator c-Myc that involved its transient induction during early GC commitment, its repression by Bcl-6 in DZ B cells and its ..
  39. Claveria C, Giovinazzo G, Sierra R, Torres M. Myc-driven endogenous cell competition in the early mammalian embryo. Nature. 2013;500:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this system, here we show that induction of a mosaic imbalance of Myc expression in the epiblast provokes the expansion of cells with higher Myc levels through the apoptotic elimination ..
  40. Kelly P, Grabow S, Delbridge A, Strasser A, Adams J. Endogenous Bcl-xL is essential for Myc-driven lymphomagenesis in mice. Blood. 2011;118:6380-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that the lymphomagenesis in ??-myc transgenic mice, which constitutively overexpress the c-Myc oncoprotein in B-lymphoid cells and develop pre-B and B-..
  41. Ashton G, Morton J, Myant K, Phesse T, Ridgway R, Marsh V, et al. Focal adhesion kinase is required for intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis downstream of Wnt/c-Myc signaling. Dev Cell. 2010;19:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Given Wnt/c-Myc signaling is activated following intestinal regeneration, we investigated the functional importance of FAK ..
  42. Ma S, Pathak S, Mandal M, Trinh L, Clark M, Lu R. Ikaros and Aiolos inhibit pre-B-cell proliferation by directly suppressing c-Myc expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..driven by signals from the interleukin-7 receptor and the pre-B-cell receptor and is dependent on cyclin D3 and c-Myc. We have shown previously that interferon regulatory factors 4 and 8 induce the expression of Ikaros and Aiolos to ..
  43. Gorrini C, Squatrito M, Luise C, Syed N, Perna D, Wark L, et al. Tip60 is a haplo-insufficient tumour suppressor required for an oncogene-induced DNA damage response. Nature. 2007;448:1063-7 pubmed
    ..First, Tip60 is a co-regulator of transcription factors that either promote or suppress tumorigenesis, such as Myc and p53...
  44. Shchors K, Shchors E, Rostker F, Lawlor E, Brown Swigart L, Evan G. The Myc-dependent angiogenic switch in tumors is mediated by interleukin 1beta. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2527-38 pubmed
    ..The pervasive Myc oncoprotein is itself a potent inducer of angiogenesis in a wide range of tissues...
  45. Cheung W, Kim J, Linden M, Peng L, Van Ness B, Polakiewicz R, et al. Novel targeted deregulation of c-Myc cooperates with Bcl-X(L) to cause plasma cell neoplasms in mice. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:1763-73 pubmed
    Deregulated expression of both Myc and Bcl-X(L) are consistent features of human plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs)...
  46. Kovalchuk A, Qi C, Torrey T, Taddesse Heath L, Feigenbaum L, Park S, et al. Burkitt lymphoma in the mouse. J Exp Med. 2000;192:1183-90 pubmed
    Chromosomal translocations juxtaposing the MYC protooncogene with regulatory sequences of immunoglobulin (Ig) H chain or kappa (Ig kappa) or lambda (Ig lambda) L chain genes and effecting deregulated expression of MYC are the hallmarks ..
  47. Bouchard C, Staller P, Eilers M. Control of cell proliferation by Myc. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8:202-6 pubmed
    b>Myc proteins are key regulators of mammalian cell proliferation. They are transcription factors that activate genes as part of a heterodimeric complex with the protein Max...
  48. Schoenenberger C, Andres A, Groner B, van der Valk M, LeMeur M, Gerlinger P. Targeted c-myc gene expression in mammary glands of transgenic mice induces mammary tumours with constitutive milk protein gene transcription. EMBO J. 1988;7:169-75 pubmed
    We investigated the consequences of augmented c-myc gene expression in the mammary gland of transgenic mice...
  49. Marcu K, Harris L, Stanton L, Erikson J, Watt R, Croce C. Transcriptionally active c-myc oncogene is contained within NIARD, a DNA sequence associated with chromosome translocations in B-cell neoplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:519-23 pubmed
    b>NIARD (non-immunoglobulin-associated rearranging DNA) is located on mouse chromosome 15 at the break point of a commonly observed translocation event involving chromosomes 15 and 12 in murine plasmacytomas...
  50. Zhang Y, Wang Z, Li X, Magnuson N. Pim kinase-dependent inhibition of c-Myc degradation. Oncogene. 2008;27:4809-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Bitransgenic mice overexpressing either Pim-1 or Pim-2 and c-Myc succumb to pre-B-cell lymphoma at a strikingly accelerated speed...
  51. Nakhai H, Siveke J, Mendoza Torres L, Schmid R. Conditional inactivation of Myc impairs development of the exocrine pancreas. Development. 2008;135:3191-6 pubmed publisher essential for development of the exocrine pancreas, but the role of beta-catenin-dependent target genes such as Myc during pancreatic development is not well known...
  52. Ho J, Ma W, Mao D, Benchimol S. p53-Dependent transcriptional repression of c-myc is required for G1 cell cycle arrest. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7423-31 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have shown an association between p53 activation and down-regulation of c-myc expression. However, the mechanism and physiological significance of p53-mediated c-myc repression remain unclear...
  53. Hurlin P, Zhou Z, Toyo oka K, Ota S, Walker W, Hirotsune S, et al. Deletion of Mnt leads to disrupted cell cycle control and tumorigenesis. EMBO J. 2003;22:4584-96 pubmed
    Mnt is a Max-interacting transcriptional repressor that has been hypothesized to function as a Myc antagonist. To investigate Mnt function we deleted the Mnt gene in mice...