Gene Symbol: Mxd1
Description: MAX dimerization protein 1
Alias: AW122478, Mad, Mad1, max dimerization protein 1, max dimerizer 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Mxd1

Top Publications

  1. Salehi Tabar R, Nguyen Yamamoto L, Tavera Mendoza L, Quail T, Dimitrov V, An B, et al. Vitamin D receptor as a master regulator of the c-MYC/MXD1 network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18827-32 pubmed publisher
    ..through multiple mechanisms, the balance in function of c-MYC and its antagonist the transcriptional repressor MAD1/MXD1...
  2. Uchida N, Shimamura K, Miyatani S, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Mouse alpha N-catenin: two isoforms, specific expression in the nervous system, and chromosomal localization of the gene. Dev Biol. 1994;163:75-85 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that alpha N-catenin plays specific roles in neural cell-cell interactions. We also localized the mouse alpha N-catenin gene to chromosome 6. ..
  3. Ayer D, Lawrence Q, Eisenman R. Mad-Max transcriptional repression is mediated by ternary complex formation with mammalian homologs of yeast repressor Sin3. Cell. 1995;80:767-76 pubmed
    The bHLH-ZIP protein Mad heterodimerizes with Max as a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor...
  4. Cultraro C, Bino T, Segal S. Function of the c-Myc antagonist Mad1 during a molecular switch from proliferation to differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2353-9 pubmed
    ..Cotransfection of a constitutive c-myc with a zinc-inducible mad1 results in clones expressing both genes, whereby a switch from proliferation to differentiation can be modulated...
  5. Ayer D, Kretzner L, Eisenman R. Mad: a heterodimeric partner for Max that antagonizes Myc transcriptional activity. Cell. 1993;72:211-22 pubmed
    ..One cDNA identified encodes a new member of the bHLH-Zip protein family, Mad. Human Mad protein homodimerizes poorly but binds Max in vitro, forming a sequence-specific DNA binding complex ..
  6. Hurlin P, Queva C, Koskinen P, Steingrimsson E, Ayer D, Copeland N, et al. Mad3 and Mad4: novel Max-interacting transcriptional repressors that suppress c-myc dependent transformation and are expressed during neural and epidermal differentiation. EMBO J. 1995;14:5646-59 pubmed
    ..zipper (bHLHZip) protein Max associates with members of the Myc family, as well as with the related proteins Mad (Mad1) and Mxi1...
  7. Lee S, Bottaro A, Chen L, Insel R. Mad1 is a transcriptional repressor of Bcl-6. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:1965-71 pubmed
    ..down-regulation of Bcl-6, activation of Blimp-1, modulation of Myc, and specifically with the up-regulation of the Mad1 and Mad4 transcription factors, which play a critical role in cell differentiation and cell cycle regulation...
  8. Nili E, Cojocaru G, Kalma Y, Ginsberg D, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Nuclear membrane protein LAP2beta mediates transcriptional repression alone and together with its binding partner GCL (germ-cell-less). J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3297-307 pubmed
    ..Co-expression of both LAP2beta and mGCL with the E2F-DP complex resulted in a reduced transcriptional activity equal to that exerted by the pRb protein. ..
  9. Foley K, Eisenman R. Two MAD tails: what the recent knockouts of Mad1 and Mxi1 tell us about the MYC/MAX/MAD network. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1423:M37-47 pubmed
    ..Recently, targeted gene deletions of two members of this gene family, Mad1 and Mxi1, have been carried out in mice...

More Information


  1. FitzGerald M, Arsura M, Bellas R, Yang W, Wu M, Chin L, et al. Differential effects of the widely expressed dMax splice variant of Max on E-box vs initiator element-mediated regulation by c-Myc. Oncogene. 1999;18:2489-98 pubmed
    ..In in vitro protein:protein association assays, dMax interacted with c-Myc, N-Myc, L-Myc, Mad1, Mxi1, Mad3 and Mad4, but not with itself or wild-type Max. These interactions required an intact leucine zipper...
  2. Chin L, Schreiber Agus N, Pellicer I, Chen K, Lee H, Dudast M, et al. Contrasting roles for Myc and Mad proteins in cellular growth and differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:8488-92 pubmed
    ..Myc on cellular growth and gene expression are antagonized by activities of another member of the Myc superfamily, Mad. Characterization of the mouse homolog of human mad on the structural level revealed that domains shown previously ..
  3. Vastrik I, Kaipainen A, Penttila T, Lymboussakis A, Alitalo R, Parvinen M, et al. Expression of the mad gene during cell differentiation in vivo and its inhibition of cell growth in vitro. J Cell Biol. 1995;128:1197-208 pubmed
    b>Mad is a basic region helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor which can dimerize with the Max protein and antagonize transcriptional activation by the Myc-Max transcription factor heterodimer...
  4. Gupta K, Anand G, Yin X, Grove L, Prochownik E. Mmip1: a novel leucine zipper protein that reverses the suppressive effects of Mad family members on c-myc. Oncogene. 1998;16:1149-59 pubmed
    ..Four additional bHLH-ZIP proteins, Mad1, Mxi1, Mad3 and Mad4, heterodimerize with Max and also repress transcription of c-myc-responsive genes...
  5. Edelhoff S, Ayer D, Zervos A, Steingrimsson E, Jenkins N, Copeland N, et al. Mapping of two genes encoding members of a distinct subfamily of MAX interacting proteins: MAD to human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 6, and MXI1 to human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 19. Oncogene. 1994;9:665-8 pubmed
    Both the MAD and the MXI1 genes encode basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors which bind Max in vitro, forming a sequence-specific DNA-binding complex similar to the Myc-Max heterodimer...
  6. Foley K, McArthur G, Queva C, Hurlin P, Soriano P, Eisenman R. Targeted disruption of the MYC antagonist MAD1 inhibits cell cycle exit during granulocyte differentiation. EMBO J. 1998;17:774-85 pubmed
    The switch from transcriptionally activating MYC-MAX to transcriptionally repressing MAD1-MAX protein heterodimers has been correlated with the initiation of terminal differentiation in many cell types...
  7. Le Guezennec X, Vriend G, Stunnenberg H. Molecular determinants of the interaction of Mad with the PAH2 domain of mSin3. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:25823-9 pubmed
    ..PAH2 has been shown to interact strongly with the Sin3 interacting domain (SID) of the tumor suppressor Mad. This PAH2/Mad complex has been studied extensively by NMR, but the molecular determinants that dictate the ..
  8. Poortinga G, Hannan K, Snelling H, Walkley C, Jenkins A, Sharkey K, et al. MAD1 and c-MYC regulate UBF and rDNA transcription during granulocyte differentiation. EMBO J. 2004;23:3325-35 pubmed
    ..Here we show that granulocytic cells deficient in the c-MYC antagonist MAD1 display increased cell volume, rDNA transcription and protein synthesis...
  9. Prime G, Markie D. The telomere repeat binding protein Trf1 interacts with the spindle checkpoint protein Mad1 and Nek2 mitotic kinase. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:121-4 pubmed
    ..Telomeric Repeat Binding Factor 1 (Trf1) as a protein that interacts directly with the spindle checkpoint protein Mad1 and the mitotic kinase Nek2...
  10. Queva C, Hurlin P, Foley K, Eisenman R. Sequential expression of the MAD family of transcriptional repressors during differentiation and development. Oncogene. 1998;16:967-77 pubmed
    ..protein is at the center of this network in that it associates with MYC as well as with the family of MAD proteins: MAD1, MXI1, MAD3 and MAD4...
  11. Domashenko A, Latham K, Hatton K. Expression of myc-family, myc-interacting, and myc-target genes during preimplantation mouse development. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;47:57-65 pubmed
    ..The mxi mRNA was not detectable and the mad mRNA was detectable only as a maternal transcript...
  12. Queva C, McArthur G, Ramos L, Eisenman R. Dwarfism and dysregulated proliferation in mice overexpressing the MYC antagonist MAD1. Cell Growth Differ. 1999;10:785-96 pubmed
    ..The ectopic expression of Mad1 in transgenic mice led to early postnatal lethality and dwarfism and had a profound inhibitory effect on the ..
  13. Parker R, Liu M, Eyre H, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Crawford J, et al. Y-receptor-like genes GPR72 and GPR73: molecular cloning, genomic organisation and assignment to human chromosome 11q21.1 and 2p14 and mouse chromosome 9 and 6. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1491:369-75 pubmed
    ..However, although successful cell surface expression in a heterologous expression system can be achieved no specific binding to this ligand family can be detected, indicating that perhaps additional factors are required for binding. ..
  14. Hurlin P, Queva C, Koskinen P, Steingrimsson E, Ayer D, Copeland N, et al. Mad3 and Mad4: novel Max-interacting transcriptional repressors that suppress c-myc dependent transformation and are expressed during neural and epidermal differentiation. EMBO J. 1996;15:2030 pubmed
  15. Descargues P, Sil A, Sano Y, Korchynskyi O, Han G, Owens P, et al. IKKalpha is a critical coregulator of a Smad4-independent TGFbeta-Smad2/3 signaling pathway that controls keratinocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2487-92 pubmed publisher
    ..IKKalpha was found to control several Myc antagonists, including Mad1, Mad2, and Ovol1, through the association with TGFbeta-regulated Smad2/3 transcription factors and is required for ..