Mx1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Mx1
Description: MX dynamin-like GTPase 1
Alias: AI893580, Mx-1, interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx1, myxoma resistance protein 1, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1, myxovirus (influenza) resistance 1 polypeptide
Species: mouse
Products:     Mx1

Top Publications

  1. Haller O, Arnheiter H, Lindenmann J. Natural, genetically determined resistance toward influenza virus in hemopoietic mouse chimeras. Role of mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med. 1979;150:117-26 pubmed
    ..However, susceptibility or resistance in vivo was according to the genotype of the host. Thus, inborn resistance of radiation chimeras was found to be independent of Mx-gene expression in cells of the hemopoietic system. ..
  2. Irving N, Brown S. Mouse chromosome-specific markers generated by PCR and their mapping through interspecific backcrosses. Genomics. 1991;11:679-86 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, both the 250- and 580-bp markers have been genetically mapped in detail to mouse chromosome 16 by direct hybridization to inter-repeat PCR products of progeny DNAs from Mus domesticus/Mus spretus interspecific backcrosses. ..
  3. Lindenmann J. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO INFLUENZA VIRUS IN MICE. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1964;116:506-9 pubmed
  4. Horisberger M, Staeheli P, Haller O. Interferon induces a unique protein in mouse cells bearing a gene for resistance to influenza virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:1910-4 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that this protein induced by the interaction of interferon with Mx plays a role in the selective antiviral state against influenza viruses that is observed in interferon-treated Mx-bearing cells. ..
  5. Koerner I, Kochs G, Kalinke U, Weiss S, Staeheli P. Protective role of beta interferon in host defense against influenza A virus. J Virol. 2007;81:2025-30 pubmed
    ..In mice, type I IFN is effective against influenza viruses only if the IFN-induced resistance factor Mx1 is present, though most inbred mouse strains, including the recently developed IFN-beta-deficient mice, bear only ..
  6. Jin H, Yamashita T, Ochiai K, Haller O, Watanabe T. Characterization and expression of the Mx1 gene in wild mouse species. Biochem Genet. 1998;36:311-22 pubmed
    The mouse Mx1 gene encodes an interferon (IFN)-inducible nuclear protein and confers resistance to influenza virus infection. The standard laboratory mouse strains all carry the Mx1- allele and are susceptible to influenza virus...
  7. Staeheli P, Grob R, Meier E, Sutcliffe J, Haller O. Influenza virus-susceptible mice carry Mx genes with a large deletion or a nonsense mutation. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:4518-23 pubmed
    ..We further show that the Mx mRNA levels in interferon-treated BALB/c and CBA/J cells are about 15-fold lower than in similarly treated Mx+ cells. This is probably due to decreased metabolic stabilities of the mutant mRNAs. ..
  8. Tumpey T, Szretter K, Van Hoeven N, Katz J, Kochs G, Haller O, et al. The Mx1 gene protects mice against the pandemic 1918 and highly lethal human H5N1 influenza viruses. J Virol. 2007;81:10818-21 pubmed
    Mice carrying a wild-type Mx1 gene (Mx1+/+) differ from standard laboratory mice (Mx1-/-) in being highly resistant to infection with common laboratory strains of influenza A virus...
  9. Dreiding P, Staeheli P, Haller O. Interferon-induced protein Mx accumulates in nuclei of mouse cells expressing resistance to influenza viruses. Virology. 1985;140:192-6 pubmed
  10. Reeves R, O Hara B, Pavan W, Gearhart J, Haller O. Genetic mapping of the Mx influenza virus resistance gene within the region of mouse chromosome 16 that is homologous to human chromosome 21. J Virol. 1988;62:4372-5 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that Mx will be found in the region of HSA 21 which has been implicated in Down syndrome when inherited in three copies. ..

Detail Information

Publications74

  1. Haller O, Arnheiter H, Lindenmann J. Natural, genetically determined resistance toward influenza virus in hemopoietic mouse chimeras. Role of mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med. 1979;150:117-26 pubmed
    ..However, susceptibility or resistance in vivo was according to the genotype of the host. Thus, inborn resistance of radiation chimeras was found to be independent of Mx-gene expression in cells of the hemopoietic system. ..
  2. Irving N, Brown S. Mouse chromosome-specific markers generated by PCR and their mapping through interspecific backcrosses. Genomics. 1991;11:679-86 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, both the 250- and 580-bp markers have been genetically mapped in detail to mouse chromosome 16 by direct hybridization to inter-repeat PCR products of progeny DNAs from Mus domesticus/Mus spretus interspecific backcrosses. ..
  3. Lindenmann J. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO INFLUENZA VIRUS IN MICE. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1964;116:506-9 pubmed
  4. Horisberger M, Staeheli P, Haller O. Interferon induces a unique protein in mouse cells bearing a gene for resistance to influenza virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:1910-4 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that this protein induced by the interaction of interferon with Mx plays a role in the selective antiviral state against influenza viruses that is observed in interferon-treated Mx-bearing cells. ..
  5. Koerner I, Kochs G, Kalinke U, Weiss S, Staeheli P. Protective role of beta interferon in host defense against influenza A virus. J Virol. 2007;81:2025-30 pubmed
    ..In mice, type I IFN is effective against influenza viruses only if the IFN-induced resistance factor Mx1 is present, though most inbred mouse strains, including the recently developed IFN-beta-deficient mice, bear only ..
  6. Jin H, Yamashita T, Ochiai K, Haller O, Watanabe T. Characterization and expression of the Mx1 gene in wild mouse species. Biochem Genet. 1998;36:311-22 pubmed
    The mouse Mx1 gene encodes an interferon (IFN)-inducible nuclear protein and confers resistance to influenza virus infection. The standard laboratory mouse strains all carry the Mx1- allele and are susceptible to influenza virus...
  7. Staeheli P, Grob R, Meier E, Sutcliffe J, Haller O. Influenza virus-susceptible mice carry Mx genes with a large deletion or a nonsense mutation. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:4518-23 pubmed
    ..We further show that the Mx mRNA levels in interferon-treated BALB/c and CBA/J cells are about 15-fold lower than in similarly treated Mx+ cells. This is probably due to decreased metabolic stabilities of the mutant mRNAs. ..
  8. Tumpey T, Szretter K, Van Hoeven N, Katz J, Kochs G, Haller O, et al. The Mx1 gene protects mice against the pandemic 1918 and highly lethal human H5N1 influenza viruses. J Virol. 2007;81:10818-21 pubmed
    Mice carrying a wild-type Mx1 gene (Mx1+/+) differ from standard laboratory mice (Mx1-/-) in being highly resistant to infection with common laboratory strains of influenza A virus...
  9. Dreiding P, Staeheli P, Haller O. Interferon-induced protein Mx accumulates in nuclei of mouse cells expressing resistance to influenza viruses. Virology. 1985;140:192-6 pubmed
  10. Reeves R, O Hara B, Pavan W, Gearhart J, Haller O. Genetic mapping of the Mx influenza virus resistance gene within the region of mouse chromosome 16 that is homologous to human chromosome 21. J Virol. 1988;62:4372-5 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that Mx will be found in the region of HSA 21 which has been implicated in Down syndrome when inherited in three copies. ..
  11. Bae S, Ogawa E, Maruyama M, Oka H, Satake M, Shigesada K, et al. PEBP2 alpha B/mouse AML1 consists of multiple isoforms that possess differential transactivation potentials. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3242-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that previously described chimeric gene products, AML1/MTG8(ETO) and AML1-EAP generated by t(8;21) and t(3;21), respectively, lack the transactivation domain of AML1. ..
  12. Reeves R, Crowley M, O Hara B, Gearhart J. Sex, strain, and species differences affect recombination across an evolutionarily conserved segment of mouse chromosome 16. Genomics. 1990;8:141-8 pubmed
    ..RFs on this cross were nearly fivefold higher than those reported previously for an interspecific cross between C57BL/6 and Mus spretus. ..
  13. Turan K, Mibayashi M, Sugiyama K, Saito S, Numajiri A, Nagata K. Nuclear MxA proteins form a complex with influenza virus NP and inhibit the transcription of the engineered influenza virus genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:643-52 pubmed
    ..Earlier studies show that nuclear mouse Mx1 and human MxA designed to be localized in the nucleus inhibit the transcription step of the influenza virus genome...
  14. Mordstein M, Kochs G, Dumoutier L, Renauld J, Paludan S, Klucher K, et al. Interferon-lambda contributes to innate immunity of mice against influenza A virus but not against hepatotropic viruses. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000151 pubmed publisher
    ..influenza A virus infections of mice which carry functional alleles of the influenza virus resistance gene Mx1 and which, therefore, develop a more complete innate immune response to influenza viruses than standard laboratory ..
  15. Hodgson N, Bohnet S, Majde J, Krueger J. Influenza virus pathophysiology and brain invasion in mice with functional and dysfunctional Mx1 genes. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26:83-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if the presence of a functional Mx1 (fMx1) gene would influence this brain viral localization and/or disease, we infected mature C57BL/6 dMx1 and fMx1 ..
  16. Cabin D, Gardiner K, Reeves R. Molecular genetic characterization and comparative mapping of the human PCP4 gene. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1996;22:167-75 pubmed
    ..However, mapping in the mouse was reassessed, and Pcp4 and a linked marker, D16Mit71, were both moved distal to Ets2, corresponding to the position of PCP4 on Chr 21. ..
  17. Reeves R, Irving N, Moran T, Wohn A, Kitt C, Sisodia S, et al. A mouse model for Down syndrome exhibits learning and behaviour deficits. Nat Genet. 1995;11:177-84 pubmed
    ..The corresponding dosage imbalance for the human homologues of these genes may contribute to cognitive deficits in DS. ..
  18. Moritoh K, Yamauchi H, Asano A, Yoshii K, Kariwa H, Takashima I, et al. Generation of congenic mouse strains by introducing the virus-resistant genes, Mx1 and Oas1b, of feral mouse-derived inbred strain MSM/Ms into the common strain C57BL/6J. Jpn J Vet Res. 2009;57:89-99 pubmed
    b>Mx1 (Myxovirus resistance protein) and Oaslb (Oligoadenylate synthetase-1), induced by type 1 interferon (IFN), play a role in early antiviral innate immunity by inhibiting the replication of viruses...
  19. Yockey L, Varela L, Rakib T, Khoury Hanold W, Fink S, Stutz B, et al. Vaginal Exposure to Zika Virus during Pregnancy Leads to Fetal Brain Infection. Cell. 2016;166:1247-1256.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..This was exacerbated in mice deficient in IFN pathways, leading to abortion. Our study highlights the vaginal tract as a highly susceptible site of ZIKV replication and illustrates the dire disease consequences during pregnancy. ..
  20. Pavlovic J, Arzet H, Hefti H, Frese M, Rost D, Ernst B, et al. Enhanced virus resistance of transgenic mice expressing the human MxA protein. J Virol. 1995;69:4506-10 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that MxA is a powerful antiviral agent in vivo, indicating that it may protect humans from the deleterious effects of infections with certain viral pathogens. ..
  21. Garigliany M, Cloquette K, Leroy M, Decreux A, Goris N, De Clercq K, et al. Modulating mouse innate immunity to RNA viruses by expressing the Bos taurus Mx system. Transgenic Res. 2009;18:719-32 pubmed publisher
  22. Grimm D, Staeheli P, Hufbauer M, Koerner I, Martinez Sobrido L, Solórzano A, et al. Replication fitness determines high virulence of influenza A virus in mice carrying functional Mx1 resistance gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6806-11 pubmed
    The IFN-induced resistance factor Mx1 is a critical component of innate immunity against influenza A viruses (FLUAV) in mice...
  23. Nakayama M, Yazaki K, Kusano A, Nagata K, Hanai N, Ishihama A. Structure of mouse Mx1 protein. Molecular assembly and GTP-dependent conformational change. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:15033-8 pubmed
    Mouse Mx1 protein is an interferon-inducible nuclear protein and confers resistance to influenza virus infection...
  24. Staeheli P, Horisberger M, Haller O. Mx-dependent resistance to influenza viruses is induced by mouse interferons alpha and beta but not gamma. Virology. 1984;132:456-61 pubmed
    ..A2G-Mx and BALB/c cells against the rhabdovirus VSV. These results demonstrate that different types of interferons differentially regulate the expression of the Mx gene and thereby induce distinct antiviral states. ..
  25. Haller O, Lindenmann J. Athymic (nude) mice express gene for myxovirus resistance. Nature. 1974;250:679-80 pubmed
  26. Staeheli P, Dreiding P, Haller O, Lindenmann J. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to the interferon-inducible protein Mx of influenza virus-resistant mice. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:1821-5 pubmed
    ..One discrete in vitro translation product of relevant mRNA reacted with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and was indistinguishable from in vivo synthesized protein Mx. ..
  27. Kakugawa K, Yasuda T, Miura I, Kobayashi A, Fukiage H, Satoh R, et al. A novel gene essential for the development of single positive thymocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated E430004N04Rik-deficient mice, and their phenotype was virtually identical to that of the ENU mutant mice, thereby confirming that this gene is essential for the development of SP thymocytes. ..
  28. Zimmermann P, Mänz B, Haller O, Schwemmle M, Kochs G. The viral nucleoprotein determines Mx sensitivity of influenza A viruses. J Virol. 2011;85:8133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..avian H5N1 isolate [strain A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/04] for their relative sensitivities to human MxA and murine Mx1. The H5N1 virus was highly sensitive to both Mx GTPases, whereas the pandemic H1N1 virus was almost insensitive...
  29. Zhou A, Paranjape J, Der S, Williams B, Silverman R. Interferon action in triply deficient mice reveals the existence of alternative antiviral pathways. Virology. 1999;258:435-40 pubmed
    ..To determine whether alternative antiviral pathways exist, RNase L-/- mice and PKR-/- mice were crossed onto an Mx1(-/-) background to generate a strain of triply deficient (TD) mice...
  30. Radtke A, Delbridge L, Balachandran S, Barber G, O Riordan M. TBK1 protects vacuolar integrity during intracellular bacterial infection. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e29 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate a requirement for TBK1 in control of bacterial infection distinct from its established role in antiviral immunity. ..
  31. Lee S, Vidal S. Functional diversity of Mx proteins: variations on a theme of host resistance to infection. Genome Res. 2002;12:527-30 pubmed
  32. Sweet H, Marks S, Mackay C, Johnson K, Davisson M. Dense incisors (din): a new mouse mutation on chromosome 16 affecting tooth eruption and body size. J Hered. 1996;87:162-7 pubmed
    ..The din mutation was mapped to Chr 16 near the pituitary transcription factor gene Pit1, but din is not a mutation in Pit1. ..
  33. Salomon R, Staeheli P, Kochs G, Yen H, Franks J, Rehg J, et al. Mx1 gene protects mice against the highly lethal human H5N1 influenza virus. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:2417-21 pubmed
    We investigated the importance of the host Mx1 gene in protection against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus...
  34. Song M, Cho Y, Park S, Pascua P, Baek Y, Kwon H, et al. Early regulation of viral infection reduces inflammation and rescues mx-positive mice from lethal avian influenza infection. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1308-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of Mx protein during lethal avian influenza (AI) virus infection was examined using Mx1-deficient C57BL/6 (B6-Mx1(-/-)) and congenic Mx1-expressing (B6-Mx1(+/+)) mice infected with a virulent, mouse-..
  35. Martín V, Pascual E, Avia M, Rangel G, de Molina A, Alejo A, et al. A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice. J Virol. 2016;90:3783-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-Ï„ can effectively ..
  36. Stranden A, Staeheli P, Pavlovic J. Function of the mouse Mx1 protein is inhibited by overexpression of the PB2 protein of influenza virus. Virology. 1993;197:642-51 pubmed
    The interferon-induced murine Mx1 protein possesses an intrinsic antiviral activity with selectivity for influenza viruses...
  37. Ferris M, Aylor D, Bottomly D, Whitmore A, Aicher L, Bell T, et al. Modeling host genetic regulation of influenza pathogenesis in the collaborative cross. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003196 pubmed publisher
    ..A key host response QTL was located at the site of the known anti-influenza Mx1 gene...
  38. Verhelst J, Spitaels J, Nürnberger C, De Vlieger D, Ysenbaert T, Staeheli P, et al. Functional Comparison of Mx1 from Two Different Mouse Species Reveals the Involvement of Loop L4 in the Antiviral Activity against Influenza A Viruses. J Virol. 2015;89:10879-90 pubmed publisher
    The interferon-induced Mx1 gene is an important part of the mammalian defense against influenza viruses...
  39. Rolling T, Koerner I, Zimmermann P, Holz K, Haller O, Staeheli P, et al. Adaptive mutations resulting in enhanced polymerase activity contribute to high virulence of influenza A virus in mice. J Virol. 2009;83:6673-80 pubmed publisher
    High virulence of influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 in mice carrying the Mx1 resistance gene was recently shown to be determined by the viral surface proteins and the viral polymerase...
  40. Cilloniz C, Pantin Jackwood M, Ni C, Carter V, Korth M, Swayne D, et al. Molecular signatures associated with Mx1-mediated resistance to highly pathogenic influenza virus infection: mechanisms of survival. J Virol. 2012;86:2437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..One such factor is encoded by the Mx1 gene, which confers resistance to influenza virus infection...
  41. Soleimani S, Shahsavandi S, Maddadgar O. Improvement influenza HA2 DNA vaccine cellular and humoral immune responses with Mx bio adjuvant. Biologicals. 2017;46:6-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrated that Mx as host defense peptide can be potentiated for improving influenza vaccine efficacy. ..
  42. Lindenmann J, Deuel E, Fanconi S, Haller O. Inborn resistance of mice to myxoviruses: macrophages express phenotype in vitro. J Exp Med. 1978;147:531-40 pubmed
    ..Macrophages from 28 mice were classified as resistant, and 26 mice survived challenge. We conclude that resistance of macrophages and resistance of the whole animal are two facets of the same phenomenon. ..
  43. Moore C, Lee J, Birren B, Stetten G, Baxter L, Reeves R. Integration of cytogenetic with recombinational and physical maps of mouse chromosome 16. Genomics. 1999;59:1-5 pubmed
    ..A direct application of these probes is demonstrated by identifying mice trisomic for distal Chr 16 using FISH analysis of interphase nuclei. ..
  44. Cabin D, McKee Johnson J, Matesic L, Wiltshire T, Rue E, Mjaatvedt A, et al. Physical and comparative mapping of distal mouse chromosome 16. 5 p5. Genome Res. 1998;8:940-50 pubmed
    ..Comparison of this physical map with that of the corresponding region on Chr. 21 shows conservation not only of gene order but of size in the 3 Mb from Cbr1 to Ets2; distal to Ets2, the human map is expanded. ..
  45. Haller O. Inborn resistance of ice to orthomyxoviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1981;92:25-52 pubmed
  46. Velasco Hernandez T, Säwén P, Bryder D, Cammenga J. Potential Pitfalls of the Mx1-Cre System: Implications for Experimental Modeling of Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis. Stem Cell Reports. 2016;7:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Different promoters that drive Cre expression have been utilized, with the interferon-inducible Mx1-Cre still being the most commonly used "deleter strain" in experimental hematology...
  47. Pillai P, Molony R, Martinod K, Dong H, Pang I, Tal M, et al. Mx1 reveals innate pathways to antiviral resistance and lethal influenza disease. Science. 2016;352:463-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In Mx1-intact mice with weakened resistance due to deficiencies in Mavs and Tlr7, we found an elevated respiratory ..
  48. Zurcher T, Pavlovic J, Staeheli P. Mouse Mx2 protein inhibits vesicular stomatitis virus but not influenza virus. Virology. 1992;187:796-800 pubmed
    ..The mouse genome contains two related interferon-regulated genes, designated Mx1 and Mx2...
  49. Zurcher T, Pavlovic J, Staeheli P. Nuclear localization of mouse Mx1 protein is necessary for inhibition of influenza virus. J Virol. 1992;66:5059-66 pubmed
    The interferon-induced Mx1 protein of mice confers selective resistance to influenza virus. It inhibits viral mRNA synthesis in the nucleus of influenza virus-infected cells...
  50. Wisskirchen C, Ludersdorfer T, Müller D, Moritz E, Pavlovic J. Interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA interacts with the cellular RNA helicases UAP56 and URH49. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the antiviral activities of mouse Mx1 and human MxA have been studied extensively, the molecular mechanism of action remains largely unsolved...
  51. Frensing T, Seitz C, Heynisch B, Patzina C, Kochs G, Reichl U. Efficient influenza B virus propagation due to deficient interferon-induced antiviral activity in MDCK cells. Vaccine. 2011;29:7125-9 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins showed no antiviral activity in an influenza B virus-specific minireplicon assay in contrast to the murine Mx1 protein...
  52. Fan C, Kuwana E, Bulfone A, Fletcher C, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. Expression patterns of two murine homologs of Drosophila single-minded suggest possible roles in embryonic patterning and in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1996;7:1-16 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the Sim genes play roles in directing the regionalization of tissues where they are expressed. Moreover, the expression pattern documented for Sim2 may provide insights into its potential roles in Down syndrome. ..
  53. Mariano T, Muthukumaran G, Donnelly R, Wang N, Adamson M, Pestka S, et al. Genetic mapping of the gene for the mouse interferon-gamma receptor signaling subunit to the distal end of chromosome 16. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:321-2 pubmed
  54. Reeves R, Crowley M, Lorenzon N, Pavan W, Smeyne R, Goldowitz D. The mouse neurological mutant weaver maps within the region of chromosome 16 that is homologous to human chromosome 21. Genomics. 1989;5:522-6 pubmed
    ..We therefore predict that the normal human homolog of wv will be located on HSA 21 and would be in dosage imbalance in individuals with Down syndrome. ..
  55. Engelhardt O, Ullrich E, Kochs G, Haller O. Interferon-induced antiviral Mx1 GTPase is associated with components of the SUMO-1 system and promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies. Exp Cell Res. 2001;271:286-95 pubmed
    ..The murine Mx1 protein accumulates in the nucleus of interferon-treated cells and is active against members of the ..
  56. Nürnberger C, Zimmermann V, Gerhardt M, Staeheli P. Influenza Virus Susceptibility of Wild-Derived CAST/EiJ Mice Results from Two Amino Acid Changes in the MX1 Restriction Factor. J Virol. 2016;90:10682-10692 pubmed
    The interferon-regulated Mx1 gene of the A2G mouse strain confers a high degree of resistance against influenza A and Thogoto viruses...
  57. Kamimoto T, Nagai Y, Onogi H, Muro Y, Wakabayashi T, Hagiwara M. Dymple, a novel dynamin-like high molecular weight GTPase lacking a proline-rich carboxyl-terminal domain in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1044-51 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that dymple may be the first example of such a subfamily in mammalian cells other than dynamin itself, although its precise role and membrane localization remain to be resolved. ..
  58. Garber E, Hreniuk D, Scheidel L, Van der Ploeg L. Mutations in murine Mx1: effects on localization and antiviral activity. Virology. 1993;194:715-23 pubmed
    Murine Mx1 is a nuclear localized protein of 631 amino acids with antiviral activity against influenza virus...
  59. Shin D, Hatesuer B, Bergmann S, Nedelko T, Schughart K. Protection from Severe Influenza Virus Infections in Mice Carrying the Mx1 Influenza Virus Resistance Gene Strongly Depends on Genetic Background. J Virol. 2015;89:9998-10009 pubmed publisher
    ..Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determine the severity of influenza. The MX dynamin-like GTPase 1 (Mx1) gene has been shown to confer strong resistance to influenza A virus infections in mice...
  60. Bazzigher L, Pavlovic J, Haller O, Staeheli P. Mx genes show weaker primary response to virus than other interferon-regulated genes. Virology. 1992;186:154-60 pubmed
    ..Similarly, direct activation of the mouse Mx1 gene by NDV or influenza virus was not significant in mouse embryo cells or explanted peritoneal macrophages...
  61. Irving N, Hardy J, Brown S. The multipoint genetic mapping of mouse chromosome 16. Genomics. 1991;9:386-9 pubmed
    ..The map position of Gap43 indicates the presence, on mouse chromosome 16, of a significant-size conserved linkage group with human chromosome 3. ..
  62. Haller O, Arnheiter H, Lindenmann J, Gresser I. Host gene influences sensitivity to interferon action selectively for influenza virus. Nature. 1980;283:660-2 pubmed
  63. Staeheli P, Pravtcheva D, Lundin L, Acklin M, Ruddle F, Lindenmann J, et al. Interferon-regulated influenza virus resistance gene Mx is localized on mouse chromosome 16. J Virol. 1986;58:967-9 pubmed
    ..In appropriate backcross mice, no linkage was observed between Mx and md, a marker previously mapped close to the centromere of chromosome 16, suggesting a more distal localization of Mx. ..
  64. Staeheli P, Haller O, Boll W, Lindenmann J, Weissmann C. Mx protein: constitutive expression in 3T3 cells transformed with cloned Mx cDNA confers selective resistance to influenza virus. Cell. 1986;44:147-58 pubmed
    ..Thus, specific resistance to influenza virus in vivo may be attributed to Mx protein expression and is independent of other IFN-mediated effects. ..
  65. Staeheli P, Sutcliffe J. Identification of a second interferon-regulated murine Mx gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:4524-8 pubmed
    ..Mx2 mRNA is more than 90% identical to Mx1 mRNA in the region corresponding to the amino termini of the encoded proteins...
  66. Hug H, Costas M, Staeheli P, Aebi M, Weissmann C. Organization of the murine Mx gene and characterization of its interferon- and virus-inducible promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:3065-79 pubmed
    ..This region contains five elements of the type GAAANN, which occurs in all IFN- and virus-inducible promoters. The consensus sequence purine-GAAAN(N/-)GAAA(C/G)-pyrimidine is found in all IFN-inducible promoters. ..
  67. Frese M, Lee E, Larena M, Lim P, Rao S, Matthaei K, et al. Internal ribosome entry site-based attenuation of a flavivirus candidate vaccine and evaluation of the effect of beta interferon coexpression on vaccine properties. J Virol. 2014;88:2056-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may aid in the rational design of a new class of well-tolerated and safe vaccines. ..
  68. Krug R, Shaw M, Broni B, Shapiro G, Haller O. Inhibition of influenza viral mRNA synthesis in cells expressing the interferon-induced Mx gene product. J Virol. 1985;56:201-6 pubmed
    ..No Mx-specific effect acting directly on viral protein synthesis in the cytoplasm was observed. ..
  69. Ciancanelli M, Abel L, Zhang S, Casanova J. Host genetics of severe influenza: from mouse Mx1 to human IRF7. Curr Opin Immunol. 2016;38:109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated by forward genetics in inbred mice, with the identification of interferon (IFN)-α/β-inducible Mx1 as a canonical influenza susceptibility gene...
  70. Arnheiter H, Haller O, Lindenmann J. Pathology of influenza hepatitis in susceptible and genetically resistant mice. Exp Cell Biol. 1976;44:95-107 pubmed
    ..They were infiltrated by cells morphologically resembling liver macrophages (Kupffer cells), and they regressed from the 4th day after infection. Barriers to virus spread appeared to be present at all stages of the disease. ..