Gene Symbol: Muc2
Description: mucin 2
Alias: 2010015E03Rik, MCM, wnn, mucin-2, colonic mucin, secreted gel-forming mucin
Species: mouse
Products:     Muc2

Top Publications

  1. Shahzeidi S, Aujla P, Nickola T, Chen Y, Alimam M, Rose M. Temporal analysis of goblet cells and mucin gene expression in murine models of allergic asthma. Exp Lung Res. 2003;29:549-65 pubmed
    ..Increased Muc5ac and Muc2 mRNA expression occurred following ovalbumin or IL13, but not saline, exposure...
  2. Garg P, Ravi A, Patel N, Roman J, Gewirtz A, Merlin D, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 regulates MUC-2 expression through its effect on goblet cell differentiation. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:1877-89 pubmed
    ..The effect of MMP-9 on goblet cells could contribute to alteration in mucosal defense leading to inflammation. Together, our data uncover a novel function of MMP-9 in intestinal epithelial cells. ..
  3. Fijneman R, Peham J, van de Wiel M, Meijer G, Matise I, Velcich A, et al. Expression of Pla2g2a prevents carcinogenesis in Muc2-deficient mice. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:2113-9 pubmed publisher
    Goblet cell depletion and down-regulation of MUC2 expression are observed in a significant percentage of human non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas...
  4. Subramani D, Johansson M, Dahlen G, Hansson G. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species do not secrete protease that cleaves the MUC2 mucin which organises the colon mucus. Benef Microbes. 2010;1:343-50 pubmed publisher
    The colon epithelium is covered by two layers of mucus built around the MUC2 mucin. An inner dense and attached mucus layer does not allow bacteria to penetrate, thus keeping the epithelial cell surface free from bacteria...
  5. Shan Y, Fang J, Lai M, Yen M, Lin P, Hsu H, et al. Establishment of an orthotopic transplantable gastric cancer animal model for studying the immunological effects of new cancer therapeutic modules. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:739-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of gastric cancer markers MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC, and oncogenes c-myc, c-met, cyclin E1, and cancer stem cell marker CD44 was determined in MGCC3I cells...
  6. Petersson J, Schreiber O, Hansson G, Gendler S, Velcich A, Lundberg J, et al. Importance and regulation of the colonic mucus barrier in a mouse model of colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;300:G327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, regulation of mucus secretion by luminal bacterial products was studied. The colon of anesthetized Muc2(-/-), Muc1(-/-), wild-type (wt), and germ-free mice was exteriorized, the mucosal surface was visualized, and mucus ..
  7. Johansson M, Phillipson M, Petersson J, Velcich A, Holm L, Hansson G. The inner of the two Muc2 mucin-dependent mucus layers in colon is devoid of bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteomics revealed that both of these layers have similar protein composition, with the large gel-forming mucin Muc2 as the major structural component...
  8. Burger van Paassen N, Van Der Sluis M, Bouma J, Korteland Van Male A, Lu P, Van Seuningen I, et al. Colitis development during the suckling-weaning transition in mucin Muc2-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;301:G667-78 pubmed publisher
    The mucin Muc2 is the structural component of the colonic mucus layer. Adult Muc2 knockout (Muc2(-/-)) mice suffer from severe colitis...
  9. Bao Y, Guo Y, Li Z, Fang W, Yang Y, Li X, et al. MicroRNA profiling in Muc2 knockout mice of colitis-associated cancer model reveals epigenetic alterations during chronic colitis malignant transformation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99132 pubmed publisher
    Our previous studies have demonstrated that genetic deletion of the Muc2 gene causes colorectal cancers in mice...

More Information


  1. Heazlewood C, Cook M, Eri R, Price G, Tauro S, Taupin D, et al. Aberrant mucin assembly in mice causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and spontaneous inflammation resembling ulcerative colitis. PLoS Med. 2008;5:e54 pubmed publisher
    b>MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells is the major component of the intestinal mucus barrier...
  2. Bondow B, Faber M, Wojta K, Walker E, Battle M. E-cadherin is required for intestinal morphogenesis in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2012;371:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data demonstrate that E-cadherin is essential for intestinal epithelial morphogenesis and homeostasis during embryonic development. ..
  3. Gregorieff A, Stange D, Kujala P, Begthel H, van den Born M, Korving J, et al. The ets-domain transcription factor Spdef promotes maturation of goblet and paneth cells in the intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1333-45.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of the Wnt-responsive, Ets-domain transcription factor Spdef in the differentiation of goblet and Paneth cells...
  4. Johansson M, Thomsson K, Hansson G. Proteomic analyses of the two mucus layers of the colon barrier reveal that their main component, the Muc2 mucin, is strongly bound to the Fcgbp protein. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:3549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..A major protein was the Muc2 mucin that by its net-like disulfide-bonded polymer structure builds the mucus...
  5. Eri R, Adams R, Tran T, Tong H, Das I, Roche D, et al. An intestinal epithelial defect conferring ER stress results in inflammation involving both innate and adaptive immunity. Mucosal Immunol. 2011;4:354-64 pubmed publisher
    We recently characterized Winnie mice carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, leading to severe endoplasmic reticulum stress in intestinal goblet cells and spontaneous colitis...
  6. Yang K, Popova N, Yang W, Lozonschi I, Tadesse S, Kent S, et al. Interaction of Muc2 and Apc on Wnt signaling and in intestinal tumorigenesis: potential role of chronic inflammation. Cancer Res. 2008;68:7313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..A common characteristic of such tumors is reduction in the number of goblet cells that produce the mucin MUC2, the principal component of intestinal mucus...
  7. Wei X, Yang Z, Rey F, Ridaura V, Davidson N, Gordon J, et al. Fatty acid synthase modulates intestinal barrier function through palmitoylation of mucin 2. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:140-52 pubmed publisher insulin-responsive enzyme essential for de novo lipogenesis, helps maintain the mucus barrier by regulating Mucin 2, the dominant mucin in the colon and a central component of mucus...
  8. Van Der Sluis M, de Koning B, De Bruijn A, Velcich A, Meijerink J, van Goudoever J, et al. Muc2-deficient mice spontaneously develop colitis, indicating that MUC2 is critical for colonic protection. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:117-29 pubmed
    Expression of mucin MUC2, the structural component of the colonic mucus layer, is lowered in inflammatory bowel disease. Our aim was to obtain insight in the role of Muc2 in epithelial protection...
  9. Yang W, Velcich A, Lozonschi I, Liang J, Nicholas C, Zhuang M, et al. Inactivation of p21WAF1/cip1 enhances intestinal tumor formation in Muc2-/- mice. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:1239-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we mated p21(-/-) mice with mice carrying a genetic deficiency of the Muc2 gene, which encodes the major gastrointestinal mucin...
  10. Velcich A, Yang W, Heyer J, Fragale A, Nicholas C, Viani S, et al. Colorectal cancer in mice genetically deficient in the mucin Muc2. Science. 2002;295:1726-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the importance of mucin in intestinal carcinogenesis, we constructed mice genetically deficient in Muc2, the most abundant secreted gastrointestinal mucin...
  11. Prokhortchouk A, Sansom O, Selfridge J, Caballero I, Salozhin S, Aithozhina D, et al. Kaiso-deficient mice show resistance to intestinal cancer. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:199-208 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that Kaiso plays a role in intestinal cancer and may therefore represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  12. Ambort D, Johansson M, Gustafsson J, Nilsson H, Ermund A, Johansson B, et al. Calcium and pH-dependent packing and release of the gel-forming MUC2 mucin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5645-50 pubmed publisher
    MUC2, the major colonic mucin, forms large polymers by N-terminal trimerization and C-terminal dimerization...
  13. Prandi S, Bromke M, Hübner S, Voigt A, Boehm U, Meyerhof W, et al. A subset of mouse colonic goblet cells expresses the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82820 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression in colonic goblet cells is consistent with a role of Tas2rs in defense mechanisms against potentially harmful xenobiotics. ..
  14. Van Klinken B, Einerhand A, Duits L, Makkink M, Tytgat K, Renes I, et al. Gastrointestinal expression and partial cDNA cloning of murine Muc2. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:G115-24 pubmed
    ..the role of mucin in the protection of the colonic epithelium in the mouse, we aimed to identify the murine colonic mucin (MCM) and its encoding gene...
  15. Comelli E, Simmering R, Faure M, Donnicola D, Mansourian R, Rochat F, et al. Multifaceted transcriptional regulation of the murine intestinal mucus layer by endogenous microbiota. Genomics. 2008;91:70-7 pubmed
    ..These findings show that a well-established microbial community participates in the regulation of the gut mucus layer and that its composition and adequacy to the host are key factors in this process. ..
  16. Martin N, Mount Patrick S, Estrada T, Frisk H, Rogan D, Dvorak B, et al. Active transport of bile acids decreases mucin 2 in neonatal ileum: implications for development of necrotizing enterocolitis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27191 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that mucin 2 (Muc2) positive goblet cells are significantly decreased in NEC...
  17. Woodfint R, Chen P, Ahn J, Suh Y, Hwang S, Lee S, et al. Identification of the MUC2 Promoter as a Strong Promoter for Intestinal Gene Expression through Generation of Transgenic Quail Expressing GFP in Gut Epithelial Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2) expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse ..
  18. Wenzel U, Magnusson M, Rydström A, Jonstrand C, Hengst J, Johansson M, et al. Spontaneous colitis in Muc2-deficient mice reflects clinical and cellular features of active ulcerative colitis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e100217 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize alterations in the immune compartment due to intestinal bacterial breach in Muc2-/- mice, which lack the colon mucus barrier, and correlate the findings to active UC...
  19. Schütte A, Ermund A, Becker Pauly C, Johansson M, Rodríguez Piñeiro A, Bäckhed F, et al. Microbial-induced meprin β cleavage in MUC2 mucin and a functional CFTR channel are required to release anchored small intestinal mucus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12396-401 pubmed publisher
    ..covers and protects the epithelium of the intestine is built around its major structural component, the gel-forming MUC2 mucin. The gel-forming mucins have traditionally been assumed to be secreted as nonattached...
  20. Arike L, Holmén Larsson J, Hansson G. Intestinal Muc2 mucin O-glycosylation is affected by microbiota and regulated by differential expression of glycosyltranferases. Glycobiology. 2017;27:318-328 pubmed publisher
    ..While mucus protein composition is relatively homogenous along the intestine, its main component the Muc2 mucin shows regiospecific O-glycan patterns...
  21. Escande F, Porchet N, Bernigaud A, Petitprez D, Aubert J, Buisine M. The mouse secreted gel-forming mucin gene cluster. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1676:240-50 pubmed
    ..available in GenBank, we determined the complete gene structure of the four mouse secreted gel-forming mucin genes Muc2, Muc5ac, Muc5b and Muc6 and the organization of the genomic locus harboring these genes...
  22. Borchers M, Carty M, Leikauf G. Regulation of human airway mucins by acrolein and inflammatory mediators. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:L549-55 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings imply that irritants like acrolein can directly and indirectly (via inflammatory mediators) increase airway mucin transcripts in epithelial cells. ..
  23. Cobo E, Kissoon Singh V, Moreau F, Holani R, Chadee K. MUC2 Mucin and Butyrate Contribute to the Synthesis of the Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin in Response to Entamoeba histolytica- and Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..Altered production of MUC2 mucin and antimicrobial peptides is characteristic of intestinal amebiasis...
  24. Van Der Sluis M, Melis M, Jonckheere N, Ducourouble M, Büller H, Renes I, et al. The murine Muc2 mucin gene is transcriptionally regulated by the zinc-finger GATA-4 transcription factor in intestinal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;325:952-60 pubmed
    b>MUC2, the major mucin in the intestine, is expressed early during development and shows an altered expression pattern in intestinal bowel diseases...
  25. Van Der Sluis M, Schaart M, de Koning B, Schierbeek H, Velcich A, Renes I, et al. Threonine metabolism in the intestine of mice: loss of mucin 2 induces the threonine catabolic pathway. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49:99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..intake for the synthesis of the structural component of the protective intestinal mucus layer, the secretory mucin Muc2. In this context, the high intestinal demand for dietary threonine probably results from its incorporation into ..
  26. Weis V, Knowles B, Choi E, Goldstein A, Williams J, Manning E, et al. Loss of MYO5B in mice recapitulates Microvillus Inclusion Disease and reveals an apical trafficking pathway distinct to neonatal duodenum. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2:131-157 pubmed
    ..However, the diarrheal pathology after MYO5B loss is due to deficits in transporter presentation at the apical membrane in duodenal enterocytes. ..
  27. Shan Y, Hsu H, Lai M, Yen M, Fang J, Weng T, et al. Suppression of mucin 2 promotes interleukin-6 secretion and tumor growth in an orthotopic immune-competent colon cancer animal model. Oncol Rep. 2014;32:2335-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucin 2 (MUC2) is the major secreted mucin of the large intestine and is expressed by adenomas and mucinous carcinomas...
  28. Kinzel B, Pikiolek M, Orsini V, Sprunger J, Isken A, Zietzling S, et al. Functional roles of Lgr4 and Lgr5 in embryonic gut, kidney and skin development in mice. Dev Biol. 2014;390:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports complementary functions of both receptors. Our findings clearly establish the importance of Lgr4 and Lgr5 during embryonic gut, skin and kidney development, with a dominant role of Lgr4...
  29. Liquori G, Mastrodonato M, Mentino D, Scillitani G, Desantis S, Portincasa P, et al. In situ characterization of O-linked glycans of Muc2 in mouse colon. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:723-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Lectin histochemistry also demonstrated the presence of glycosidic residues of N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose in oligosaccharide chains of highly sulfated mucins. ..
  30. Van Der Sluis M, Bouma J, Vincent A, Velcich A, Carraway K, Büller H, et al. Combined defects in epithelial and immunoregulatory factors exacerbate the pathogenesis of inflammation: mucin 2-interleukin 10-deficient mice. Lab Invest. 2008;88:634-42 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the mucin MUC2, the structural component of the colonic mucus layer, is lowered in ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-10 knockout (IL-10-/-) mice develop colitis and have reduced Muc2 levels...
  31. Reynolds S, Zemke A, Giangreco A, Brockway B, Teisanu R, Drake J, et al. Conditional stabilization of beta-catenin expands the pool of lung stem cells. Stem Cells. 2008;26:1337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that the differentiation-modulating activities of stabilized beta-catenin account for expansion of tissue stem cells. ..
  32. Birchenough G, Nyström E, Johansson M, Hansson G. A sentinel goblet cell guards the colonic crypt by triggering Nlrp6-dependent Muc2 secretion. Science. 2016;352:1535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This triggers calcium ion-dependent compound exocytosis of Muc2 mucin from the senGC and generates an intercellular gap junction signal; in turn, this signal induces Muc2 ..
  33. Elliott E, Sheaffer K, Schug J, Stappenbeck T, Kaestner K. Dnmt1 is essential to maintain progenitors in the perinatal intestinal epithelium. Development. 2015;142:2163-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate an essential role for Dnmt1 in maintaining genomic stability during intestinal development and the establishment of intestinal crypts. ..
  34. Gaudier E, Rival M, Buisine M, Robineau I, Hoebler C. Butyrate enemas upregulate Muc genes expression but decrease adherent mucus thickness in mice colon. Physiol Res. 2009;58:111-9 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that butyrate stimulated the gene expression of both secreted (Muc2) and membrane-linked (Muc1, Muc3, Muc4) mucins...
  35. Burger van Paassen N, Loonen L, Witte Bouma J, Korteland Van Male A, De Bruijn A, Van Der Sluis M, et al. Mucin Muc2 deficiency and weaning influences the expression of the innate defense genes Reg3?, Reg3? and angiogenin-4. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38798 pubmed publisher
    Mucin Muc2 is the structural component of the intestinal mucus layer. Absence of Muc2 leads to loss of this layer allowing direct bacterial-epithelial interactions...
  36. Obata Y, Kimura S, Nakato G, Iizuka K, Miyagawa Y, Nakamura Y, et al. Epithelial-stromal interaction via Notch signaling is essential for the full maturation of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:1297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that epithelial Notch signaling maintained by stromal cells contributes to the full maturation of GALT by restricting secretory cell differentiation in FAE. ..
  37. Bergstrom K, Kissoon Singh V, Gibson D, Ma C, Montero M, Sham H, et al. Muc2 protects against lethal infectious colitis by disassociating pathogenic and commensal bacteria from the colonic mucosa. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000902 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to determine the role of goblet cell-derived Muc2, the major intestinal secretory mucin and primary component of the mucus layer, in host protection against A/E ..
  38. Tsuru A, Fujimoto N, Takahashi S, Saito M, Nakamura D, Iwano M, et al. Negative feedback by IRE1β optimizes mucin production in goblet cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2864-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In IRE1β(-/-) mice, aberrant mucin 2 (MUC2) accumulated in the ER of goblet cells, accompanied by ER distension and elevated ER stress signaling such ..
  39. Robinson A, Rahman A, Carbone S, Randall Demllo S, Filippone R, Bornstein J, et al. Alterations of colonic function in the Winnie mouse model of spontaneous chronic colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;312:G85-G102 pubmed publisher
    The Winnie mouse, carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, is a model for chronic intestinal inflammation demonstrating symptoms closely resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  40. Zarepour M, Bhullar K, Montero M, Ma C, Huang T, Velcich A, et al. The mucin Muc2 limits pathogen burdens and epithelial barrier dysfunction during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colitis. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3672-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The intestinal mucus layer is composed primarily of the Muc2 mucin, a heavily O-glycosylated glycoprotein...
  41. Rodríguez Piñeiro A, Bergström J, Ermund A, Gustafsson J, Schütte A, Johansson M, et al. Studies of mucus in mouse stomach, small intestine, and colon. II. Gastrointestinal mucus proteome reveals Muc2 and Muc5ac accompanied by a set of core proteins. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;305:G348-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Hierarchical clustering pinpointed a number of such proteins that correlated with Muc2 (e.g., Clca1, Zg16, Klk1)...
  42. Kumar M, Kissoon Singh V, Coria A, Moreau F, Chadee K. Probiotic mixture VSL#3 reduces colonic inflammation and improves intestinal barrier function in Muc2 mucin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;312:G34-G45 pubmed publisher
    b>MUC2 mucin is the major glycoprotein in colonic mucus that separates intestinal microbiota from underlying host cells and serves as a food source for some eubacteria...
  43. Aslam F, Palumbo L, Augenlicht L, Velcich A. The Sp family of transcription factors in the regulation of the human and mouse MUC2 gene promoters. Cancer Res. 2001;61:570-6 pubmed
    ..has suggested that the Sp family of transcription factors may play an important role in the regulation of the human MUC2 gene. To determine whether this was an essential element, we extended our work to the cloning and analysis of 3...
  44. Pysz M, Leontieva O, Bateman N, Uronis J, Curry K, Threadgill D, et al. PKCalpha tumor suppression in the intestine is associated with transcriptional and translational inhibition of cyclin D1. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:1415-28 pubmed publisher
  45. Shan M, Gentile M, Yeiser J, Walland A, Bornstein V, Chen K, et al. Mucus enhances gut homeostasis and oral tolerance by delivering immunoregulatory signals. Science. 2013;342:447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This mucus barrier is organized around the hyperglycosylated mucin MUC2. Here we show that the small intestine has a porous mucus layer, which permitted the uptake of MUC2 by antigen-..
  46. Wallace J, Vong L, Dharmani P, Srivastava V, Chadee K. Muc-2-deficient mice display a sex-specific, COX-2-related impairment of gastric mucosal repair. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1126-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Although not normally expressed in the stomach, mucin-2 (MUC-2, encoded by the MUC2 gene) is expressed in certain disease states...
  47. Holmén Larsson J, Thomsson K, Rodríguez Piñeiro A, Karlsson H, Hansson G. Studies of mucus in mouse stomach, small intestine, and colon. III. Gastrointestinal Muc5ac and Muc2 mucin O-glycan patterns reveal a regiospecific distribution. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;305:G357-63 pubmed publisher
    The mouse intestinal mucus is mainly made up by the gel-forming Muc2 mucin and the stomach surface mucus Muc5ac, both extensively O-glycosylated...
  48. Lu P, Bar Yoseph F, Levi L, Lifshitz Y, Witte Bouma J, De Bruijn A, et al. High beta-palmitate fat controls the intestinal inflammatory response and limits intestinal damage in mucin Muc2 deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65878 pubmed publisher
    ..of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF) diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF) diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/-)) mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a ..
  49. Das B, Cash M, Hand A, Shivazad A, Culp D. Expression of Muc19/Smgc gene products during murine sublingual gland development: cytodifferentiation and maturation of salivary mucous cells. J Histochem Cytochem. 2009;57:383-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes in Muc19/Smgc gene expression delineate multiple stages of salivary mucous cell cytodifferentiation and subsequent maturation during embryonic gland development through the first 4 weeks of postnatal life...
  50. Van Der Sluis M, Vincent A, Bouma J, Korteland Van Male A, van Goudoever J, Renes I, et al. Forkhead box transcription factors Foxa1 and Foxa2 are important regulators of Muc2 mucin expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:1108-13 pubmed publisher
    The mucin Muc2 is the main component of the intestinal mucus layer and thus plays important roles in intestinal protection. Therefore, it is important to understand its regulation during goblet cell differentiation...
  51. Tashiro M, Iwata A, Yamauchi M, Shimizu K, Okada A, Ishiguro N, et al. The N-terminal region of serum amyloid A3 protein activates NF-?B and up-regulates MUC2 mucin mRNA expression in mouse colonic epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181796 pubmed publisher
    ..increased on the mouse colon surface in the presence of microbiota in vivo, and it increases mRNA expression of mucin 2 (MUC2) in murine colonic epithelial cells in vitro, which constitutes a protective mucus barrier in the ..
  52. Khatri I, Ho C, Specian R, Forstner J. Characteristics of rodent intestinal mucin Muc3 and alterations in a mouse model of human cystic fibrosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;280:G1321-30 pubmed
    ..In a mouse model of human cystic fibrosis, both soluble Muc3 and goblet cell Muc2 were increased in amount and hypersecreted...
  53. Tomasetto C, Masson R, Linares J, Wendling C, Lefebvre O, Chenard M, et al. pS2/TFF1 interacts directly with the VWFC cysteine-rich domains of mucins. Gastroenterology. 2000;118:70-80 pubmed
  54. Znalesniak E, Fu T, Salm F, Händel U, Hoffmann W. Transcriptional Responses in the Murine Spleen after Toxoplasma gondii Infection: Inflammasome and Mucus-Associated Genes. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..e., gastrokines (Gkn), IgG Fc binding protein (Fcgbp), and the mucin Muc2. The corresponding gene products belong to an interactome protecting mucous epithelia...
  55. Amat C, Motta J, Fekete E, Moreau F, Chadee K, Buret A. Cysteine Protease-Dependent Mucous Disruptions and Differential Mucin Gene Expression in Giardia duodenalis Infection. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2486-2498 pubmed publisher
    ..duodenalis evades and disrupts the first line of host defense by degrading human mucin-2 (MUC2), depleting mucin stores and inducing differential gene expression in the mouse small and large intestines...
  56. Dilly A, Lee Y, Zeh H, Guo Z, Bartlett D, Choudry H. Targeting hypoxia-mediated mucin 2 production as a therapeutic strategy for mucinous tumors. Transl Res. 2016;169:19-30.e1 pubmed publisher
    Excessive accumulation of mucin 2 (MUC2; a gel-forming secreted mucin) protein in the peritoneal cavity is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP)...
  57. Wenzel U, Jonstrand C, Hansson G, Wick M. CD103+ CD11b+ Dendritic Cells Induce Th17 T Cells in Muc2-Deficient Mice with Extensively Spread Colitis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130750 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Muc2-/- mice, which lack a functional mucus barrier and develop spontaneous colitis, we show that colitic animals have ..
  58. Shigemura H, Ishiguro N, Inoshima Y. Up-regulation of MUC2 mucin expression by serum amyloid A3 protein in mouse colonic epithelial cells. J Vet Med Sci. 2014;76:985-91 pubmed
    ..In comparisons of cell treatments with rSAA1 or rSAA3, rSAA3 significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), a major component of the mucus layer of the intestines that acts as an epithelial cell barrier against ..
  59. VanDussen K, Samuelson L. Mouse atonal homolog 1 directs intestinal progenitors to secretory cell rather than absorptive cell fate. Dev Biol. 2010;346:215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Math1 is a key effector directing multipotential precursors to adopt secretory and not absorptive cell fate. ..
  60. Hasnain S, Wang H, Ghia J, Haq N, Deng Y, Velcich A, et al. Mucin gene deficiency in mice impairs host resistance to an enteric parasitic infection. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the precise role of mucins in host defense in nematode infection is not known. We investigated the role of the mucin (Muc2) in worm expulsion and host immunity in a model of nematode infection.
  61. Kosinsky R, Wegwitz F, Hellbach N, Dobbelstein M, Mansouri A, Vogel T, et al. Usp22 deficiency impairs intestinal epithelial lineage specification in vivo. Oncotarget. 2015;6:37906-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we provide evidence for a physiological role for USP22 in controlling cell differentiation and lineage specification. ..
  62. Yu T, Chen X, Lin T, Liu J, Li M, Zhang W, et al. KLF4 deletion alters gastric cell lineage and induces MUC2 expression. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2255 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, the intestinal goblet cell marker, MUC2, which is not expressed in normal gastric tissues, was strongly induced at the base of the KLF4-deleted antral ..
  63. Desseyn J, Laine A. Characterization of mouse muc6 and evidence of conservation of the gel-forming mucin gene cluster between human and mouse. Genomics. 2003;81:433-6 pubmed
    ..This gene is clustered with the three secreted large gel-forming mucins Muc2, Muc5ac, and Muc5b in a region that exhibits synteny with human chromosome 11p15...
  64. Blache P, van de Wetering M, Duluc I, Domon C, Berta P, Freund J, et al. SOX9 is an intestine crypt transcription factor, is regulated by the Wnt pathway, and represses the CDX2 and MUC2 genes. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:37-47 pubmed
    ..Finally, in colon epithelium-derived cells, SOX9 transcriptionally represses the CDX2 and MUC2 genes, normally expressed in the mature villus cells of the intestinal epithelium, and may therefore contribute to ..
  65. Das I, Png C, Oancea I, Hasnain S, Lourie R, Proctor M, et al. Glucocorticoids alleviate intestinal ER stress by enhancing protein folding and degradation of misfolded proteins. J Exp Med. 2013;210:1201-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In Winnie mice with intestinal ER stress caused by misfolding of the Muc2 mucin, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) suppressed ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (..
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    ..We quantified early innate responses to Eh in wild-type and MUC-2-deficient mice (Muc2(-/-)) using closed colonic loops...
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    ..Although impaired mucin (Muc2) production by goblet cells increases microbial stimulation of the colonic mucosa, goblet cells secrete other ..