Mtor

Summary

Gene Symbol: Mtor
Description: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase
Alias: 2610315D21Rik, AI327068, FRAP, FRAP2, Frap1, RAFT1, RAPT1, flat, serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR, FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1, FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin complex-associated protein 1, FKBP-rapamycin associated protein (FRAP), FKBP12-rapamycin complex-associated protein, angiopoietin-like factor CDT6, mammalian target of rapamycin, mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase), rapamycin target protein 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Mtor

Top Publications

  1. Hahn Windgassen A, Nogueira V, Chen C, Skeen J, Sonenberg N, Hay N. Akt activates the mammalian target of rapamycin by regulating cellular ATP level and AMPK activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32081-9 pubmed
    The serine/threonine kinase Akt is an upstream positive regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). However, the mechanism by which Akt activates mTOR is not fully understood...
  2. Ching J, Elizabeth S, Ju J, Lusk C, Pittman S, Weihl C. mTOR dysfunction contributes to vacuolar pathology and weakness in valosin-containing protein associated inclusion body myopathy. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:1167-79 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the regulation of autophagy in VCP-IBM muscle, we examined the AKT/FOXO3 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Basal Akt and FOXO3 phosphorylation was normal...
  3. Lamming D, Mihaylova M, Katajisto P, Baar E, Yilmaz O, Hutchins A, et al. Depletion of Rictor, an essential protein component of mTORC2, decreases male lifespan. Aging Cell. 2014;13:911-7 pubmed publisher
    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), robustly extends the lifespan of model organisms including mice...
  4. Castets P, Rüegg M. MTORC1 determines autophagy through ULK1 regulation in skeletal muscle. Autophagy. 2013;9:1435-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, MTORC1 constitutes the master regulator of autophagy induction in skeletal muscle and its deregulation leads to pathologic alterations of muscle homeostasis. ..
  5. Robitaille A, Christen S, Shimobayashi M, Cornu M, Fava L, Moes S, et al. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveal mTORC1 activates de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Science. 2013;339:1320-3 pubmed publisher
    The Ser-Thr kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and metabolism by stimulating glycolysis and synthesis of proteins and lipids...
  6. Paliouras G, Hamilton L, Aumont A, Joppé S, Barnabe Heider F, Fernandes K. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is a key regulator of the transit-amplifying progenitor pool in the adult and aging forebrain. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15012-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is pivotal in determining proliferation versus quiescence in the adult forebrain ..
  7. Leontieva O, Paszkiewicz G, Blagosklonny M. Fasting levels of hepatic p-S6 are increased in old mice. Cell Cycle. 2014;13:2656-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that, after overnight fasting, mTOR activity is higher in the livers of 28 months old female mice compared with middle-aged mice...
  8. Zhang C, Jiang B, Li M, Zhu M, Peng Y, Zhang Y, et al. The lysosomal v-ATPase-Ragulator complex is a common activator for AMPK and mTORC1, acting as a switch between catabolism and anabolism. Cell Metab. 2014;20:526-40 pubmed publisher
    AMPK and mTOR play principal roles in governing metabolic programs; however, mechanisms underlying the coordination of the two inversely regulated kinases remain unclear...
  9. Cornu M, Oppliger W, Albert V, Robitaille A, Trapani F, Quagliata L, et al. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:11592-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is ..

More Information

Publications92

  1. Wu J, Liu J, Chen E, Wang J, Cao L, Narayan N, et al. Increased mammalian lifespan and a segmental and tissue-specific slowing of aging after genetic reduction of mTOR expression. Cell Rep. 2013;4:913-20 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed aging parameters using a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) hypomorphic mouse model. Mice with two hypomorphic (mTOR(Δ/Δ)) alleles are viable but express mTOR at approximately 25% of wild-type levels...
  2. Potter W, Basu T, O Riordan K, Kirchner A, Rutecki P, Burger C, et al. Reduced juvenile long-term depression in tuberous sclerosis complex is mitigated in adults by compensatory recruitment of mGluR5 and Erk signaling. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001627 pubmed publisher
    ..Heightened signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is involved in TSC pathology, however it remains unclear how other signaling pathways ..
  3. Yang S, Tien A, Boddupalli G, Xu A, Jan Y, Jan L. Rapamycin ameliorates age-dependent obesity associated with increased mTOR signaling in hypothalamic POMC neurons. Neuron. 2012;75:425-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report an age-dependent increase of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in POMC neurons that elevates the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel activity ..
  4. Gulen M, Bulek K, Xiao H, Yu M, Gao J, Sun L, et al. Inactivation of the enzyme GSK3? by the kinase IKKi promotes AKT-mTOR signaling pathway that mediates interleukin-1-induced Th17 cell maintenance. Immunity. 2012;37:800-12 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced activation of the mTOR kinase pathway has major influences on Th17 cell survival, proliferation, and effector function...
  5. Weichhart T, Costantino G, Poglitsch M, Rosner M, Zeyda M, Stuhlmeier K, et al. The TSC-mTOR signaling pathway regulates the innate inflammatory response. Immunity. 2008;29:565-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we showed that the tuberous sclerosis complex-mammalian target of rapamycin (TSC-mTOR) pathway regulated inflammatory responses after bacterial stimulation in monocytes, ..
  6. Bidinosti M, Ran I, Sanchez Carbente M, Martineau Y, Gingras A, Gkogkas C, et al. Postnatal deamidation of 4E-BP2 in brain enhances its association with raptor and alters kinetics of excitatory synaptic transmission. Mol Cell. 2010;37:797-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Deamidated 4E-BP2 exhibits increased binding to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-binding protein raptor, which effects its reduced association with eIF4E...
  7. Park K, Liu K, Hu Y, Smith P, Wang C, Cai B, et al. Promoting axon regeneration in the adult CNS by modulation of the PTEN/mTOR pathway. Science. 2008;322:963-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), a negative regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes robust axon regeneration after optic ..
  8. Shiota C, Woo J, Lindner J, Shelton K, Magnuson M. Multiallelic disruption of the rictor gene in mice reveals that mTOR complex 2 is essential for fetal growth and viability. Dev Cell. 2006;11:583-9 pubmed
    The rapamycin-insensitive mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) has been suggested to play an important role in growth factor-dependent signaling...
  9. Park I, Erbay E, Nuzzi P, Chen J. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1. Exp Cell Res. 2005;309:211-9 pubmed
    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors...
  10. Herningtyas E, Okimura Y, Handayaningsih A, Yamamoto D, Maki T, Iida K, et al. Branched-chain amino acids and arginine suppress MaFbx/atrogin-1 mRNA expression via mTOR pathway in C2C12 cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:1115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicated that leucine, isoleucine and arginine decreased atrogin-1 mRNA levels via mTOR and that different pathways were involved in the effect of those amino acids on MuRF1 mRNA levels.
  11. Majumder P, Febbo P, Bikoff R, Berger R, Xue Q, McMahon L, et al. mTOR inhibition reverses Akt-dependent prostate intraepithelial neoplasia through regulation of apoptotic and HIF-1-dependent pathways. Nat Med. 2004;10:594-601 pubmed
    ..Clinical trials are now testing whether mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition is useful in treating PTEN-null cancers...
  12. Miyazaki M, McCarthy J, Fedele M, Esser K. Early activation of mTORC1 signalling in response to mechanical overload is independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling. J Physiol. 2011;589:1831-46 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions as a central integrator of a wide range of signals that modulate protein metabolism and cell growth...
  13. Zhang H, Cicchetti G, Onda H, Koon H, Asrican K, Bajraszewski N, et al. Loss of Tsc1/Tsc2 activates mTOR and disrupts PI3K-Akt signaling through downregulation of PDGFR. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1223-33 pubmed
    ..Tsc2(-/-)TP53(-/-) cells, as well as tumors from Tsc2(+/-) mice, display an mTOR-activation signature with constitutive activation of S6K, which is reverted by treatment with rapamycin...
  14. Narayanan U, Nalavadi V, Nakamoto M, Thomas G, Ceman S, Bassell G, et al. S6K1 phosphorylates and regulates fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) with the neuronal protein synthesis-dependent mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18478-82 pubmed publisher
    ..finding that activity-dependent phosphorylation of FMRP by S6K1 requires signaling inputs from mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ERK1/2, and PP2A...
  15. Dowling R, Zakikhani M, Fantus I, Pollak M, Sonenberg N. Metformin inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent translation initiation in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:10804-12 pubmed
    ..The decrease in translation caused by metformin was associated with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition, and a decrease in the phosphorylation of S6 kinase, ribosomal protein S6, and eIF4E-..
  16. Csibi A, Cornille K, Leibovitch M, Poupon A, Tintignac L, Sanchez A, et al. The translation regulatory subunit eIF3f controls the kinase-dependent mTOR signaling required for muscle differentiation and hypertrophy in mouse. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8994 pubmed publisher
    ..b>mTOR and S6K1 are connected by interacting with the eIF3 initiation complex...
  17. Wang L, Harris T, Lawrence J. Regulation of proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40) function by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-mediated phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:15619-27 pubmed publisher
    The rapamycin-sensitive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) contains mTOR, raptor, mLST8, and PRAS40 (proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa)...
  18. Hara K, Yonezawa K, Kozlowski M, Sugimoto T, Andrabi K, Weng Q, et al. Regulation of eIF-4E BP1 phosphorylation by mTOR. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:26457-63 pubmed
    ..Previous work has established that the protein known as mTOR/RAFT-1/FRAP is the target through which the rapamycin...
  19. Lu Z, Shvartsman M, Lee A, Shao J, Murray M, Kladney R, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin activator RHEB is frequently overexpressed in human carcinomas and is critical and sufficient for skin epithelial carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3287-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings offer direct evidence that RHEB facilitates multistage carcinogenesis through induction of multiple oncogenic mechanisms, perhaps contributing to the poor prognosis of patients with cancers overexpressing RHEB. ..
  20. Squarize C, Castilho R, Bugge T, Gutkind J. Accelerated wound healing by mTOR activation in genetically defined mouse models. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10643 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, whose aberrant function is a frequent event in human neoplasia, represents an integral component of the ..
  21. Lee K, Gudapati P, Dragovic S, Spencer C, Joyce S, Killeen N, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin protein complex 2 regulates differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cell subsets via distinct signaling pathways. Immunity. 2010;32:743-53 pubmed publisher
    Many functions of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) have been defined, but relatively little is known about the biology of an alternative mTOR complex, mTORC2...
  22. Chen C, Liu Y, Liu R, Ikenoue T, Guan K, Liu Y, et al. TSC-mTOR maintains quiescence and function of hematopoietic stem cells by repressing mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2397-408 pubmed publisher
    The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a key regulator of cellular metabolism...
  23. Sun Y, Ge Y, Drnevich J, Zhao Y, Band M, Chen J. Mammalian target of rapamycin regulates miRNA-1 and follistatin in skeletal myogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:1157-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a key regulator of skeletal muscle development by governing distinct stages of myogenesis, but the molecular pathways downstream of mTOR are not fully understood...
  24. Hagiwara A, Cornu M, Cybulski N, Polak P, Betz C, Trapani F, et al. Hepatic mTORC2 activates glycolysis and lipogenesis through Akt, glucokinase, and SREBP1c. Cell Metab. 2012;15:725-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) phosphorylates and activates AGC kinase family members, including Akt, SGK1, and PKC, in response to insulin/IGF1. The liver is a key organ in insulin-mediated regulation of metabolism...
  25. Hentges K, Thompson K, Peterson A. The flat-top gene is required for the expansion and regionalization of the telencephalic primordium. Development. 1999;126:1601-9 pubmed
    ..Telencephalic primordia are present in flat-top embryos but they fail to progress to form the telencephalic vesicles...
  26. Schmitz F, Heit A, Dreher S, Eisenächer K, Mages J, Haas T, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) orchestrates the defense program of innate immune cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2981-92 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) can be viewed as cellular master complex scoring cellular vitality and stress. Whether mTOR controls also innate immune-defenses is currently unknown...
  27. Patursky Polischuk I, Stolovich Rain M, Hausner Hanochi M, Kasir J, Cybulski N, Avruch J, et al. The TSC-mTOR pathway mediates translational activation of TOP mRNAs by insulin largely in a raptor- or rictor-independent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:640-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar results were obtained upon overexpression of Rheb, an immediate TSC1-TSC2 target. The role of mTOR, a downstream effector of Rheb, in translational control of TOP mRNAs has been extensively studied, albeit with ..
  28. Ashe K, Taylor K, Chu Q, Meyers E, Ellis A, Jingozyan V, et al. Inhibition of glycogen biosynthesis via mTORC1 suppression as an adjunct therapy for Pompe disease. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;100:309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest mTORC1 inhibition may benefit GSDs that involve glycogen accumulation in muscle. ..
  29. Lee C, Inoki K, Karbowniczek M, Petroulakis E, Sonenberg N, Henske E, et al. Constitutive mTOR activation in TSC mutants sensitizes cells to energy starvation and genomic damage via p53. EMBO J. 2007;26:4812-23 pubmed
    ..Miscoordination of growth and proliferation with the cellular stress response can lead to tumorigenesis. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central cell growth controller, is highly activated in some malignant neoplasms, and its ..
  30. Guertin D, Stevens D, Thoreen C, Burds A, Kalaany N, Moffat J, et al. Ablation in mice of the mTORC components raptor, rictor, or mLST8 reveals that mTORC2 is required for signaling to Akt-FOXO and PKCalpha, but not S6K1. Dev Cell. 2006;11:859-71 pubmed
    The mTOR kinase controls cell growth, proliferation, and survival through two distinct multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2...
  31. Goodman C, Frey J, Mabrey D, Jacobs B, Lincoln H, You J, et al. The role of skeletal muscle mTOR in the regulation of mechanical load-induced growth. J Physiol. 2011;589:5485-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Since rapamycin is considered to be a highly specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), many have concluded that mTOR plays a key role in CML-induced growth regulatory events...
  32. Donahue A, Fruman D. Distinct signaling mechanisms activate the target of rapamycin in response to different B-cell stimuli. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:2923-36 pubmed
    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream kinase, are both required for proliferation of splenic B cells...
  33. Stanfel M, Shamieh L, Kaeberlein M, Kennedy B. The TOR pathway comes of age. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:1067-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Longevity studies in mammals are not published to date. Instead, we highlight studies in mouse models, which indicate that dampening the TOR pathway leads to widespread protection from an array of age-related diseases. ..
  34. Facchinetti V, Ouyang W, Wei H, Soto N, Lazorchak A, Gould C, et al. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 controls folding and stability of Akt and protein kinase C. EMBO J. 2008;27:1932-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether TOR functions in this process as part of TORC2 remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that mTOR, SIN1 and rictor, components of mammalian (m)TORC2, are required for phosphorylation of Akt and conventional ..
  35. Wilson C, Bonnet C, Guy C, Idziaszczyk S, Colley J, Humphreys V, et al. Tsc1 haploinsufficiency without mammalian target of rapamycin activation is sufficient for renal cyst formation in Tsc1+/- mice. Cancer Res. 2006;66:7934-8 pubmed
    ..Knudson's "two-hit hypothesis" and that function within the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway...
  36. Shackelford D, Vasquez D, Corbeil J, Wu S, Leblanc M, Wu C, et al. mTOR and HIF-1alpha-mediated tumor metabolism in an LKB1 mouse model of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a number of therapeutic modalities for the treatment and detection of hamartomas in PJS patients, and potential for the screening and treatment of the 30% of sporadic human lung cancers bearing LKB1 mutations. ..
  37. Zhang S, Readinger J, DuBois W, Janka Junttila M, Robinson R, Pruitt M, et al. Constitutive reductions in mTOR alter cell size, immune cell development, and antibody production. Blood. 2011;117:1228-38 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian TOR (mTOR) regulates cell growth, proliferation, and migration...
  38. Chow D, Groszer M, Pribadi M, Machniki M, Carmichael S, Liu X, et al. Laminar and compartmental regulation of dendritic growth in mature cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:116-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Pten/mTOR signaling uniquely regulates the growth of layer 2/3 apical dendrites; no effects of gene deletion were observed on ..
  39. Hornberger T, Chu W, Mak Y, Hsiung J, Huang S, Chien S. The role of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4741-6 pubmed
    Signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to be necessary for mechanical load-induced growth of skeletal muscle...
  40. Salmond R, Zamoyska R. The influence of mTOR on T helper cell differentiation and dendritic cell function. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2137-41 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signalling responses to growth factors and nutrients...
  41. Zhang H, Lipovsky A, Dibble C, Sahin M, Manning B. S6K1 regulates GSK3 under conditions of mTOR-dependent feedback inhibition of Akt. Mol Cell. 2006;24:185-97 pubmed
    Feedback inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has emerged as an important signaling event in tumor syndromes, cancer, and insulin resistance...
  42. Sengupta S, Peterson T, Laplante M, Oh S, Sabatini D. mTORC1 controls fasting-induced ketogenesis and its modulation by ageing. Nature. 2010;468:1100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The loss of raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR, complex 1) an essential mTORC1 component, has the opposite effects...
  43. Soliman G, Acosta Jaquez H, Dunlop E, Ekim B, Maj N, Tee A, et al. mTOR Ser-2481 autophosphorylation monitors mTORC-specific catalytic activity and clarifies rapamycin mechanism of action. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7866-79 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Ser/Thr kinase signals in at least two multiprotein complexes distinguished by their different partners and sensitivities to rapamycin...
  44. Korotchkina L, Leontieva O, Bukreeva E, Demidenko Z, Gudkov A, Blagosklonny M. The choice between p53-induced senescence and quiescence is determined in part by the mTOR pathway. Aging (Albany NY). 2010;2:344-52 pubmed
    ..Noteworthy, in these cells nutlin-3a inhibited the mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin) pathway, which is known to be involved in the senescence program...
  45. Rao R, Li Q, Odunsi K, Shrikant P. The mTOR kinase determines effector versus memory CD8+ T cell fate by regulating the expression of transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin. Immunity. 2010;32:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..1)-induced mTOR kinase activity in naive CD8+ (OT-I) T cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT4 transcription factor pathways...
  46. Kumar A, Lawrence J, Jung D, Ko H, Keller S, Kim J, et al. Fat cell-specific ablation of rictor in mice impairs insulin-regulated fat cell and whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism. Diabetes. 2010;59:1397-406 pubmed publisher
    Rictor is an essential component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC) 2, a kinase that phosphorylates and activates Akt, an insulin signaling intermediary that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, ..
  47. Hara K, Maruki Y, Long X, Yoshino K, Oshiro N, Hidayat S, et al. Raptor, a binding partner of target of rapamycin (TOR), mediates TOR action. Cell. 2002;110:177-89 pubmed
    b>mTOR controls cell growth, in part by regulating p70 S6 kinase alpha (p70alpha) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1). Raptor is a 150 kDa mTOR binding protein that also binds 4EBP1 and p70alpha...
  48. Willett M, Cowan J, Vlasak M, Coldwell M, Morley S. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling in C2C12 myoblasts prevents myogenic differentiation without affecting the hyperphosphorylation of 4E-BP1. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1504-12 pubmed publisher
    ..cap-dependent translation, a process readily reversed by its phosphorylation following activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1) signalling...
  49. Murphy J, Spalding A, Somnay Y, Markwart S, Ray M, Hamstra D. Inhibition of mTOR radiosensitizes soft tissue sarcoma and tumor vasculature. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:589-96 pubmed publisher
    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR prosurvival pathway is frequently up-regulated in soft tissue sarcoma. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as rapamycin, have recently shown clinical benefit in soft tissue sarcoma, and mTOR inhibition ..
  50. Ohtani M, Nagai S, Kondo S, Mizuno S, Nakamura K, Tanabe M, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 differentially regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-12 production in dendritic cells. Blood. 2008;112:635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that 2 signaling pathways downstream of PI3K, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), differentially regulate the expression of IL-12 in ..
  51. Flinn R, Yan Y, Goswami S, Parker P, Backer J. The late endosome is essential for mTORC1 signaling. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:833-41 pubmed publisher
    ..or knockdown of the Rab7 GEF hVps39, insulin- and amino acid-stimulated mTORC1/S6K1 activation were inhibited, and mTOR localized to hybrid early/late endosomes...
  52. Mori H, Inoki K, Masutani K, Wakabayashi Y, Komai K, Nakagawa R, et al. The mTOR pathway is highly activated in diabetic nephropathy and rapamycin has a strong therapeutic potential. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;384:471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, systemic administration of rapamycin, a specific and potent inhibitor of mTOR, markedly ameliorated pathological changes and renal dysfunctions...
  53. Lamming D, Ye L, Katajisto P, Goncalves M, Saitoh M, Stevens D, et al. Rapamycin-induced insulin resistance is mediated by mTORC2 loss and uncoupled from longevity. Science. 2012;335:1638-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that rapamycin disrupted a second mTOR complex, mTORC2, in vivo and that mTORC2 was required for the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic ..
  54. Delgoffe G, Kole T, Zheng Y, Zarek P, Matthews K, Xiao B, et al. The mTOR kinase differentially regulates effector and regulatory T cell lineage commitment. Immunity. 2009;30:832-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated mTOR's role in dictating the outcome of T cell fate...
  55. Ohguchi K, Banno Y, Nakagawa Y, Akao Y, Nozawa Y. Negative regulation of melanogenesis by phospholipase D1 through mTOR/p70 S6 kinase 1 signaling in mouse B16 melanoma cells. J Cell Physiol. 2005;205:444-51 pubmed
    ..The activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for phosphorylation of S6K1 and the treatment malanoma cells with rapamycin, a ..
  56. Harris T, Chi A, Shabanowitz J, Hunt D, Rhoads R, Lawrence J. mTOR-dependent stimulation of the association of eIF4G and eIF3 by insulin. EMBO J. 2006;25:1659-68 pubmed
    Insulin stimulates protein synthesis by increasing translation initiation. This response is mediated by mTOR and is believed to result from 4EBP1 phosphorylation, which allows eIF4E to bind eIF4G...
  57. Brugarolas J, Lei K, Hurley R, Manning B, Reiling J, Hafen E, et al. Regulation of mTOR function in response to hypoxia by REDD1 and the TSC1/TSC2 tumor suppressor complex. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2893-904 pubmed
    b>Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of protein synthesis whose activity is modulated by a variety of signals. Energy depletion and hypoxia result in mTOR inhibition...
  58. Araki K, Turner A, Shaffer V, Gangappa S, Keller S, Bachmann M, et al. mTOR regulates memory CD8 T-cell differentiation. Nature. 2009;460:108-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin, also known as FRAP1) is a major regulator of memory CD8 T-cell differentiation, and in contrast to ..
  59. Lazorchak A, Liu D, Facchinetti V, Di Lorenzo A, Sessa W, Schatz D, et al. Sin1-mTORC2 suppresses rag and il7r gene expression through Akt2 in B cells. Mol Cell. 2010;39:433-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important mediator of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. PI3K signaling regulates B cell development, homeostasis, and immune responses...
  60. Smith E, Finn S, Tee A, Browne G, Proud C. The tuberous sclerosis protein TSC2 is not required for the regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin by amino acids and certain cellular stresses. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18717-27 pubmed
    Amino acids positively regulate signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Recent work demonstrated the importance of the tuberous sclerosis protein TSC2 for regulation of mTOR by insulin...
  61. Risson V, Mazelin L, Roceri M, Sanchez H, Moncollin V, Corneloup C, et al. Muscle inactivation of mTOR causes metabolic and dystrophin defects leading to severe myopathy. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:859-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell growth that associates with raptor and rictor to form the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, respectively...
  62. Kim D, Sarbassov D, Ali S, Latek R, Guntur K, Erdjument Bromage H, et al. GbetaL, a positive regulator of the rapamycin-sensitive pathway required for the nutrient-sensitive interaction between raptor and mTOR. Mol Cell. 2003;11:895-904 pubmed
    b>mTOR and raptor are components of a signaling pathway that regulates mammalian cell growth in response to nutrients and growth factors...
  63. Brugarolas J, Vazquez F, Reddy A, Sellers W, Kaelin W. TSC2 regulates VEGF through mTOR-dependent and -independent pathways. Cancer Cell. 2003;4:147-58 pubmed
    ..TSC2 has multiple functions including inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin). We found that TSC2 regulates VEGF through mTOR-dependent and -independent pathways...
  64. Xie X, Zhang D, Zhao B, Lu M, You M, Condorelli G, et al. IkappaB kinase epsilon and TANK-binding kinase 1 activate AKT by direct phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6474-9 pubmed publisher
    ..T308) by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) and the hydrophobic motif (S473) by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)...
  65. Delgoffe G, Pollizzi K, Waickman A, Heikamp E, Meyers D, Horton M, et al. The kinase mTOR regulates the differentiation of helper T cells through the selective activation of signaling by mTORC1 and mTORC2. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:295-303 pubmed publisher
    The kinase mTOR has emerged as an important regulator of the differentiation of helper T cells...
  66. Salmond R, Emery J, Okkenhaug K, Zamoyska R. MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways converge at the level of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation to control metabolic signaling in CD8 T cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:7388-97 pubmed publisher
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