Gene Symbol: Msx1
Description: msh homeobox 1
Alias: AA675338, AI324650, Hox-7, Hox7, Hox7.1, msh, homeobox protein MSX-1, homeo box, msh-like 1, homeobox protein Hox-7, homeobox, msh-like 1, hox-7.1, msh homeobox 1-like protein, muscle-segment homeobox
Species: mouse
Products:     Msx1

Top Publications

  1. Alappat S, Zhang Z, Chen Y. Msx homeobox gene family and craniofacial development. Cell Res. 2003;13:429-42 pubmed
    Vertebrate Msx genes are unlinked, homeobox-containing genes that bear homology to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox gene...
  2. Welsh I, Hagge Greenberg A, O Brien T. A dosage-dependent role for Spry2 in growth and patterning during palate development. Mech Dev. 2007;124:746-61 pubmed
    ..Expression of the FGF responsive transcription factors Etv5, Msx1, and Barx1, as well as the morphogen Shh, is restricted to specific regions of the developing palate...
  3. Satokata I, Ma L, Ohshima H, Bei M, Woo I, Nishizawa K, et al. Msx2 deficiency in mice causes pleiotropic defects in bone growth and ectodermal organ formation. Nat Genet. 2000;24:391-5 pubmed
    ..Most Msx2-mutant phenotypes, including calvarial defects, are enhanced by genetic combination with Msx1 loss of function, indicating that Msx gene dosage can modify expression of the PFM phenotype...
  4. Thesleff I, Vaahtokari A, Vainio S, Jowett A. Molecular mechanisms of cell and tissue interactions during early tooth development. Anat Rec. 1996;245:151-61 pubmed
    ..Based on current knowledge about the molecular changes accompanying tooth development and the results of experimental studies, we present a model for molecular regulation of early tooth development. ..
  5. Khokha M, Hsu D, Brunet L, Dionne M, Harland R. Gremlin is the BMP antagonist required for maintenance of Shh and Fgf signals during limb patterning. Nat Genet. 2003;34:303-7 pubmed
    ..Although Bmps and their antagonists have multiple roles in limb development, these experiments show that gremlin is the principal BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning. ..
  6. Haraguchi R, Suzuki K, Murakami R, Sakai M, Kamikawa M, Kengaku M, et al. Molecular analysis of external genitalia formation: the role of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) genes during genital tubercle formation. Development. 2000;127:2471-9 pubmed the distal urethral plate epithelium of the genital tubercle (GT) together with other markers such as the Msx1, Fgf10, Hoxd13 and Bmp4 expressed in the mesenchyme...
  7. Ogawa T, Kapadia H, Feng J, Raghow R, Peters H, D Souza R. Functional consequences of interactions between Pax9 and Msx1 genes in normal and abnormal tooth development. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18363-9 pubmed
    Pax9 and Msx1 encode transcription factors that are known to be essential for the switch in odontogenic potential from the epithelium to the mesenchyme...
  8. Patterson V, Damrau C, Paudyal A, Reeve B, Grimes D, Stewart M, et al. Mouse hitchhiker mutants have spina bifida, dorso-ventral patterning defects and polydactyly: identification of Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Sonic hedgehog pathway. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1719-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the possible mechanism of action of Tulp3 in Shh-mediated signalling in light of these new data...
  9. Wang W, Chen X, Xu H, Lufkin T. Msx3: a novel murine homologue of the Drosophila msh homeobox gene restricted to the dorsal embryonic central nervous system. Mech Dev. 1996;58:203-15 pubmed
    ..Msx3 maps to the distal end of mouse chromosome 7, thus it is unlinked to either Msx1 or Msx2...

More Information


  1. Zhang H, Hu G, Wang H, Sciavolino P, Iler N, Shen M, et al. Heterodimerization of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins results in functional antagonism. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2920-32 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the expression patterns of representative Msx and Dlx genes (Msx1, Msx2, Dlx2, and Dlx5) overlap in mouse embryogenesis during limb bud and craniofacial development, consistent with ..
  2. Bendall A, Abate Shen C. Roles for Msx and Dlx homeoproteins in vertebrate development. Gene. 2000;247:17-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, their ability to oppose each other's transcriptional actions implies a mechanism underlying their complementary or antagonistic functions during development. ..
  3. Satokata I, Maas R. Msx1 deficient mice exhibit cleft palate and abnormalities of craniofacial and tooth development. Nat Genet. 1994;6:348-56 pubmed
    The Msx1 homeobox gene is expressed at diverse sites of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during vertebrate embryogenesis, and has been implicated in signalling processes between tissue layers...
  4. He F, Xiong W, Wang Y, Matsui M, Yu X, Chai Y, et al. Modulation of BMP signaling by Noggin is required for the maintenance of palatal epithelial integrity during palatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;347:109-21 pubmed publisher
  5. Venza I, Visalli M, Parrillo L, De Felice M, Teti D, Venza M. MSX1 and TGF-beta3 are novel target genes functionally regulated by FOXE1. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:1016-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We pointed to: (i) a role of FOXE1 in controlling the expression of MSX1 and TGF-?3 relevant in craniofacial development and (ii) a causative part of FOXE1 mutations or mice Foxe1(-/-) ..
  6. Fujimori S, Novak H, Weissenböck M, Jussila M, Gonçalves A, Zeller R, et al. Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the dental mesenchyme regulates incisor development by regulating Bmp4. Dev Biol. 2010;348:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides a mechanism whereby the number of incisors arising from one placode can be varied through local alterations of a mesenchymal signaling circuit involving ?-catenin, Lef1, Tcf1 and Bmp4. ..
  7. Ohkubo Y, Chiang C, Rubenstein J. Coordinate regulation and synergistic actions of BMP4, SHH and FGF8 in the rostral prosencephalon regulate morphogenesis of the telencephalic and optic vesicles. Neuroscience. 2002;111:1-17 pubmed
  8. Hebert J, Hayhurst M, Marks M, Kulessa H, Hogan B, McConnell S. BMP ligands act redundantly to pattern the dorsal telencephalic midline. Genesis. 2003;35:214-9 pubmed
  9. Eggenschwiler J, Anderson K. Dorsal and lateral fates in the mouse neural tube require the cell-autonomous activity of the open brain gene. Dev Biol. 2000;227:648-60 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that opb(+) could act as either a novel component of a dorsalizing pathway or a novel intracellular negative regulator of the Shh signal transduction pathway. ..
  10. Pajni Underwood S, Wilson C, Elder C, Mishina Y, Lewandoski M. BMP signals control limb bud interdigital programmed cell death by regulating FGF signaling. Development. 2007;134:2359-68 pubmed
    ..We conclude that during normal embryogenesis, BMP signaling to the AER indirectly regulates interdigit PCD by regulating AER-FGFs, which act as survival factors for the interdigit mesenchyme. ..
  11. Catron K, Zhang H, Marshall S, Inostroza J, Wilson J, Abate C. Transcriptional repression by Msx-1 does not require homeodomain DNA-binding sites. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:861-71 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the repressor function of Msx-1 is critical for its proposed role in embryogenesis as a regulator of cellular differentiation. ..
  12. Tanaka M, Chen Z, Bartunkova S, Yamasaki N, Izumo S. The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. Development. 1999;126:1269-80 pubmed
    ..5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos. ..
  13. Chen Y, Ishii M, Sun J, Sucov H, Maxson R. Msx1 and Msx2 regulate survival of secondary heart field precursors and post-migratory proliferation of cardiac neural crest in the outflow tract. Dev Biol. 2007;308:421-37 pubmed
    b>Msx1 and Msx2 are highly conserved, Nk-related homeodomain transcription factors that are essential for a variety of tissue-tissue interactions during vertebrate organogenesis...
  14. Lallemand Y, Bensoussan V, Cloment C, Robert B. Msx genes are important apoptosis effectors downstream of the Shh/Gli3 pathway in the limb. Dev Biol. 2009;331:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 are targets and downstream effectors of Gli3R...
  15. Joksimovic M, Yun B, Kittappa R, Anderegg A, Chang W, Taketo M, et al. Wnt antagonism of Shh facilitates midbrain floor plate neurogenesis. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate how the dynamic interplay of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and Shh may orchestrate floor plate neurogenesis or a lack thereof. ..
  16. Houzelstein D, Auda Boucher G, Cheraud Y, Rouaud T, Blanc I, Tajbakhsh S, et al. The homeobox gene Msx1 is expressed in a subset of somites, and in muscle progenitor cells migrating into the forelimb. Development. 1999;126:2689-701 pubmed
    In myoblast cell cultures, the Msx1 protein is able to repress myogenesis and maintain cells in an undifferentiated and proliferative state. However, there has been no evidence that Msx1 is expressed in muscle or its precursors in vivo...
  17. Chen J, Lan Y, Baek J, Gao Y, Jiang R. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in activation of odontogenic mesenchyme during early tooth development. Dev Biol. 2009;334:174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Msx1 and Pax9, two essential tooth mesenchyme transcription factors downstream of Bmp and Fgf signaling, respectively, ..
  18. Krüger M, Schäfer K, Braun T. The homeobox containing gene Lbx1 is required for correct dorsal-ventral patterning of the neural tube. J Neurochem. 2002;82:774-82 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Lbx1 plays a critical role in the specification of dorsal interneurons and that Lbx1 and Pax3 might act together synergistically to promote neural tube closure. ..
  19. Ito Y, Yeo J, Chytil A, Han J, Bringas P, Nakajima A, et al. Conditional inactivation of Tgfbr2 in cranial neural crest causes cleft palate and calvaria defects. Development. 2003;130:5269-80 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that TGFbeta IIR plays an essential role in the development of the CNC and provides a model for the study of abnormal CNC development. ..
  20. Lopes M, Goupille O, Saint Cloment C, Lallemand Y, Cumano A, Robert B. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation. Development. 2011;138:3055-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells...
  21. Chiang C, Litingtung Y, Harris M, Simandl B, Li Y, Beachy P, et al. Manifestation of the limb prepattern: limb development in the absence of sonic hedgehog function. Dev Biol. 2001;236:421-35 pubmed
    ..According to this model, the limb bud signaling centers, including the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) acting through Shh, are required to elaborate upon the axial information provided by the native limb field prepattern. ..
  22. Coudert A, Pibouin L, Vi Fane B, Thomas B, Macdougall M, Choudhury A, et al. Expression and regulation of the Msx1 natural antisense transcript during development. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5208-18 pubmed
    ..According to the importance of the Msx1 homeobox gene function in craniofacial development, especially in tooth development, the expression and regulation ..
  23. Depew M, Lufkin T, Rubenstein J. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science. 2002;298:381-5 pubmed
    ..We suggest that nested Dlx expression in the arches patterns their proximodistal axes. Evolutionary acquisition and subsequent refinement of jaws may have been dependent on modification of Dlx expression. ..
  24. Bach A, Lallemand Y, Nicola M, Ramos C, Mathis L, Maufras M, et al. Msx1 is required for dorsal diencephalon patterning. Development. 2003;130:4025-36 pubmed
    ..Msx genes are expressed at the dorsal midline, although their function at this site remains unknown. Using Msx1(nlacZ) mutant mice, we show that the normal expression domain of Msx1 is interrupted in the pretectum of mutant ..
  25. Dudley A, Lyons K, Robertson E. A requirement for bone morphogenetic protein-7 during development of the mammalian kidney and eye. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2795-807 pubmed
    ..Consequently, homozygous mutant animals exhibit renal dysplasia and anophthalmia at birth. Overall, these findings identify BMP-7 as an essential signaling molecule during mammalian kidney and eye development. ..
  26. Lan Y, Jiang R. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions controlling palatal outgrowth. Development. 2009;136:1387-96 pubmed publisher
  27. Vainio S, Karavanova I, Jowett A, Thesleff I. Identification of BMP-4 as a signal mediating secondary induction between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues during early tooth development. Cell. 1993;75:45-58 pubmed
    ..In addition, BMP-4 induced its own mesenchymal expression. These findings support the hypothesis that BMP-4 mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during early tooth development. ..
  28. Matsushima D, Heavner W, Pevny L. Combinatorial regulation of optic cup progenitor cell fate by SOX2 and PAX6. Development. 2011;138:443-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that precise regulation of the ratio of SOX2 to PAX6 is necessary to ensure accurate progenitor cell specification, and place SOX2 as a decisive factor of neural competence in the retina. ..
  29. Baek J, Lan Y, Liu H, Maltby K, Mishina Y, Jiang R. Bmpr1a signaling plays critical roles in palatal shelf growth and palatal bone formation. Dev Biol. 2011;350:520-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Msx1 and Fgf10 was downregulated in the anterior palate mesenchyme and expression of Shh was downregulated in the ..
  30. Han J, Ito Y, Yeo J, Sucov H, Maas R, Chai Y. Cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal proliferation is regulated by Msx1-mediated p19(INK4d) expression during odontogenesis. Dev Biol. 2003;261:183-96 pubmed
    ..the progeny of neural crest cells, we provide in vivo evidence of a deficiency of CNC-derived dental mesenchyme in Msx1 null mutant mouse embryos...
  31. Li L, Lin M, Wang Y, Cserjesi P, Chen Z, Chen Y. BmprIa is required in mesenchymal tissue and has limited redundant function with BmprIb in tooth and palate development. Dev Biol. 2011;349:451-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an essential role for BmprIa in the mesenchymal component and a limited functional redundancy between BmprIa and BmprIb in a tissue-specific manner during tooth and palate development...
  32. Yamaguchi T, Bradley A, McMahon A, Jones S. A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. Development. 1999;126:1211-23 pubmed
    ..The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells. ..
  33. Peters H, Balling R. Teeth. Where and how to make them. Trends Genet. 1999;15:59-65 pubmed
    ..The mesenchymal transcription factors Msx1 and Pax9 are initially regulated by epithelial FGFs and BMPs, but subsequently they function upstream of these ..
  34. Chung I, Han J, Iwata J, Chai Y. Msx1 and Dlx5 function synergistically to regulate frontal bone development. Genesis. 2010;48:645-55 pubmed publisher
    The Msx and Dlx families of homeobox proteins are important regulators for embryogenesis. Loss of Msx1 in mice results in multiple developmental defects including craniofacial malformations...
  35. Han J, Mayo J, Xu X, Li J, Bringas P, Maas R, et al. Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice. Development. 2009;136:4225-33 pubmed publisher restore palatal expansion and fusion in mice with compromised palatal mesenchymal cell proliferation, such as Msx1-null mutants...
  36. Wang X, O Connell D, Lund J, Saadi I, Kuraguchi M, Turbe Doan A, et al. Apc inhibition of Wnt signaling regulates supernumerary tooth formation during embryogenesis and throughout adulthood. Development. 2009;136:1939-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, Msx1, which is necessary for endogenous tooth development, is dispensable for supernumerary tooth formation...
  37. Zhang Z, Lan Y, Chai Y, Jiang R. Antagonistic actions of Msx1 and Osr2 pattern mammalian teeth into a single row. Science. 2009;323:1232-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Expansion of odontogenic field in Osr2-deficient mice required Msx1, a feedback activator of Bmp4 expression...
  38. Orestes Cardoso S, Nefussi J, Hotton D, Mesbah M, Orestes Cardoso M, Robert B, et al. Postnatal Msx1 expression pattern in craniofacial, axial, and appendicular skeleton of transgenic mice from the first week until the second year. Dev Dyn. 2001;221:1-13 pubmed
    Phenotypes associated with Msx1 mutations have established the prominent role of this divergent homeogene in skeletal patterning...
  39. Petit S, Meary F, Pibouin L, Jeanny J, Fernandes I, Poliard A, et al. Autoregulatory loop of Msx1 expression involving its antisense transcripts. J Cell Physiol. 2009;220:303-10 pubmed publisher
    The Msx1 homeogene plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions leading organogenesis...
  40. Fotaki V, Smith R, Pratt T, Price D. Foxg1 is required to limit the formation of ciliary margin tissue and Wnt/?-catenin signalling in the developing nasal retina of the mouse. Dev Biol. 2013;380:299-313 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a new role of Foxg1 in limiting CM development in the nasal peripheral retina and add a new molecular player in the developmental network involved in CM specification. ..
  41. Wang C, Gargollo P, Guo C, Tang T, Mingin G, Sun Y, et al. Six1 and Eya1 are critical regulators of peri-cloacal mesenchymal progenitors during genitourinary tract development. Dev Biol. 2011;360:186-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Six1 and Eya1 are key regulators of both upper and lower urinary tract morphogenesis. Results from this study uncover essential roles of the PCM progenitors during genitourinary tract formation...
  42. Liu W, Selever J, Murali D, Sun X, Brugger S, Ma L, et al. Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development. Dev Biol. 2005;283:282-93 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our data uncovered different Bmp4 thresholds for expression of the Bmp-dependent Msx1 and Msx2 genes in mandibular mesenchyme...
  43. Jin Y, Turcotte T, Crocker A, Han X, Yoon J. The canonical Wnt signaling activator, R-spondin2, regulates craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis within the branchial arch through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction. Dev Biol. 2011;352:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rspo2 protein, potentially in combination with ectoderm-derived Wnt ligands, up-regulates Msx1 and Msx2 expression within mesenchymal cells...
  44. Han J, Ishii M, Bringas P, Maas R, Maxson R, Chai Y. Concerted action of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating cranial neural crest cell differentiation during frontal bone development. Mech Dev. 2007;124:729-45 pubmed
    The homeobox genes Msx1 and Msx2 function as transcriptional regulators that control cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryonic development...
  45. Ybot Gonzalez P, Gaston Massuet C, Girdler G, Klingensmith J, Arkell R, Greene N, et al. Neural plate morphogenesis during mouse neurulation is regulated by antagonism of Bmp signalling. Development. 2007;134:3203-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal a molecular mechanism based on antagonism of Bmp signalling that underlies the regulation of DLHP formation during mouse spinal neural tube closure. ..
  46. Brugmann S, Goodnough L, Gregorieff A, Leucht P, ten Berge D, Fuerer C, et al. Wnt signaling mediates regional specification in the vertebrate face. Development. 2007;134:3283-95 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data elucidate a new role for Wnt signaling in regional specification of the vertebrate face, and suggest possible mechanisms whereby species-specific facial features are generated. ..
  47. Bensoussan V, Lallemand Y, Moreau J, Cloment C, Langa F, Robert B. Generation of an Msx2-GFP conditional null allele. Genesis. 2008;46:276-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Msx1 and Msx2, two members of the Msx gene family, encode homeoprotein transcription factors and play critical roles during mouse development...
  48. Zhao S, Chen Q, Hung F, Overbeek P. BMP signaling is required for development of the ciliary body. Development. 2002;129:4435-42 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that BMP signaling is required for development of the ciliary body and may also play a role in regulation of neuronal differentiation in the developing eye. ..
  49. Zhao X, Zhang Z, Song Y, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Hu Y, et al. Transgenically ectopic expression of Bmp4 to the Msx1 mutant dental mesenchyme restores downstream gene expression but represses Shh and Bmp2 in the enamel knot of wild type tooth germ. Mech Dev. 2000;99:29-38 pubmed
    Bmp4 is a downstream gene of Msx1 in early mouse tooth development...
  50. Alappat S, Zhang Z, Suzuki K, Zhang X, Liu H, Jiang R, et al. The cellular and molecular etiology of the cleft secondary palate in Fgf10 mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2005;277:102-13 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that mesenchymally expressed Fgf10 is necessary for the survival of MEE cells and for the normal expression of Jagged2 and Tgfbeta3 in the palatal epithelium during mammalian palatogenesis...
  51. Butler S, Dodd J. A role for BMP heterodimers in roof plate-mediated repulsion of commissural axons. Neuron. 2003;38:389-401 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that a GDF7:BMP7 heterodimer functions as a roof plate-derived repellent that establishes the initial ventral trajectory of commissural axons. ..
  52. Mustonen T, Pispa J, Mikkola M, Pummila M, Kangas A, Pakkasjärvi L, et al. Stimulation of ectodermal organ development by Ectodysplasin-A1. Dev Biol. 2003;259:123-36 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ectodysplasin-Edar signaling has several roles in ectodermal organ development controlling their initiation, as well as morphogenesis and differentiation. ..
  53. Blin Wakkach C, Lezot F, Ghoul Mazgar S, Hotton D, Monteiro S, Teillaud C, et al. Endogenous Msx1 antisense transcript: in vivo and in vitro evidences, structure, and potential involvement in skeleton development in mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7336-41 pubmed
    b>Msx1 is a key factor for the development of tooth and craniofacial skeleton and has been proposed to play a pivotal role in terminal cell differentiation...
  54. Muroyama Y, Fujihara M, Ikeya M, Kondoh H, Takada S. Wnt signaling plays an essential role in neuronal specification of the dorsal spinal cord. Genes Dev. 2002;16:548-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, Wnt signaling plays a critical role in the specification of cell types for dorsal interneurons. ..
  55. Bulchand S, Grove E, Porter F, Tole S. LIM-homeodomain gene Lhx2 regulates the formation of the cortical hem. Mech Dev. 2001;100:165-75 pubmed
    ..The defect in the Lhx2-/- telencephalon appears to be at this step. ..
  56. Song L, Li Y, Wang K, Wang Y, Molotkov A, Gao L, et al. Lrp6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling is required for lip formation and fusion. Development. 2009;136:3161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of the homeobox genes Msx1 and Msx2 is dramatically reduced in the mutants, which prevents the outgrowth of orofacial primordia, especially in ..
  57. Thomas B, Sharpe P. Patterning of the murine dentition by homeobox genes. Eur J Oral Sci. 1998;106 Suppl 1:48-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that expression of these genes constitutes an odontogenic homeobox code which patterns the dentition. ..
  58. Sheehy N, Cordes K, White M, Ivey K, Srivastava D. The neural crest-enriched microRNA miR-452 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in the first pharyngeal arch. Development. 2010;137:4307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs is required for differentiation of NCC-derived tissues and that miR-452 is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in the pharyngeal arch. ..
  59. Michos O, Panman L, Vintersten K, Beier K, Zeller R, Zuniga A. Gremlin-mediated BMP antagonism induces the epithelial-mesenchymal feedback signaling controlling metanephric kidney and limb organogenesis. Development. 2004;131:3401-10 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, the metanephric mesenchyme is eliminated by apoptosis, in the same way as the core mesenchymal cells of the limb bud. ..
  60. Coré N, Caubit X, Metchat A, Boned A, Djabali M, Fasano L. Tshz1 is required for axial skeleton, soft palate and middle ear development in mice. Dev Biol. 2007;308:407-20 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that Tshz1 is required for the development of the soft palate...
  61. Thomas B, Tucker A, Qui M, Ferguson C, Hardcastle Z, Rubenstein J, et al. Role of Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 genes in patterning of the murine dentition. Development. 1997;124:4811-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first indication that the development of different shaped teeth at different positions in the jaws is determined by independent genetic pathways. ..
  62. Benson G, Lim H, Paria B, Satokata I, Dey S, Maas R. Mechanisms of reduced fertility in Hoxa-10 mutant mice: uterine homeosis and loss of maternal Hoxa-10 expression. Development. 1996;122:2687-96 pubmed
    ..These results show that Hoxa-10 is required during morphogenesis for proper patterning of the reproductive tract and in the adult uterus for peri-implantation events. ..
  63. Lallemand Y, Nicola M, Ramos C, Bach A, Cloment C, Robert B. Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development. Development. 2005;132:3003-14 pubmed
    The homeobox-containing genes Msx1 and Msx2 are highly expressed in the limb field from the earliest stages of limb formation and, subsequently, in both the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying mesenchyme...
  64. Yamamoto H, Cho S, Song S, Hwang H, Lee M, Kim J, et al. Characteristic tissue interaction of the diastema region in mice. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:189-98 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, it is suggested that the condensed mesenchyme may be the key to tooth development...
  65. Nakatani T, Kumai M, Mizuhara E, Minaki Y, Ono Y. Lmx1a and Lmx1b cooperate with Foxa2 to coordinate the specification of dopaminergic neurons and control of floor plate cell differentiation in the developing mesencephalon. Dev Biol. 2010;339:101-13 pubmed publisher
  66. Houzelstein D, Cheraud Y, Auda Boucher G, Fontaine Pérus J, Robert B. The expression of the homeobox gene Msx1 reveals two populations of dermal progenitor cells originating from the somites. Development. 2000;127:2155-64 pubmed
    ..Taking advantage of an nlacZ reporter gene integrated into the mouse Msx1 locus (Msx1(nlacZ) allele), we detected segmental expression of the Msx1 gene in cells of the dorsal mesenchyme of ..
  67. Dunn N, Winnier G, Hargett L, Schrick J, Fogo A, Hogan B. Haploinsufficient phenotypes in Bmp4 heterozygous null mice and modification by mutations in Gli3 and Alx4. Dev Biol. 1997;188:235-47 pubmed
    ..These genetic interactions suggest a model for the multigenic control of anterior digit patterning during vertebrate limb development. ..
  68. Wang J, Kumar R, Biggs V, Lee H, Chen Y, Kagey M, et al. The Msx1 Homeoprotein Recruits Polycomb to the Nuclear Periphery during Development. Dev Cell. 2011;21:575-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that transcriptional repression by the Msx1 homeoprotein in myoblast cells requires the recruitment of Polycomb to target genes located at the nuclear ..
  69. Ishii M, Han J, Yen H, Sucov H, Chai Y, Maxson R. Combined deficiencies of Msx1 and Msx2 cause impaired patterning and survival of the cranial neural crest. Development. 2005;132:4937-50 pubmed
    ..Here, we focus on the function of Msx1 and Msx2, homeobox genes implicated in several disorders affecting craniofacial development in humans...
  70. Zhang Z, Zhang X, Avniel W, Song Y, Jones S, Jones T, et al. Malleal processus brevis is dispensable for normal hearing in mice. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:69-77 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in the Msx1 homeobox gene exhibit craniofacial abnormalities, including the absence of the malleal processus brevis that is ..
  71. Hilliard S, Yu L, Gu S, Zhang Z, Chen Y. Regional regulation of palatal growth and patterning along the anterior-posterior axis in mice. J Anat. 2005;207:655-67 pubmed
    ..Mesenchymal heterogeneity is established early, as evident from Bmp4-mediated induction of Msx1 and cell proliferation exclusively in the anterior and Fgf8-specific induction of Pax9 in the posterior palate ..
  72. Liu F, Chu E, WATT B, Zhang Y, Gallant N, Andl T, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling directs multiple stages of tooth morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;313:210-24 pubmed
    ..Conversely, expression of key morphogenetic regulators including Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 is downregulated in embryos expressing the secreted Wnt inhibitor Dkk1 which blocks signaling in ..
  73. Sun X, Mariani F, Martin G. Functions of FGF signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development. Nature. 2002;418:501-8 pubmed
    ..In the complete absence of both FGF4 and FGF8 activities, limb development fails. We present a model to explain how the mutant phenotypes arise from FGF-mediated effects on limb bud size and cell survival. ..
  74. Jeong J, Mao J, Tenzen T, Kottmann A, McMahon A. Hedgehog signaling in the neural crest cells regulates the patterning and growth of facial primordia. Genes Dev. 2004;18:937-51 pubmed
    ..Further, our analysis of Shh-Fox gene regulatory interactions leads us to propose that Fox genes mediate the action of Shh in facial development. ..
  75. Woloshin P, Song K, Degnin C, Killary A, Goldhamer D, Sassoon D, et al. MSX1 inhibits myoD expression in fibroblast x 10T1/2 cell hybrids. Cell. 1995;82:611-20 pubmed
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