Msh2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Msh2
Description: mutS homolog 2
Alias: AI788990, DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2, mutS protein homolog 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Msh2

Top Publications

  1. Wiesendanger M, Kneitz B, Edelmann W, Scharff M. Somatic hypermutation in MutS homologue (MSH)3-, MSH6-, and MSH3/MSH6-deficient mice reveals a role for the MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer in modulating the base substitution pattern. J Exp Med. 2000;191:579-84 pubmed
    ..studied the immune response in mice deficient in MutS homologue (MSH)3 and MSH6, two mutually exclusive partners of MSH2 that have not been examined previously for their role in Ig hypermutation...
  2. Min I, Schrader C, Vardo J, Luby T, D Avirro N, Stavnezer J, et al. The Smu tandem repeat region is critical for Ig isotype switching in the absence of Msh2. Immunity. 2003;19:515-24 pubmed
    Deficiencies of the Msh2 protein or the Smu tandem repeat (SmuTR) sequences each reduce isotype switching in mice by about 2- to 3-fold. We find that switching in mice deficient for both Msh2 and SmuTR is nearly ablated...
  3. Schrader C, Bradley S, Vardo J, Mochegova S, Flanagan E, Stavnezer J. Mutations occur in the Ig Smu region but rarely in Sgamma regions prior to class switch recombination. EMBO J. 2003;22:5893-903 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find that mice expressing a transgene for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) have nucleotide insertions at S-S junctions, indicating that the recombining DNA ends are accessible to end-processing enzyme activities. ..
  4. Lin D, Wang Y, Scherer S, Clark A, Yang K, Avdievich E, et al. An Msh2 point mutation uncouples DNA mismatch repair and apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2004;64:517-22 pubmed
    Mutations in the human DNA mismatch repair gene MSH2 are associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer as well as a significant proportion of sporadic colorectal cancer...
  5. Larson E, Duquette M, Cummings W, Streiff R, Maizels N. MutSalpha binds to and promotes synapsis of transcriptionally activated immunoglobulin switch regions. Curr Biol. 2005;15:470-4 pubmed
    ..cytidine deaminase, AID, and conserved DNA repair factors, including the mismatch repair heterodimer, MutSalpha (MSH2/MSH6)...
  6. Wheeler V, Lebel L, Vrbanac V, Teed A, te Riele H, MacDonald M. Mismatch repair gene Msh2 modifies the timing of early disease in Hdh(Q111) striatum. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:273-81 pubmed
    ..Here in Hdh(Q111) mice, we have tested whether a genetic background deficient in Msh2, expected to eliminate the unstable behavior of the 109 CAG array inserted into the murine HD gene, would alter the ..
  7. Schrader C, Guikema J, Linehan E, Selsing E, Stavnezer J. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent DNA breaks in class switch recombination occur during G1 phase of the cell cycle and depend upon mismatch repair. J Immunol. 2007;179:6064-71 pubmed
    ..We also show that nucleotide excision repair does not contribute to class switching. Our data support the hypothesis that MMR is required to convert SSBs into DSBs when SSBs on opposite strands are too distal to form DSBs spontaneously. ..
  8. Rada C, Ehrenstein M, Neuberger M, Milstein C. Hot spot focusing of somatic hypermutation in MSH2-deficient mice suggests two stages of mutational targeting. Immunity. 1998;9:135-41 pubmed
    ..Analysis of unselected mutations in the 3' flank of VH rearrangements in germinal center B cells revealed that MSH2 deficiency caused a 5-fold reduced mutation accumulation...
  9. de Wind N, Dekker M, van Rossum A, van der Valk M, te Riele H. Mouse models for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1998;58:248-55 pubmed
    ..and tissue distribution of tumors in HNPCC, we have developed mouse models carrying a deficiency in the MMR gene Msh2. Most of the completely Msh2-deficient mice succumbed to lymphomas at an early age; lymphomagenesis was ..

More Information

Publications70

  1. Green B, Belcheva A, Nepal R, Boulianne B, Martin A. The mismatch repair pathway functions normally at a non-AID target in germinal center B cells. Blood. 2011;118:3013-8 pubmed publisher
    Deficiency in Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair (MMR) system, leads to an approximately 10-fold increase in the mutation frequency in most tissues...
  2. Schrader C, Edelmann W, Kucherlapati R, Stavnezer J. Reduced isotype switching in splenic B cells from mice deficient in mismatch repair enzymes. J Exp Med. 1999;190:323-30 pubmed
    ..Splenic B cells from mice deficient in Msh2, Mlh1, Pms2, or Mlh1 and Pms2 were stimulated in culture with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)..
  3. Savouret C, Garcia Cordier C, Megret J, te Riele H, Junien C, Gourdon G. MSH2-dependent germinal CTG repeat expansions are produced continuously in spermatogonia from DM1 transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:629-37 pubmed
    ..Strong mosaicisms towards expansions were already observed in spermatogonia before meiosis. In transgenic Msh2-deficient mice, germinal instability of the CTG repeats (only contractions) also occurs premeiotically...
  4. Qin J, Baker S, te Riele H, Liskay R, Arnheim N. Evidence for the lack of mismatch-repair directed antirecombination during mouse meiosis. J Hered. 2002;93:201-5 pubmed
    ..study was carried out on a single interval in each of two chromosomes in an MMR-deficient mouse homozygous for the Msh2 knockout mutation. A total of 792 meioses were examined in the Msh2 -/- and 880 meioses in the Msh2 +/+ animal...
  5. Liu M, Duke J, Richter D, Vinuesa C, Goodnow C, Kleinstein S, et al. Two levels of protection for the B cell genome during somatic hypermutation. Nature. 2008;451:841-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that AID acts broadly on the genome, with the ultimate distribution of mutations determined by a balance between high-fidelity and error-prone DNA repair. ..
  6. Leach F, Nicolaides N, Papadopoulos N, Liu B, Jen J, Parsons R, et al. Mutations of a mutS homolog in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Cell. 1993;75:1215-25 pubmed
    ..Somatic as well as germline mutations of the gene were identified in RER+ tumor cells. This mutS homolog is therefore likely to be responsible for HNPCC. ..
  7. Peters A, Young L, Maeda T, Tron V, Andrew S. Mammalian DNA mismatch repair protects cells from UVB-induced DNA damage by facilitating apoptosis and p53 activation. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:427-35 pubmed
    ..Comparing Msh2-null and wildtype mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), both primary and transformed, we show that Msh2 deficiency ..
  8. Yoshino M, Nakatsu Y, te Riele H, Hirota S, Kitamura Y, Tanaka K. Additive roles of XPA and MSH2 genes in UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:935-40 pubmed
    ..In this report, we examined whether the incidence of UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis is enhanced in XPA(-/-)MSH2(-/-), XPA(-/-) and MSH2(-/-) mice when compared with that in wild-type mice...
  9. Ehrenstein M, Neuberger M. Deficiency in Msh2 affects the efficiency and local sequence specificity of immunoglobulin class-switch recombination: parallels with somatic hypermutation. EMBO J. 1999;18:3484-90 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in Msh2 give diminished IgG (but not IgM) responses following challenge with both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent ..
  10. Smits R, Hofland N, Edelmann W, Geugien M, Jagmohan Changur S, Albuquerque C, et al. Somatic Apc mutations are selected upon their capacity to inactivate the beta-catenin downregulating activity. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000;29:229-39 pubmed
    ..Here, a Msh2-deficient mouse model (Msh2(delta 7N) ) was generated and bred with Apc(1638N) and Apc(Min) that allowed the ..
  11. Russo M, De Luca G, Casorelli I, Degan P, Molatore S, Barone F, et al. Role of MUTYH and MSH2 in the control of oxidative DNA damage, genetic instability, and tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inactivation of the Msh2 mismatch repair gene is associated with a mutator phenotype and increased cancer susceptibility...
  12. Schrader C, Vardo J, Stavnezer J. Mlh1 can function in antibody class switch recombination independently of Msh2. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1377-83 pubmed
    ..Previous nucleotide sequence analyses of switch recombination junctions indicated that the roles of Msh2 and the MutL homologues, Mlh1 and Pms2, differ...
  13. Tomé S, Holt I, Edelmann W, Morris G, Munnich A, Pearson C, et al. MSH2 ATPase domain mutation affects CTG*CAG repeat instability in transgenic mice. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000482 pubmed publisher
    ..repeat expansions in transgenic mice carrying expanded CTG*CAG tracts requires the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MSH2 and MSH3, forming the MutSbeta complex...
  14. Frieder D, Larijani M, Collins C, Shulman M, Martin A. The concerted action of Msh2 and UNG stimulates somatic hypermutation at A . T base pairs. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The concerted action of Msh2 and UNG in stimulating A ...
  15. Manley K, Shirley T, Flaherty L, Messer A. Msh2 deficiency prevents in vivo somatic instability of the CAG repeat in Huntington disease transgenic mice. Nat Genet. 1999;23:471-3 pubmed
    ..Because dinucleotide repeat instability is known to increase when the mismatch repair enzyme MSH2 is missing, we examined instability of the HD CAG repeat by crossing transgenic mice carrying exon 1 of human HD (..
  16. Williams S, Wilson J, Clark A, Mitson Salazar A, Tomashevski A, Ananth S, et al. Functional and physical interaction between the mismatch repair and FA-BRCA pathways. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4395-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that FANCD2 interacts with the MMR proteins MSH2 and MLH1...
  17. Cranston A, Bocker T, Reitmair A, Palazzo J, Wilson T, Mak T, et al. Female embryonic lethality in mice nullizygous for both Msh2 and p53. Nat Genet. 1997;17:114-8 pubmed
    ..p53 is mutated frequently in a wide range of human cancers, including colonic tumours. Both Msh2- and p53-targeted knockout mice are viable and susceptible to cancer...
  18. Kolodner R, Hall N, Lipford J, Kane M, Rao M, Morrison P, et al. Structure of the human MSH2 locus and analysis of two Muir-Torre kindreds for msh2 mutations. Genomics. 1994;24:516-26 pubmed
    ..The MSH2 genomic locus has been cloned and shown to cover approximately 73 kb of genomic DNA and to contain 16 exons...
  19. Hegan D, Narayanan L, Jirik F, Edelmann W, Liskay R, Glazer P. Differing patterns of genetic instability in mice deficient in the mismatch repair genes Pms2, Mlh1, Msh2, Msh3 and Msh6. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:2402-8 pubmed
    ..mice using two transgenic reporter genes, supFG1 and cII, in the context of mice deficient for Pms2, Mlh1, Msh2, Msh3 or Msh6 or both Msh2 and Msh3 or both Msh3 and Msh6...
  20. Schrader C, Vardo J, Stavnezer J. Role for mismatch repair proteins Msh2, Mlh1, and Pms2 in immunoglobulin class switching shown by sequence analysis of recombination junctions. J Exp Med. 2002;195:367-73 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate clear differences in the sequences of switch junctions in wild-type B cells in comparison with Msh2-, Mlh1-, and Pms2-deficient B cells...
  21. Campbell M, Nation P, Andrew S. A lack of DNA mismatch repair on an athymic murine background predisposes to hematologic malignancy. Cancer Res. 2005;65:2626-35 pubmed
    ..Here, we bred Msh2- and Msh6-deficient mice to athymic nude mice, hypothesizing that a broader tumor spectrum may be observed if mice ..
  22. Kolas N, Svetlanov A, Lenzi M, Macaluso F, Lipkin S, Liskay R, et al. Localization of MMR proteins on meiotic chromosomes in mice indicates distinct functions during prophase I. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:447-58 pubmed
    ..Both functions are initiated by a heterodimer of MutS homologues specific to either MMR (MSH2-MSH3 or MSH2-MSH6) or crossing over (MSH4-MSH5)...
  23. Franchitto A, Pichierri P, Piergentili R, Crescenzi M, Bignami M, Palitti F. The mammalian mismatch repair protein MSH2 is required for correct MRE11 and RAD51 relocalization and for efficient cell cycle arrest induced by ionizing radiation in G2 phase. Oncogene. 2003;22:2110-20 pubmed
    In yeast, MSH2 plays an important role in mismatch repair (MMR) and recombination, whereas the function of the mammalian MSH2 protein in recombinational repair is not completely established...
  24. Dekker M, Brouwers C, Aarts M, van der Torre J, de Vries S, van de Vrugt H, et al. Effective oligonucleotide-mediated gene disruption in ES cells lacking the mismatch repair protein MSH3. Gene Ther. 2006;13:686-94 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we found that four-nucleotide insertions were largely subject to suppression by the MSH2/MSH3 branch of MMR and could be effectively introduced in Msh3-deficient cells...
  25. Alabyev B, Manser T. Bcl-2 rescues the germinal center response but does not alter the V gene somatic hypermutation spectrum in MSH2-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2002;169:3819-24 pubmed
    Ab V genes in mice deficient for the postreplication mismatch repair factor MutS homolog (MSH2) have been reported to display an abnormal bias for hypermutations at G and C nucleotides and hotspots...
  26. Meira L, Cheo D, Reis A, Claij N, Burns D, te Riele H, et al. Mice defective in the mismatch repair gene Msh2 show increased predisposition to UVB radiation-induced skin cancer. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:929-34 pubmed
    Mice defective in the mismatch repair (MMR) gene Msh2 manifest an enhanced predisposition to skin cancer associated with exposure to UVB radiation...
  27. Reitmair A, Cai J, Bjerknes M, Redston M, Cheng H, Pind M, et al. MSH2 deficiency contributes to accelerated APC-mediated intestinal tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 1996;56:2922-6 pubmed
    ..intestinal tumorigenesis, we crossed the Min mouse, heterozygous for a germ line mutation of Apc, with an MMR gene (Msh2)-deficient mouse...
  28. Vora K, Tumas Brundage K, Lentz V, Cranston A, Fishel R, Manser T. Severe attenuation of the B cell immune response in Msh2-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1999;189:471-82 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice that do not express the MMR factor Msh2 have wide-ranging defects in antigen-driven B cell responses...
  29. Jacobs H, Fukita Y, van der Horst G, de Boer J, Weeda G, Essers J, et al. Hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes in memory B cells of DNA repair-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1735-43 pubmed
    ..pigmentosum complementation group (XP)A and XPD, Cockayne syndrome complementation group B (CSB), mutS homologue 2 (MSH2), radiation sensitivity 54 (RAD54), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and 3-alkyladenine DNA-glycosylase (AAG)...
  30. Frey S, Bertocci B, Delbos F, Quint L, Weill J, Reynaud C. Mismatch repair deficiency interferes with the accumulation of mutations in chronically stimulated B cells and not with the hypermutation process. Immunity. 1998;9:127-34 pubmed
    ..Paradoxically, whereas primary responses were found normal in MSH2- and only slightly diminished in PMS2-deficient mice, mutations in Peyer's patch B cells from both k.o...
  31. de Wind N, Dekker M, Berns A, Radman M, te Riele H. Inactivation of the mouse Msh2 gene results in mismatch repair deficiency, methylation tolerance, hyperrecombination, and predisposition to cancer. Cell. 1995;82:321-30 pubmed
    To investigate the role of the presumed DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene Msh2 in genome stability and tumorigenesis, we have generated cells and mice that are deficient for the gene...
  32. Fishel R, Lescoe M, Rao M, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Garber J, et al. The human mutator gene homolog MSH2 and its association with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. Cell. 1993;75:1027-38 pubmed
    ..These data and reports indicating that S. cerevisiae msh2 mutations cause an instability of dinucleotide repeats like those associated with HNPCC suggest that hMSH2 is the ..
  33. Delbos F, Aoufouchi S, Faili A, Weill J, Reynaud C. DNA polymerase eta is the sole contributor of A/T modifications during immunoglobulin gene hypermutation in the mouse. J Exp Med. 2007;204:17-23 pubmed
    ..be generated by a repair pathway involving the DNA-binding moiety of the mismatch repair complex constituted by the MSH2-MSH6 proteins, together with DNA polymerase eta (pol eta)...
  34. Reitmair A, Redston M, Cai J, Chuang T, Bjerknes M, Cheng H, et al. Spontaneous intestinal carcinomas and skin neoplasms in Msh2-deficient mice. Cancer Res. 1996;56:3842-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we characterize tumor susceptibility of the recently described Msh2-deficient mouse model...
  35. Min I, Rothlein L, Schrader C, Stavnezer J, Selsing E. Shifts in targeting of class switch recombination sites in mice that lack mu switch region tandem repeats or Msh2. J Exp Med. 2005;201:1885-90 pubmed
    ..Within the 4-5-kb CSR domain, the targeting of S site locations also depends on the Msh2 mismatch repair protein because Msh2-deficient mice show an increased focus of sites to the Smu tandem repeat ..
  36. Kovtun I, Thornhill A, McMurray C. Somatic deletion events occur during early embryonic development and modify the extent of CAG expansion in subsequent generations. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:3057-68 pubmed
    ..We have followed the fate of CAG repeats during development in mice that can [hHD(-/+)/Msh2(+/+)] or cannot [hHD(-/+)/Msh2(-/-)] expand their repeats...
  37. Rada C, Di Noia J, Neuberger M. Mismatch recognition and uracil excision provide complementary paths to both Ig switching and the A/T-focused phase of somatic mutation. Mol Cell. 2004;16:163-71 pubmed
    ..is, thus, recognized by proteins from both base excision (uracil-DNA glycosylase, UNG) and mismatch recognition (MSH2/MSH6) pathways...
  38. Kneitz B, Cohen P, Avdievich E, Zhu L, Kane M, Hou H, et al. MutS homolog 4 localization to meiotic chromosomes is required for chromosome pairing during meiosis in male and female mice. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1085-97 pubmed
    ..Our results show that MSH4 localization on chromosomes during the early stages of meiosis is essential for normal chromosome synapsis in prophase I and that it acts in the same pathway as MSH5. ..
  39. Reitmair A, Schmits R, Ewel A, Bapat B, Redston M, Mitri A, et al. MSH2 deficient mice are viable and susceptible to lymphoid tumours. Nat Genet. 1995;11:64-70 pubmed
    Alterations of the human MSH2 gene, a homologue of the bacterial MutS mismatch repair gene, co-segregate with the majority of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) cases. We have generated homozygous MSH2-/- mice...
  40. Ezzatizadeh V, Pinto R, Sandi C, Sandi M, Al Mahdawi S, te Riele H, et al. The mismatch repair system protects against intergenerational GAA repeat instability in a Friedreich ataxia mouse model. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of unstable GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice which have been crossed with mice that are deficient for Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 or Pms2...
  41. Martinez P, Siegl Cachedenier I, Flores J, Blasco M. MSH2 deficiency abolishes the anticancer and pro-aging activity of short telomeres. Aging Cell. 2009;8:2-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a role for the MMR protein, MSH2, in signaling cell-cycle arrest in a p21/p53-dependent manner in response to short telomeres in the context of ..
  42. Martin A, Li Z, Lin D, Bardwell P, Iglesias Ussel M, Edelmann W, et al. Msh2 ATPase activity is essential for somatic hypermutation at a-T basepairs and for efficient class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1171-8 pubmed
    ..MutS homologue (Msh) 2-/- mice have reduced A-T mutations and CSR. This suggests that Msh2 may play a role in repairing activation-induced cytidine deaminase-generated G-U mismatches...
  43. Di Noia J, Rada C, Neuberger M. SMUG1 is able to excise uracil from immunoglobulin genes: insight into mutation versus repair. EMBO J. 2006;25:585-95 pubmed
    ..patterns (in both DT40 B cells and mice) as well as a restoration of isotype switching in SMUG-transgenic msh2-/- ung-/- mice...
  44. de Wind N, Dekker M, Claij N, Jansen L, van Klink Y, Radman M, et al. HNPCC-like cancer predisposition in mice through simultaneous loss of Msh3 and Msh6 mismatch-repair protein functions. Nat Genet. 1999;23:359-62 pubmed
    ..is attributed to two heterodimeric protein complexes: MutSalpha (refs 2, 3, 4, 5), a dimer of MutS homologues MSH2 and MSH6; and MutSbeta (refs 2,7), a dimer of MSH2 and MSH3...
  45. Phung Q, Winter D, Cranston A, Tarone R, Bohr V, Fishel R, et al. Increased hypermutation at G and C nucleotides in immunoglobulin variable genes from mice deficient in the MSH2 mismatch repair protein. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1745-51 pubmed
    ..To examine the role of the MSH2 mismatch repair protein in hypermutation, Msh2-/- mice were immunized with oxazolone, and B cells were analyzed for ..
  46. Song J, Sohn K, Medline A, Ash C, Gallinger S, Kim Y. Chemopreventive effects of dietary folate on intestinal polyps in Apc+/-Msh2-/- mice. Cancer Res. 2000;60:3191-9 pubmed
    ..model of intestinal tumorigenesis, which carries a heterozygous mutation in the Apc gene and a null mutation in the Msh2 gene (Apc+/-Msh2-/-), was used to determine the effect of dietary folate on intestinal tumorigenesis...
  47. Oda S, Humbert O, Fiumicino S, Bignami M, Karran P. Efficient repair of A/C mismatches in mouse cells deficient in long-patch mismatch repair. EMBO J. 2000;19:1711-8 pubmed
    A previously unrecognized mismatch repair activity is described. Extracts of immortalized MSH2-deficient mouse fibroblasts did not correct most single base mispairs. The same extracts carried out efficient repair of A/C mismatches...
  48. Eccleston J, Schrader C, Yuan K, Stavnezer J, Selsing E. Class switch recombination efficiency and junction microhomology patterns in Msh2-, Mlh1-, and Exo1-deficient mice depend on the presence of mu switch region tandem repeats. J Immunol. 2009;183:1222-8 pubmed publisher
    The Msh2 mismatch repair (MMR) protein is critical for class switch recombination (CSR) events that occur in mice that lack the Smu tandem repeat (SmuTR) region (SmuTR(-/-) mice)...
  49. Bourn R, De Biase I, Pinto R, Sandi C, Al Mahdawi S, Pook M, et al. Pms2 suppresses large expansions of the (GAA·TTC)n sequence in neuronal tissues. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47085 pubmed publisher
    ..carry an expanded (GAA·TTC)(n) sequence in the context of the human FXN locus and lack the individual MMR proteins Msh2, Msh6 or Pms2...
  50. Fink D, Zheng H, Nebel S, Norris P, Aebi S, Lin T, et al. In vitro and in vivo resistance to cisplatin in cells that have lost DNA mismatch repair. Cancer Res. 1997;57:1841-5 pubmed
    ..b>MSH2-/- and MSH2+/+ embryonic stem cells were established as xenografts in athymic nude mice...
  51. Aarts M, Dekker M, de Vries S, van der Wal A, te Riele H. Generation of a mouse mutant by oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification in ES cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:e147 pubmed
    ..and rapid procedure for the generation of mouse mutants using transient down regulation of the central MMR protein MSH2 by RNA interference...
  52. Larijani M, Zaheen A, Frieder D, Wang Y, Wu G, Edelmann W, et al. Lack of MSH2 involvement differentiates V(D)J recombination from other non-homologous end joining events. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:6733-42 pubmed
    ..DNA mismatch repair elements (MSH2/MSH6) have been implicated in the repair of class switch junctions as well as other DNA DSBs that proceed through ..
  53. Cooley N, Elder R, Povey A. The effect of Msh2 knockdown on toxicity induced by tert-butyl-hydroperoxide, potassium bromate, and hydrogen peroxide in base excision repair proficient and deficient cells. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:152909 pubmed publisher
    ..Mpg (+/+), Nth1 (+/+)) and deficient (Mpg (-/-), Nth1 (-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) following Msh2 knockdown of between 79 and 88% using an shRNA expression vector...
  54. Bodo S, Svrcek M, Sourrouille I, Cuillières Dartigues P, Ledent T, Dumont S, et al. Azathioprine induction of tumors with microsatellite instability: risk evaluation using a mouse model. Oncotarget. 2015;6:24969-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Over two years, Aza was administered to mice that were wild type, null or heterozygous for the MMR gene Msh2. Ciclosporin A, an immunosuppressant with an MMR-independent signaling, was also administered to Msh2(wt) mice as ..
  55. Francisconi S, Codenotti M, Ferrari Toninelli G, Uberti D, Memo M. Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased sensitivity to excitotoxicity in mice deficient in DNA mismatch repair. J Neurochem. 2006;98:223-33 pubmed
    The expression profile in the hippocampus of mice lacking one allele of the MutS homologue (Msh2), gene, which is one of the most representative components of the DNA mismatch repair system, was analysed to understand whether defects in ..
  56. Boulianne B, Rojas O, Haddad D, Zaheen A, Kapelnikov A, Nguyen T, et al. AID and caspase 8 shape the germinal center response through apoptosis. J Immunol. 2013;191:5840-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that the deletion of caspase 8 specifically in murine GC-B cells results in larger GCs and a delay in affinity maturation, demonstrating the importance of apoptosis in GC homeostasis and clonal selection. ..
  57. Kovtun I, Harris K, Jatoi A, Jevremovic D. Increased incidence of endometrioid tumors caused by aberrations in E-cadherin promoter of mismatch repair-deficient mice. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:1085-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty percent of mice knockout for Msh2 enzyme and hemizygous for E-cadherin [Msh2(-/-)/Cdh1(+/-)] developed endometrioid-like tumors in the ovary, uterus ..
  58. Nepal R, Tong L, Kolaj B, Edelmann W, Martin A. Msh2-dependent DNA repair mitigates a unique susceptibility of B cell progenitors to c-Myc-induced lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18698-703 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that Msh2(-/-) Emu c-myc and Msh2(G674A/G674A) Emu c-myc mice rapidly succumb to pro-B cell stage lymphomas, indicating that ..
  59. Naigamwalla D, Chia M, Tran T, Medline A, Hay K, Gallinger S, et al. Polyethylene glycol 8000 and colon carcinogenesis: inhibition in the F344 rat, promotion in the Min mouse. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6856-8 pubmed
    ..001). Although the chemopreventive effect of PEG 8000 in rats is remarkable, we suggest a cautious approach in long-term testing of PEG as a chemopreventive agent for subjects at risk for colonic neoplasia. ..
  60. Ranjit S, Khair L, Linehan E, Ucher A, Chakrabarti M, Schrader C, et al. AID recruits UNG and Msh2 to Ig switch regions dependent upon the AID C terminus [corrected]. J Immunol. 2011;187:2464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that AID binds cooperatively with UNG and the mismatch repair proteins Msh2-Msh6 to Ig S? and S?3 regions, and this depends on the C terminus and the deaminase activity of AID...
  61. Zienolddiny S, Ryberg D, Svendsrud D, Eilertsen E, Skaug V, Hewer A, et al. Msh2 deficiency increases susceptibility to benzo[a]pyrene-induced lymphomagenesis. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:2899-902 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in the MMR gene Msh2 develop tumors earlier after exposure to alkylating agents when compared to unexposed mice...