Gene Symbol: Mmp9
Description: matrix metallopeptidase 9
Alias: AW743869, B/MMP9, Clg4b, Gel B, MMP-9, pro-MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase-9, 92 kDa gelatinase, 92 kDa type IV collagenase, 92kD gelatinase, 92kD type IV collagenase, collagenase type IVB, gelatinase B
Species: mouse
Products:     Mmp9

Top Publications

  1. Garg P, Vijay Kumar M, Wang L, Gewirtz A, Merlin D, Sitaraman S. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated tissue injury overrides the protective effect of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus inhibition of MMP-9 may be beneficial in treatment of colitis even if resulting in inhibition of MMP-2. ..
  2. Hsu J, Bourguignon L, Adams C, Peyrollier K, Zhang H, Fandel T, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 facilitates glial scar formation in the injured spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-9 may thus be a promising therapeutic target to reduce glial scarring during wound healing after spinal cord injury. ..
  3. Janusz A, Milek J, Perycz M, Pacini L, Bagni C, Kaczmarek L, et al. The Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 mRNA at synapses. J Neurosci. 2013;33:18234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This process contributes to dendritic spine dysmorphogenesis and synaptic dysfunction in FXS. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is an enzyme involved in activity-dependent reorganization of dendritic spine architecture and ..
  4. Bauer A, Bürgers H, Rabie T, Marti H. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates hypoxia-induced vascular leakage in the brain via tight junction rearrangement. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010;30:837-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, inhibition of MMP-9 might provide the basis for therapeutic strategies to treat brain edema. ..
  5. Sidhu H, Dansie L, Hickmott P, Ethell D, Ethell I. Genetic removal of matrix metalloproteinase 9 rescues the symptoms of fragile X syndrome in a mouse model. J Neurosci. 2014;34:9867-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish that MMP-9 is critical to the mechanisms responsible for neural and non-neural aspects of the FXS phenotype. ..
  6. Loiselle A, Bragdon G, Jacobson J, Hasslund S, Cortes Z, Schwarz E, et al. Remodeling of murine intrasynovial tendon adhesions following injury: MMP and neotendon gene expression. J Orthop Res. 2009;27:833-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The murine model of primary tendon repair, described here, provides a novel mechanism to study the tendon healing process, and further enhances the understanding of this process at the molecular, cellular, and biomechanical level. ..
  7. Lee Y, Lan Tran H, Van Ta Q. Regulation of expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by JNK in Raw 264.7 cells: presence of inhibitory factor(s) suppressing MMP-9 induction in serum and conditioned media. Exp Mol Med. 2009;41:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that JNK1 suppresses MMP-9 expression in the absence of serum. In addition, the inhibitory factor(s) present in serum or secreted from macrophages may negatively control MMP-9 expression. ..
  8. Hattori N, Mochizuki S, Kishi K, Nakajima T, Takaishi H, D ARMIENTO J, et al. MMP-13 plays a role in keratinocyte migration, angiogenesis, and contraction in mouse skin wound healing. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:533-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that MMP-13 plays a role in keratinocyte migration, angiogenesis, and contraction in wound healing, while MMP-9 functions in keratinocyte migration. ..
  9. Ardi V, Van Den Steen P, Opdenakker G, Schweighofer B, Deryugina E, Quigley J. Neutrophil MMP-9 proenzyme, unencumbered by TIMP-1, undergoes efficient activation in vivo and catalytically induces angiogenesis via a basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)/FGFR-2 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25854-66 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. McColl B, Rose N, Robson F, Rothwell N, Lawrence C. Increased brain microvascular MMP-9 and incidence of haemorrhagic transformation in obese mice after experimental stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010;30:267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects were independent of leptin or glycaemic status, suggesting that obesity potentiates brain microvascular disruption after experimental stroke...
  2. Wang S, Quang Le T, Chida J, Cisse Y, Yano M, Kido H. Mechanisms of matrix metalloproteinase-9 upregulation and tissue destruction in various organs in influenza A virus infection. J Med Invest. 2010;57:26-34 pubmed
    ..Strategies that neutralize TNF-alpha as well as inhibitors of MAPK-NF-kappa B- and/or AP-1-dependent pathways may be useful for suppressing the MMP-9 effect and thus preventing multiple organ failure in severe influenza. ..
  3. Moore B, Manthey C, Johnson D, Bauer A. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition reduces inflammation and improves motility in murine models of postoperative ileus. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:1283-92, 1292.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of MMP-9 activity reduced recruitment of immune cells to the intestinal muscularis, preventing loss of smooth muscle contractility. Induction of MMP-9 expression requires inducible nitric oxide synthase. ..
  4. Daleprane J, Freitas V, Pacheco A, Rudnicki M, Faine L, Dörr F, et al. Anti-atherogenic and anti-angiogenic activities of polyphenols from propolis. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, polyphenols from propolis, particularly red propolis, are able to reduce atherosclerotic lesions through mechanisms including the modulation of inflammatory and angiogenic factors. ..
  5. Xu B, Chen H, Xu W, Zhang W, Buckley S, Zheng S, et al. Molecular mechanisms of MMP9 overexpression and its role in emphysema pathogenesis of Smad3-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;303:L89-96 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have found that inappropriate elevation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) expression and activity is coincident with early onset of emphysema in Smad3-null mice...
  6. Dahiya S, Givvimani S, Bhatnagar S, Qipshidze N, Tyagi S, Kumar A. Osteopontin-stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 causes cardiomyopathy in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Immunol. 2011;187:2723-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Echocardiography measurements showed improved heart function in Mmp9-deficient mdx mice...
  7. Gieling R, Wallace K, Han Y. Interleukin-1 participates in the progression from liver injury to fibrosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G1324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus IL-1 is an important participant, along with other cytokines, and controls the progression from liver injury to fibrogenesis through activation of HSCs in vivo. ..
  8. Page K, Ledford J, Zhou P, Wills Karp M. A TLR2 agonist in German cockroach frass activates MMP-9 release and is protective against allergic inflammation in mice. J Immunol. 2009;183:3400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a protective role for TLR2 activation and MMP-9 release in the context of experimentally induced asthma in mice...
  9. Court F, Zambroni D, Pavoni E, Colombelli C, Baragli C, Figlia G, et al. MMP2-9 cleavage of dystroglycan alters the size and molecular composition of Schwann cell domains. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, regulated cleavage may be a general mechanism to regulate protein complex composition in physiological conditions, whereas unregulated processing is pathogenic and a target for treatment in disease. ..
  10. Gong Y, Fan Y, Hoover Plow J. Plasminogen regulates stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4-mediated hematopoietic stem cell mobilization by activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data elucidated a novel mechanism that Plg regulates MMP-9-dependent CXCR4 expression to facilitate HPSC mobilization in response to G-CSF. ..
  11. Kobayashi H, Chattopadhyay S, Kato K, Dolkas J, Kikuchi S, Myers R, et al. MMPs initiate Schwann cell-mediated MBP degradation and mechanical nociception after nerve damage. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;39:619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, MMPs mediate the initiation and maintenance of mechanical nociception through Schwann cell-mediated MBP processing and support of neuroinflammation. ..
  12. Ingram K, Curtis C, Silasi Mansat R, Lupu F, Griffin C. The NuRD chromatin-remodeling enzyme CHD4 promotes embryonic vascular integrity by transcriptionally regulating extracellular matrix proteolysis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1004031 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a novel mechanism by which a chromatin-remodeling enzyme regulates ECM stability to maintain vascular integrity during embryonic development. ..
  13. Li H, Mittal A, Makonchuk D, Bhatnagar S, Kumar A. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition ameliorates pathogenesis and improves skeletal muscle regeneration in muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2584-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of Mmp9 gene in mdx mice improved skeletal muscle structure and functions and reduced muscle injury, inflammation and fiber ..
  14. Huang P, Chen Y, Wang C, Chen J, Tsai H, Lin F, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is essential for ischemia-induced neovascularization by modulating bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1179-84 pubmed publisher
  15. Chen F, Ohashi N, Li W, Eckman C, Nguyen J. Disruptions of occludin and claudin-5 in brain endothelial cells in vitro and in brains of mice with acute liver failure. Hepatology. 2009;50:1914-23 pubmed publisher
    ..TJ proteins are significantly perturbed in brains of mice with ALF. These data corroborate the important role of MMP-9 in the vasogenic mechanism of brain edema in ALF. ..
  16. Ortega N, Wang K, Ferrara N, Werb Z, Vu T. Complementary interplay between matrix metalloproteinase-9, vascular endothelial growth factor and osteoclast function drives endochondral bone formation. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:224-35 pubmed publisher
  17. Lund I, Nielsen B, Almholt K, Rønø B, Hald A, Illemann M, et al. Concomitant lack of MMP9 and uPA disturbs physiological tissue remodeling. Dev Biol. 2011;358:56-67 pubmed publisher
    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9, gelatinase B) have separately been recognized to play important roles in various tissue remodeling processes...
  18. Dahiya S, Bhatnagar S, Hindi S, Jiang C, Paul P, Kuang S, et al. Elevated levels of active matrix metalloproteinase-9 cause hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4345-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In one-year-old mdx mice (a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, DMD), deletion of the Mmp9 gene reduced fiber hypertrophy and phosphorylation of Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase...
  19. Qin L, Han Y. Epigenetic repression of matrix metalloproteinases in myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells through histone deacetylases 4: implication in tissue fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:1915-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, both the MMP9 and MMP13 genes are inaccessible to transcription factors and RNA polymerase II, in association with impaired ..
  20. Tsuge M, Yasui K, Ichiyawa T, Saito Y, Nagaoka Y, Yashiro M, et al. Increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the blood induces early activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the brain. Microbiol Immunol. 2010;54:417-24 pubmed publisher
  21. Gawronska Kozak B. Scarless skin wound healing in FOXN1 deficient (nude) mice is associated with distinctive matrix metalloproteinase expression. Matrix Biol. 2011;30:290-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these finding suggest that the bimodal pattern of MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression during skin repair process in nude mice could be a major component of their ability for scarless healing. ..
  22. Nyman J, Lynch C, Perrien D, Thiolloy S, O Quinn E, Patil C, et al. Differential effects between the loss of MMP-2 and MMP-9 on structural and tissue-level properties of bone. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:1252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..the architectural, compositional, and biomechanical properties of bones from wild-type (WT), Mmp2(-/-) , and Mmp9(-/-) female mice at 16 weeks of age...
  23. Gkantidis N, Katsaros C, Chiquet M. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;138:557-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo...
  24. Fragkouli A, Papatheodoropoulos C, Georgopoulos S, Stamatakis A, Stylianopoulou F, Tsilibary E, et al. Enhanced neuronal plasticity and elevated endogenous sAPP? levels in mice over-expressing MMP9. J Neurochem. 2012;121:239-51 pubmed publisher
    Evidence accumulating during the past few years points to a significant role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) enzymatic activity in synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes...
  25. Katzel E, Wolenski M, Loiselle A, Basile P, Flick L, Langstein H, et al. Impact of Smad3 loss of function on scarring and adhesion formation during tendon healing. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:684-93 pubmed publisher
    ..quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry showed decreased col3a1 and col1a1 and increased MMP9 gene and protein expression in repaired Smad3(-/-) tendons...
  26. Kowluru R, Mohammad G, Dos Santos J, Zhong Q. Abrogation of MMP-9 gene protects against the development of retinopathy in diabetic mice by preventing mitochondrial damage. Diabetes. 2011;60:3023-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MMP-9 inhibitors could have potential therapeutic value in preventing the development of diabetic retinopathy by preventing the continuation of the vicious cycle of mitochondrial damage. ..
  27. Arnould C, Lelievre Pegorier M, Ronco P, Lelongt B. MMP9 limits apoptosis and stimulates branching morphogenesis during kidney development. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:2171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed MMP9-deficient mice at the first step of kidney development and found that MMP9 deficiency delayed embryonic kidney ..
  28. Mohammad G, Kowluru R. Diabetic retinopathy and signaling mechanism for activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1052-61 pubmed publisher
    ..pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, H-Ras (a small molecular weight G-protein) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) act as pro-apoptotic, accelerating the apoptosis of retinal capillary cells, a phenomenon that predicts its ..
  29. Chattopadhyay S, Shubayev V. MMP-9 controls Schwann cell proliferation and phenotypic remodeling via IGF-1 and ErbB receptor-mediated activation of MEK/ERK pathway. Glia. 2009;57:1316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We also report on the early changes of MMP-9 mRNA expression (within 24 h) after axotomy. These studies establish that MMP-9 controls critical trophic signal transduction pathways and phenotypic remodeling of Schwann cells. ..
  30. Lim D, Cho J, Miller M, McElwain K, McElwain S, Broide D. Reduced peribronchial fibrosis in allergen-challenged MMP-9-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L265-71 pubmed
    ..e., modest reduction in levels of peribronchial fibrosis) but does not play a significant role in mucus expression, smooth muscle thickness, or airway responsiveness. ..
  31. Stickens D, Behonick D, Ortega N, Heyer B, Hartenstein B, Yu Y, et al. Altered endochondral bone development in matrix metalloproteinase 13-deficient mice. Development. 2004;131:5883-95 pubmed
    ..degradation of cartilage collagen and aggrecan is a coordinated process in which MMP13 works synergistically with MMP9. Mice lacking both MMP13 and MMP9 had severely impaired endochondral bone, characterized by diminished ECM ..
  32. Suzuki Y, Nagai N, Umemura K, Collen D, Lijnen H. Stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) is critical for intracranial bleeding after t-PA treatment of stroke in mice. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:1732-9 pubmed
    ..ICB was studied in mice with genetic deficiencies of plasminogen (Plg(-/-)), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3(-/-)), or gelatinase B (MMP-9(-/-)) and their corresponding wild-type (WT) littermates...
  33. Canete Soler R, Gui Y, Linask K, Muschel R. Developmental expression of MMP-9 (gelatinase B) mRNA in mouse embryos. Dev Dyn. 1995;204:30-40 pubmed
    ..The liver from day 15 embryos contained gelatinase activity at 105 kDa consistent with MMP-9. Thus, MMP-9 expression appears to be expressed in specific organs in a precise temporal sequence during development. ..
  34. Larsen P, Wells J, Stallcup W, Opdenakker G, Yong V. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 facilitates remyelination in part by processing the inhibitory NG2 proteoglycan. J Neurosci. 2003;23:11127-35 pubmed
    ..These results emphasize for the first time that upregulation of MMP activity can be important for facilitating regeneration from some types of CNS injury. ..
  35. Lee S, Tsuji K, Lee S, Lo E. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in delayed neuronal damage after transient global cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2004;24:671-8 pubmed
    ..05). These data indicate a potential deleterious role for MMP-9 in the pathogenesis of delayed neuronal damage in the hippocampus after global cerebral ischemia. ..
  36. Lanone S, Zheng T, Zhu Z, Liu W, Lee C, Ma B, et al. Overlapping and enzyme-specific contributions of matrix metalloproteinases-9 and -12 in IL-13-induced inflammation and remodeling. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:463-74 pubmed
    ..The also demonstrate that MMPs-9 and -12 play different roles in the generation of IL-13-induced inflammation, with MMP-9 inhibiting neutrophil accumulation and MMP-12 contributing to the accumulation of eosinophils and macrophages. ..
  37. Corry D, Kiss A, Song L, Song L, Xu J, Lee S, et al. Overlapping and independent contributions of MMP2 and MMP9 to lung allergic inflammatory cell egression through decreased CC chemokines. FASEB J. 2004;18:995-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that leukocyte MMP9 is the dominant airway MMP controlling inflammatory cell egression...
  38. Tian L, Stefanidakis M, Ning L, Van Lint P, Nyman Huttunen H, Libert C, et al. Activation of NMDA receptors promotes dendritic spine development through MMP-mediated ICAM-5 cleavage. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:687-700 pubmed
    ..Soluble ICAM-5 promotes elongation of dendritic filopodia from wild-type neurons, but not from ICAM-5-deficient neurons. Thus, MMPs are important for ICAM-5-mediated dendritic spine development. ..
  39. Reponen P, Leivo I, Sahlberg C, Apte S, Olsen B, Thesleff I, et al. 92-kDa type IV collagenase and TIMP-3, but not 72-kDa type IV collagenase or TIMP-1 or TIMP-2, are highly expressed during mouse embryo implantation. Dev Dyn. 1995;202:388-96 pubmed
    ..5 to 7.5. The 92 kDa type IV collagenase was strongly expressed in invading trophoblasts, signals above background not being observed in the ..
  40. Teesalu T, Masson R, Basset P, Blasi F, Talarico D. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during murine chorioallantoic placenta maturation. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:248-58 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, gelatinase B transcripts were expressed only by trophoblast giant cells at day 10.5, and were downregulated at later stages...
  41. Inada M, Wang Y, Byrne M, Rahman M, Miyaura C, Lopez Otin C, et al. Critical roles for collagenase-3 (Mmp13) in development of growth plate cartilage and in endochondral ossification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17192-7 pubmed
    ..Cartilaginous growth plate abnormalities persisted in adult mice and phenocopied defects observed in human hereditary chondrodysplasias. Our findings demonstrate a unique role of Mmp13 in skeletal development. ..
  42. Arnold S, Mira E, Muneer S, Korpanty G, Beck A, Holloway S, et al. Forced expression of MMP9 rescues the loss of angiogenesis and abrogates metastasis of pancreatic tumors triggered by the absence of host SPARC. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:860-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These features are regulated in part by MMP9 and SPARC...
  43. Masure S, Nys G, Fiten P, Van Damme J, Opdenakker G. Mouse gelatinase B. cDNA cloning, regulation of expression and glycosylation in WEHI-3 macrophages and gene organisation. Eur J Biochem. 1993;218:129-41 pubmed
    b>Gelatinase B is a regulated matrix metalloproteinase with an important role in the remodelling of extracellular matrices and of basement membranes...
  44. Longo G, Xiong W, Greiner T, Zhao Y, Fiotti N, Baxter B. Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 work in concert to produce aortic aneurysms. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:625-32 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that macrophage-derived MMP-9 and mesenchymal cell MMP-2 are both required and work in concert to produce AAA. ..
  45. Maes C, Carmeliet P, Moermans K, Stockmans I, Smets N, Collen D, et al. Impaired angiogenesis and endochondral bone formation in mice lacking the vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms VEGF164 and VEGF188. Mech Dev. 2002;111:61-73 pubmed
  46. Legallicier B, Trugnan G, Murphy G, Lelongt B, Ronco P. Expression of the type IV collagenase system during mouse kidney development and tubule segmentation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:2358-69 pubmed
    Type IV collagenases matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and MMP9 and their related proteins, MT1-MMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1), TIMP2, and TIMP3, are expressed during kidney morphogenesis and nephrogenesis, but the ..
  47. Johnson C, Galis Z. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 differentially regulate smooth muscle cell migration and cell-mediated collagen organization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:54-60 pubmed
    ..Understanding the specific roles of these MMPs, generally thought to be similar, could improve the design of therapeutic interventions aimed at controlling vascular remodeling. ..
  48. Heymans S, Luttun A, Nuyens D, Theilmeier G, Creemers E, Moons L, et al. Inhibition of plasminogen activators or matrix metalloproteinases prevents cardiac rupture but impairs therapeutic angiogenesis and causes cardiac failure. Nat Med. 1999;5:1135-42 pubmed
  49. Masson V, de la Ballina L, Munaut C, Wielockx B, Jost M, Maillard C, et al. Contribution of host MMP-2 and MMP-9 to promote tumor vascularization and invasion of malignant keratinocytes. FASEB J. 2005;19:234-6 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate for the first time in an experimental model that MMP-2 and MMP-9 cooperate in promoting the in vivo invasive and angiogenic phenotype of malignant keratinocytes. ..
  50. Odaka C, Tanioka M, Itoh T. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in macrophages induces thymic neovascularization following thymocyte apoptosis. J Immunol. 2005;174:846-53 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate a potential role of macrophage MMP-9 in the remodeling of thymic extracellular matrix following thymocyte apoptosis. ..
  51. Zelzer E, McLean W, Ng Y, Fukai N, Reginato A, Lovejoy S, et al. Skeletal defects in VEGF(120/120) mice reveal multiple roles for VEGF in skeletogenesis. Development. 2002;129:1893-904 pubmed
    ..We also describe new in vivo evidence for a possible role of VEGF in chondrocyte maturation, and document that VEGF has a direct role in regulating osteoblastic activity based on in vivo evidence and organ culture experiments. ..
  52. Chun T, Sabeh F, Ota I, Murphy H, McDonagh K, Holmbeck K, et al. MT1-MMP-dependent neovessel formation within the confines of the three-dimensional extracellular matrix. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:757-67 pubmed
  53. Lee H, Chou H, Chen K, Lai S. Association of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in eosinophilic meningitis of BALB/c mice caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Parasitol Res. 2004;94:321-8 pubmed
    ..When immunoblots were performed using specific antiserums against the 94-kDa gelatinase B (matrix metalloproteinase-9; MMP-9) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the 94-kDa immunopositive band was MMP-9...
  54. Lakka S, Gondi C, Dinh D, Olivero W, Gujrati M, Rao V, et al. Specific interference of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression induced by double-stranded RNA results in decreased invasion, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in gliomas. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21882-92 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that the use of hairpin siRNA expression vectors for uPAR and MMP-9 may provide an effective tool for cancer therapy. ..
  55. Lelongt B, Bengatta S, Delauche M, Lund L, Werb Z, Ronco P. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 protects mice from anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis through its fibrinolytic activity. J Exp Med. 2001;193:793-802 pubmed
    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9/gelatinase B is increased in various nephropathies. To investigate its role, we used a genetic approach. Adult MMP9-deficient (MMP9(-/)-) mice showed normal renal histology and function at 3 mo...
  56. Kenny H, Kaur S, Coussens L, Lengyel E. The initial steps of ovarian cancer cell metastasis are mediated by MMP-2 cleavage of vitronectin and fibronectin. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..did not alter OvCa adhesion, as determined utilizing mice harboring homozygous null mutations in either the Mmp2 or Mmp9 genes. Conversely, adhesion induced upregulation of MMP-2 mRNA in OvCa cells...
  57. Harvey M, Leco K, Arcellana Panlilio M, Zhang X, Edwards D, Schultz G. Proteinase expression in early mouse embryos is regulated by leukaemia inhibitory factor and epidermal growth factor. Development. 1995;121:1005-14 pubmed
    ..In this study, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase B (MMP-9), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and their inhibitors was investigated during early mouse ..
  58. Wang M, Qin X, Mudgett J, Ferguson T, Senior R, Welgus H. Matrix metalloproteinase deficiencies affect contact hypersensitivity: stromelysin-1 deficiency prevents the response and gelatinase B deficiency prolongs the response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6885-9 pubmed
    ..We have studied mice with deficiencies of stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) or gelatinase B (MMP-9) in a dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS)...
  59. Carmeliet P, Moons L, Lijnen R, Baes M, Lemaitre V, Tipping P, et al. Urokinase-generated plasmin activates matrix metalloproteinases during aneurysm formation. Nat Genet. 1997;17:439-44 pubmed
  60. Tanaka H, Hojo K, Yoshida H, Yoshioka T, Sugita K. Molecular cloning and expression of the mouse 105-kDa gelatinase cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;190:732-40 pubmed
    ..Transfection of the cDNA in an expression vector resulted in production of the 105-kDa gelatinase, thus confirming that this cDNA is functional. ..
  61. Noble L, Donovan F, Igarashi T, Goussev S, Werb Z. Matrix metalloproteinases limit functional recovery after spinal cord injury by modulation of early vascular events. J Neurosci. 2002;22:7526-35 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that early inhibition of MMPs may be an efficacious strategy for the spinal cord-injured patient. ..
  62. Yoshiba N, Yoshiba K, Stoetzel C, Perrin Schmitt F, Cam Y, Ruch J, et al. Temporospatial gene expression and protein localization of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors during mouse molar tooth development. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:105-12 pubmed
    ..The distinct temporospatial distribution patterns of the TIMPs suggest that these inhibitors play several intrinsic roles during tooth development. ..
  63. Ortega N, Behonick D, Colnot C, Cooper D, Werb Z. Galectin-3 is a downstream regulator of matrix metalloproteinase-9 function during endochondral bone formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3028-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, the disruption of growth plate homeostasis in Mmp-9 null mice links galectin-3 and MMP-9 in the regulation of the clearance of late chondrocytes through regulation of their terminal differentiation. ..
  64. Castaneda F, Walia B, Vijay Kumar M, Patel N, Roser S, Kolachala V, et al. Targeted deletion of metalloproteinase 9 attenuates experimental colitis in mice: central role of epithelial-derived MMP. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:1991-2008 pubmed
    ..Thus, strategies to inhibit MMP-9 may be of potential therapeutic benefit. ..
  65. Rhee J, Lee K, Sohn W, Lee Y, Jeon O, Kwon H, et al. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression and cell migration by NF-kappa B in response to CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides in RAW 264.7 cells. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:1393-400 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data suggest that NF-kappaB-dependent expression of MMP-9 in response to CpG-ODN plays an important role in the recruitment of immune cells. ..
  66. Srivastava A, Qin X, Wedhas N, Arnush M, Linkhart T, Chadwick R, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha augments matrix metalloproteinase-9 production in skeletal muscle cells through the activation of transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-dependent signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:35113-24 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TAK1-mediated pathways are involved in TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 production in skeletal muscle cells. ..
  67. Heissig B, Hattori K, Dias S, Friedrich M, Ferris B, Hackett N, et al. Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand. Cell. 2002;109:625-37 pubmed
    ..Release of sKitL by MMP-9 enables BM repopulating cells to translocate to a permissive vascular niche favoring differentiation and reconstitution of the stem/progenitor cell pool. ..
  68. Ratzinger G, Stoitzner P, Ebner S, Lutz M, Layton G, Rainer C, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 2 are necessary for the migration of Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells from human and murine skin. J Immunol. 2002;168:4361-71 pubmed
    ..These data underscore the importance of MMPs, and they may be of relevance for therapeutically regulating dendritic cell migration in clinical vaccination approaches. ..
  69. Cho A, Reidy M. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is necessary for the regulation of smooth muscle cell replication and migration after arterial injury. Circ Res. 2002;91:845-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, our present data indicate that MMP-9 is critical for the development of arterial lesions by regulating both SMC migration and proliferation. ..
  70. Hamano Y, Zeisberg M, Sugimoto H, Lively J, Maeshima Y, Yang C, et al. Physiological levels of tumstatin, a fragment of collagen IV alpha3 chain, are generated by MMP-9 proteolysis and suppress angiogenesis via alphaV beta3 integrin. Cancer Cell. 2003;3:589-601 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MMP-generated fragments of basement membrane collagen can have endogenous function as integrin-mediated suppressors of pathologic angiogenesis and tumor growth. ..
  71. Wang X, Jung J, Asahi M, Chwang W, Russo L, Moskowitz M, et al. Effects of matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene knock-out on morphological and motor outcomes after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7037-42 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that MMP-9 (gelatinase B; EC. contributes to the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury...
  72. Yu Q, Stamenkovic I. Localization of matrix metalloproteinase 9 to the cell surface provides a mechanism for CD44-mediated tumor invasion. Genes Dev. 1999;13:35-48 pubmed
    ..Our observations indicate that CD44 serves to anchor MMP-9 on the cell surface and define a mechanism for CD44-mediated tumor invasion. ..
  73. Yan P, Hu X, Song H, Yin K, Bateman R, Cirrito J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 degrades amyloid-beta fibrils in vitro and compact plaques in situ. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:24566-74 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that MMP-9 can degrade fAbeta and may contribute to ongoing clearance of plaques from amyloid-laden brains. ..
  74. Jacob A, Smith C, Partanen J, Ornitz D. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 signaling in the osteo-chondrogenic cell lineage regulates sequential steps of osteoblast maturation. Dev Biol. 2006;296:315-28 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that signaling through FGFR1 in osteoblasts is necessary to maintain the balance between bone formation and remodeling through a direct effect on osteoblast maturation. ..
  75. Santana A, Medina C, Paz Cabrera M, Díaz González F, Farre E, Salas A, et al. Attenuation of dextran sodium sulphate induced colitis in matrix metalloproteinase-9 deficient mice. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:6464-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude that DSS induced colitis is markedly attenuated in animals lacking MMP-9. This suggests that intestinal injury induced by DSS is modulated by MMP-9 and that inhibition of this gelatinase may reduce inflammation. ..