Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Mmp2
Description: matrix metallopeptidase 2
Alias: Clg4a, GelA, MMP-2, 72 kDa type IV collagenase, 72 kDa gelatinase, 72kD gelatinase, 72kD type IV collagenase, 72kDa gelatinase, 72kDa type IV collagenase, gelatinase A, matrix metalloproteinase 2
- Barnett J, McCollum G, Fowler J, Duan J, Kay J, Liu R, et al. Pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of MMP-2 and -9 affects retinal neovascularization in rodent models of OIR. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:907-15 pubmed..Furthermore, MMP-2 inhibition may be a viable therapeutic approach for ocular diseases characterized by retinal neovascularization. ..
- Corry D, Rishi K, Kanellis J, Kiss A, Song Lz L, Xu J, et al. Decreased allergic lung inflammatory cell egression and increased susceptibility to asphyxiation in MMP2-deficiency. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:347-53 pubmedClearance of recruited immune cells is necessary to resolve inflammatory reactions. We show here that matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), as part of an interleukin 13 (IL-13)-dependent regulatory loop, dampens inflammation by promoting the ..
- Blavier L, Lazaryev A, Groffen J, Heisterkamp N, DeClerck Y, Kaartinen V. TGF-beta3-induced palatogenesis requires matrix metalloproteinases. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1457-66 pubmed..MMP-13 was expressed both in MEE and in adjacent mesenchyme, whereas gelatinase A (MMP-2) was expressed by mesenchymal cells neighboring the MEE...
- Mi Z, Guo H, Wai P, Gao C, Kuo P. Integrin-linked kinase regulates osteopontin-dependent MMP-2 and uPA expression to convey metastatic function in murine mammary epithelial cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1134-45 pubmed..In 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells, we conclude that OPN mediates metastatic behavior, in part, through upregulation of MMP-2 and uPA protein expression. ..
- Masson V, de la Ballina L, Munaut C, Wielockx B, Jost M, Maillard C, et al. Contribution of host MMP-2 and MMP-9 to promote tumor vascularization and invasion of malignant keratinocytes. FASEB J. 2005;19:234-6 pubmed..Our data demonstrate for the first time in an experimental model that MMP-2 and MMP-9 cooperate in promoting the in vivo invasive and angiogenic phenotype of malignant keratinocytes. ..
- Littlepage L, Sternlicht M, Rougier N, Phillips J, Gallo E, Yu Y, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases contribute distinct roles in neuroendocrine prostate carcinogenesis, metastasis, and angiogenesis progression. Cancer Res. 2010;70:2224-34 pubmed publisher..Together, these results suggest distinct contributions by MMPs to the progression of aggressive prostate tumor and to helping tumors cleverly find alternative routes to malignant progression. ..
- Sarman S, van der Ploeg I, Seregard S, Kvanta A. Retinal vascular development and pathologic retinal angiogenesis are not impaired in matrix metalloproteinase-2 deficient mice. Curr Eye Res. 2005;30:259-67 pubmed..The current data suggest that MMP-2 is not essential for either retinal vascular development or pathologic retinal neovascularization in the mouse. ..
- Hayashidani S, Tsutsui H, Ikeuchi M, Shiomi T, Matsusaka H, Kubota T, et al. Targeted deletion of MMP-2 attenuates early LV rupture and late remodeling after experimental myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H1229-35 pubmed..The inhibition of MMP-2 activation may therefore be a potentially useful therapeutic strategy to manage post-MI hearts. ..
- Wiseman B, Sternlicht M, Lund L, Alexander C, Mott J, Bissell M, et al. Site-specific inductive and inhibitory activities of MMP-2 and MMP-3 orchestrate mammary gland branching morphogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1123-33 pubmed..Nevertheless, the mammary gland is able to develop lactational competence in MMP mutant mice. Thus, specific MMPs refine the mammary branching pattern by distinct mechanisms during mammary gland branching morphogenesis. ..
- Acuff H, Carter K, Fingleton B, Gorden D, Matrisian L. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 from bone marrow-derived cells contributes to survival but not growth of tumor cells in the lung microenvironment. Cancer Res. 2006;66:259-66 pubmed..These results provide insights into the failure of MMP inhibitors in clinical trials in patients with late-stage lung cancer. ..
- Sato H, Takino T, Okada Y, Cao J, Shinagawa A, Yamamoto E, et al. A matrix metalloproteinase expressed on the surface of invasive tumour cells. Nature. 1994;370:61-5 pubmedb>Gelatinase A (type-IV collagenase; M(r) 72,000) is produced by tumour stroma cells and is believed to be crucial for their invasion and metastasis, acting by degrading extracellular matrix macro-molecules such as type IV collagen...
- Egeblad M, Shen H, Behonick D, Wilmes L, Eichten A, Korets L, et al. Type I collagen is a genetic modifier of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in murine skeletal development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1683-93 pubmedRecessive inactivating mutations in human matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2, gelatinase A) are associated with syndromes that include abnormal facial appearance, short stature, and severe bone loss...
- Robbins J, McGuire P, Wehrle Haller B, Rogers S. Diminished matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in ectomesenchyme-derived tissues of the Patch mutant mouse: regulation of MMP-2 by PDGF and effects on mesenchymal cell migration. Dev Biol. 1999;212:255-63 pubmed
- Masson R, Lefebvre O, Noel A, Fahime M, Chenard M, Wendling C, et al. In vivo evidence that the stromelysin-3 metalloproteinase contributes in a paracrine manner to epithelial cell malignancy. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:1535-41 pubmed..Therefore, ST3 represents an appropriate target for specific MMP inhibitor(s) in future therapeutical approaches directed against the stromal compartment of human carcinomas. ..
- Itoh T, Tanioka M, Yoshida H, Yoshioka T, Nishimoto H, Itohara S. Reduced angiogenesis and tumor progression in gelatinase A-deficient mice. Cancer Res. 1998;58:1048-51 pubmed..We investigated the specific role of gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase 2) on these events using gelatinase A-deficient mice...
- Ratzinger G, Stoitzner P, Ebner S, Lutz M, Layton G, Rainer C, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 2 are necessary for the migration of Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells from human and murine skin. J Immunol. 2002;168:4361-71 pubmed..These data underscore the importance of MMPs, and they may be of relevance for therapeutically regulating dendritic cell migration in clinical vaccination approaches. ..
- Garg P, Rojas M, Ravi A, Bockbrader K, Epstein S, Vijay Kumar M, et al. Selective ablation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 exacerbates experimental colitis: contrasting role of gelatinases in the pathogenesis of colitis. J Immunol. 2006;177:4103-12 pubmed..Together, our data suggest that a critical balance between the two gelatinases determines the outcome of inflammatory response during acute colitis. ..
- Skittone L, Liu X, Tseng A, Kim H. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and promoter/enhancer activity in skeletal muscle atrophy. J Orthop Res. 2008;26:357-63 pubmed..These findings show that increased MMP-2 activity in disused atrophic muscle and supporting tissues is regulated, at least in part, by increased MMP-2 promoter/enhancer activity. ..
- Berglin L, Sarman S, van der Ploeg I, Steen B, Ming Y, Itohara S, et al. Reduced choroidal neovascular membrane formation in matrix metalloproteinase-2-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:403-8 pubmed..These results suggest that pharmacologic targeting of MMPs, including MMP-2, may reduce formation of CNV in conditions such as age-related macular degeneration. ..
- Kuzuya M, Kanda S, Sasaki T, Tamaya Mori N, Cheng X, Itoh T, et al. Deficiency of gelatinase a suppresses smooth muscle cell invasion and development of experimental intimal hyperplasia. Circulation. 2003;108:1375-81 pubmed
- Lee J, Dahi S, Mahimkar R, Tulloch N, Alfonso Jaume M, Lovett D, et al. Intronic regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 revealed by in vivo transcriptional analysis in ischemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16345-50 pubmed
- Kinoh H, Sato H, Tsunezuka Y, Takino T, Kawashima A, Okada Y, et al. MT-MMP, the cell surface activator of proMMP-2 (pro-gelatinase A), is expressed with its substrate in mouse tissue during embryogenesis. J Cell Sci. 1996;109 ( Pt 5):953-9 pubmed..We identified a membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP) that activated proMMP-2 (pro-gelatinase A = 72 kDa type IV pro-collagenase) and described its expression on the invasive tumor cell surface...
- Baluk P, Raymond W, Ator E, Coussens L, McDonald D, Caughey G. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 expression increases in Mycoplasma-infected airways but is not required for microvascular remodeling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;287:L307-17 pubmed..We conclude that despite major increases in expression, MMP-2 and MMP-9 are not essential for microvascular remodeling in M. pulmonis-induced chronic airway inflammation. ..
- Lehti K, Allen E, Birkedal Hansen H, Holmbeck K, Miyake Y, Chun T, et al. An MT1-MMP-PDGF receptor-beta axis regulates mural cell investment of the microvasculature. Genes Dev. 2005;19:979-91 pubmed..Together, these data identify MT1-MMP as a novel proteolytic modifier of PDGF-B/PDGFRbeta signal transduction that cooperatively regulates vessel wall architecture in vivo. ..
- Brenner C, Adler R, Rappolee D, Pedersen R, Werb Z. Genes for extracellular-matrix-degrading metalloproteinases and their inhibitor, TIMP, are expressed during early mammalian development. Genes Dev. 1989;3:848-59 pubmed..These data suggest that metalloproteinases function in cell-ECM interactions during growth, development, and implantation of mammalian embryos. ..
- Madsen D, Engelholm L, Ingvarsen S, Hillig T, Wagenaar Miller R, Kjøller L, et al. Extracellular collagenases and the endocytic receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/Endo180, cooperate in fibroblast-mediated collagen degradation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27037-45 pubmed
- Liu X, Lee D, Skittone L, Natsuhara K, Kim H. Role of gelatinases in disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Muscle Nerve. 2010;41:174-8 pubmed publisherGelatinases are a subgroup of the family of matrix metalloproteinases, which contains two members-gelatinase A and B. These enzymes play an important role in basement membrane homeostasis...
- Ali M, Cho W, Hudson B, Kassiri Z, Granzier H, Schulz R. Titin is a target of matrix metalloproteinase-2: implications in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Circulation. 2010;122:2039-47 pubmed publisher..MMP-2 localizes to titin at the Z-disk region of the cardiac sarcomere and contributes to titin degradation in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..
- Corry D, Kiss A, Song L, Song L, Xu J, Lee S, et al. Overlapping and independent contributions of MMP2 and MMP9 to lung allergic inflammatory cell egression through decreased CC chemokines. FASEB J. 2004;18:995-7 pubmed..Previously, we demonstrated the importance of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) for airway egression of lung eosinophils, a critical anti-inflammatory mechanism without which ..
- Reponen P, Leivo I, Sahlberg C, Apte S, Olsen B, Thesleff I, et al. 92-kDa type IV collagenase and TIMP-3, but not 72-kDa type IV collagenase or TIMP-1 or TIMP-2, are highly expressed during mouse embryo implantation. Dev Dyn. 1995;202:388-96 pubmed..The results suggest a central role for 92 kDa type IV collagenase and TIMP-3 in the extracellular proteolysis associated with implantation of the early embryo. ..
- Chin J, Werb Z. Matrix metalloproteinases regulate morphogenesis, migration and remodeling of epithelium, tongue skeletal muscle and cartilage in the mandibular arch. Development. 1997;124:1519-30 pubmed..b>Gelatinase A mRNA transcripts were strongly expressed in the perichondrium of Meckel's cartilage and mesenchymal areas of ..
- Ohno Matsui K, Uetama T, Yoshida T, Hayano M, Itoh T, Morita I, et al. Reduced retinal angiogenesis in MMP-2-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:5370-5 pubmed..MMP-2 may be essential in the regulation of retinal neovascularization. Pharmacologic intervention using MMP inhibitors may be a future therapeutic approach for angiogenic retinal diseases. ..
- Alfonso Jaume M, Bergman M, Mahimkar R, Cheng S, Jin Z, Karliner J, et al. Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression through the AP-1 components FosB and JunB. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H1838-46 pubmed..We conclude that enhanced MMP-2 transcription and translation following I/R injury are mediated by induction, via oxidant stress, of discrete AP-1 transcription factor components. ..
- Roberts L, Visser J, Ingraham H. Involvement of a matrix metalloproteinase in MIS-induced cell death during urogenital development. Development. 2002;129:1487-96 pubmed..We have identified a member of the matrix metalloproteinase gene family, Mmp2, as one of the first candidate target genes downstream of the MIS cascade to function as a paracrine death factor ..
- Tellier E, Negre Salvayre A, Bocquet B, Itohara S, Hannun Y, Salvayre R, et al. Role for furin in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced activation of the matrix metalloproteinase/sphingolipid mitogenic pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2997-3007 pubmed..and in turn requires a proteolytic cascade involving furin, membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), and MMP2, and leading finally to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and DNA synthesis, in ..
- Andrews K, Betsuyaku T, Rogers S, Shipley J, Senior R, Miner J. Gelatinase B (MMP-9) is not essential in the normal kidney and does not influence progression of renal disease in a mouse model of Alport syndrome. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:303-11 pubmed..Thus, gelB does not have a discernible role in the normal kidney and gelB is not involved in the progression of glomerulonephritis in a mouse model of Alport syndrome...
- Mahimkar R, Nguyen A, Mann M, Yeh C, Zhu B, Karliner J, et al. Cardiac transgenic matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression induces myxomatous valve degeneration: a potential model of mitral valve prolapse disease. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2009;18:253-61 pubmed publisher..The cardiac-specific MMP-2 transgenic mouse potentially provides a unique experimental platform for the evaluation of nonsurgical therapies based on the underlying pathophysiology of this disease. ..
- Longo G, Xiong W, Greiner T, Zhao Y, Fiotti N, Baxter B. Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 work in concert to produce aortic aneurysms. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:625-32 pubmed..These findings suggest that macrophage-derived MMP-9 and mesenchymal cell MMP-2 are both required and work in concert to produce AAA. ..
- Inoue K, Mikuni Takagaki Y, Oikawa K, Itoh T, Inada M, Noguchi T, et al. A crucial role for matrix metalloproteinase 2 in osteocytic canalicular formation and bone metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:33814-24 pubmed..It is not known how the loss of MMP-2 function results in the pathology. Here, we show that Mmp2(-/-) mice exhibited opposing bone phenotypes caused by an impaired osteocytic canalicular network...
- Lovett D, Mahimkar R, Raffai R, Cape L, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, et al. A novel intracellular isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 induced by oxidative stress activates innate immunity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34177 pubmed publisher..This isoform initiates a primary innate immune response that may contribute to progressive cardiac dysfunction in the setting of ischemia and systolic failure. ..
- Garg P, Vijay Kumar M, Wang L, Gewirtz A, Merlin D, Sitaraman S. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated tissue injury overrides the protective effect of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G175-84 pubmed publisher..Thus inhibition of MMP-9 may be beneficial in treatment of colitis even if resulting in inhibition of MMP-2. ..
- Lelongt B, Trugnan G, Murphy G, Ronco P. Matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9 are produced in early stages of kidney morphogenesis but only MMP9 is required for renal organogenesis in vitro. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:1363-73 pubmed..and zymograms of kidney lysates showed that the mesenchyme of embryonic kidneys synthesized both MMP9 and MMP2 enzymes...
- Kitamura T, Fujishita T, Loetscher P, Revesz L, Hashida H, Kizaka Kondoh S, et al. Inactivation of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 (CCR1) suppresses colon cancer liver metastasis by blocking accumulation of immature myeloid cells in a mouse model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13063-8 pubmed publisher..They express CCL9/15 receptor CCR1 and produce matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9...
- Kheradmand F, Rishi K, Werb Z. Signaling through the EGF receptor controls lung morphogenesis in part by regulating MT1-MMP-mediated activation of gelatinase A/MMP2. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:839-48 pubmed..Egfr(-/-) mice had low expression of MT1-MMP/MMP14, which is a potent activator of gelatinase A/MMP2, in their lungs...
- Reponen P, Sahlberg C, Huhtala P, Hurskainen T, Thesleff I, Tryggvason K. Molecular cloning of murine 72-kDa type IV collagenase and its expression during mouse development. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:7856-62 pubmed..The mouse cDNA clones reported in this study may provide important tools unraveling the actual roles of these enzymes in vivo. ..
- Gkantidis N, Katsaros C, Chiquet M. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;138:557-71 pubmed publisher..Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo...
- Legallicier B, Trugnan G, Murphy G, Lelongt B, Ronco P. Expression of the type IV collagenase system during mouse kidney development and tubule segmentation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:2358-69 pubmedType IV collagenases matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and MMP9 and their related proteins, MT1-MMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1), TIMP2, and TIMP3, are expressed during kidney morphogenesis and nephrogenesis, but the ..
- Esparza J, Kruse M, Lee J, Michaud M, Madri J. MMP-2 null mice exhibit an early onset and severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis due to an increase in MMP-9 expression and activity. FASEB J. 2004;18:1682-91 pubmedMatrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2; gelatinase A) is known to degrade a broad range of extracellular matrix components and chemokines, and has important roles in the processes of cell migration, invasion, and involution during development, ..
- Greenlee K, Corry D, Engler D, Matsunami R, Tessier P, Cook R, et al. Proteomic identification of in vivo substrates for matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 reveals a mechanism for resolution of inflammation. J Immunol. 2006;177:7312-21 pubmed..b>MMP2- and MMP9-dependent cleavage of individual Th2 chemokines modulated their chemotactic activity; however, the net ..
- Itoh T, Matsuda H, Tanioka M, Kuwabara K, Itohara S, Suzuki R. The role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in antibody-induced arthritis. J Immunol. 2002;169:2643-7 pubmed..Among them, the family of gelatinases (MMP-2/gelatinase A and MMP-9/gelatinase B) is overproduced in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis...
- Johnson C, Galis Z. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 differentially regulate smooth muscle cell migration and cell-mediated collagen organization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:54-60 pubmed..Understanding the specific roles of these MMPs, generally thought to be similar, could improve the design of therapeutic interventions aimed at controlling vascular remodeling. ..
- Williams T, Medina F, Badano I, Hazan R, Hutchinson J, Muller W, et al. Caveolin-1 gene disruption promotes mammary tumorigenesis and dramatically enhances lung metastasis in vivo. Role of Cav-1 in cell invasiveness and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2/9) secretion. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51630-46 pubmed..These results demonstrate, for the first time, that caveolin-1 is a potent suppressor of mammary tumor growth and metastasis using novel in vivo animal model approaches. ..
- Wang G, Bergman M, Nguyen A, Turcato S, Swigart P, Rodrigo M, et al. Cardiac transgenic matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression directly induces impaired contractility. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;69:688-96 pubmed..These findings indicate that MMP-2 can directly impair ventricular function in the absence of superimposed injury. ..
- Dean R, Butler G, Hamma Kourbali Y, Delbe J, Brigstock D, Courty J, et al. Identification of candidate angiogenic inhibitors processed by matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in cell-based proteomic screens: disruption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/heparin affin regulatory peptide (pleiotrophin) and VEGF/Connec. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8454-65 pubmed..In the Mmp2-/- mouse neovascularization is greatly reduced, but the mechanistic aspects of this remain unclear...
- Bergers G, Brekken R, McMahon G, Vu T, Itoh T, Tamaki K, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 triggers the angiogenic switch during carcinogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:737-44 pubmed..Absence of MMP-2 does not impair induction of angiogenesis, but retards tumour growth, whereas lack of urokinase has no effect. Our results show that MMP-9 is a component of the angiogenic switch. ..
- Morris Wiman J, Du Y, Brinkley L. Occurrence and temporal variation in matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors during murine secondary palatal morphogenesis. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1999;19:201-12 pubmed..The results of this study demonstrate that MMPs 2, 3, 7, 9 and 13 and TIMPs 1 and 2 and their messages are present during the course of palatal shelf remodelling and that their expression is temporally regulated. ..
- Mosig R, Dowling O, Difeo A, Ramirez M, Parker I, Abe E, et al. Loss of MMP-2 disrupts skeletal and craniofacial development and results in decreased bone mineralization, joint erosion and defects in osteoblast and osteoclast growth. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1113-23 pubmed..and Itohara, S. (1997) Unaltered secretion of beta-amyloid precursor protein in gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase 2)-deficient mice. J. Biol. Chem., 272, 22389-22392...
- Bergman M, Teerlink J, Mahimkar R, Li L, Zhu B, Nguyen A, et al. Cardiac matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression independently induces marked ventricular remodeling and systolic dysfunction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H1847-60 pubmed..5 +/- 1.5 vs. MMP 4.7 +/- 2.0; P = 0.016). Expression of active MMP-2 is sufficient to induce severe ventricular remodeling and systolic dysfunction in the absence of superimposed injury. ..
- Alexander C, Hansell E, Behrendtsen O, Flannery M, Kishnani N, Hawkes S, et al. Expression and function of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors at the maternal-embryonic boundary during mouse embryo implantation. Development. 1996;122:1723-36 pubmed..mRNAs for several other MMPs (stromelysin-1, stromelysin-3 and gelatinase A) and MMP inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were expressed in the undifferentiated stroma toward the outside of the ..
- Auge N, Maupas Schwalm F, Elbaz M, Thiers J, Waysbort A, Itohara S, et al. Role for matrix metalloproteinase-2 in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced activation of the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Circulation. 2004;110:571-8 pubmed..These pathways may constitute a potential therapeutic target for modulating the oxLDL-induced proliferation of SMCs in atherosclerosis or restenosis. ..