Gene Symbol: Mir21
Description: microRNA 21
Alias: Mirn21, mmu-mir-21
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. Chen Z, Wu J, Yang C, Fan P, Balazs L, Jiao Y, et al. DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein-mediated microRNA biogenesis is essential for vascular smooth muscle cell development in mice. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19018-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the DGCR8 gene is required for vascular development through the regulation of VSMC proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation...
  2. Thum T, Gross C, Fiedler J, Fischer T, Kissler S, Bussen M, et al. MicroRNA-21 contributes to myocardial disease by stimulating MAP kinase signalling in fibroblasts. Nature. 2008;456:980-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that microRNA-21 (miR-21, also known as Mirn21) regulates the ERK-MAP kinase signalling pathway in cardiac fibroblasts, which has impacts on global cardiac ..
  3. Cordes K, Sheehy N, White M, Berry E, Morton S, Muth A, et al. miR-145 and miR-143 regulate smooth muscle cell fate and plasticity. Nature. 2009;460:705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that miR-145 can direct the smooth muscle fate and that miR-145 and miR-143 function to regulate the quiescent versus proliferative phenotype of smooth muscle cells. ..
  4. Sheedy F, Palsson McDermott E, Hennessy E, Martin C, O Leary J, Ruan Q, et al. Negative regulation of TLR4 via targeting of the proinflammatory tumor suppressor PDCD4 by the microRNA miR-21. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, miR-21 regulates PDCD4 expression after LPS stimulation. ..
  5. Liu C, Li B, Cheng Y, Lin J, Hao J, Zhang S, et al. MiR-21 plays an important role in radiation induced carcinogenesis in BALB/c mice by directly targeting the tumor suppressor gene Big-h3. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7:347-63 pubmed
    ..We conclude that miR-21 participates in radiation induced carcinogenesis and it regulates TGF? signaling. ..
  6. Liu G, Friggeri A, Yang Y, Milosevic J, Ding Q, Thannickal V, et al. miR-21 mediates fibrogenic activation of pulmonary fibroblasts and lung fibrosis. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1589-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments demonstrate an important role for miR-21 in fibrotic lung diseases and also suggest a novel approach using miRNA therapeutics in treating clinically refractory fibrotic diseases, such as IPF. ..
  7. Lu Z, Liu M, Stribinskis V, Klinge C, Ramos K, Colburn N, et al. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell transformation by targeting the programmed cell death 4 gene. Oncogene. 2008;27:4373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The demonstration that miR-21 promotes cell transformation supports the concept that mir-21 functions as an oncogene by a mechanism that involves translational repression of the tumor suppressor Pdcd4. ..
  8. Medina P, NOLDE M, Slack F. OncomiR addiction in an in vivo model of microRNA-21-induced pre-B-cell lymphoma. Nature. 2010;467:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that tumours can become addicted to oncomiRs and support efforts to treat human cancers through pharmacological inactivation of miRNAs such as miR-21. ..
  9. Huang Z, Chen J, Regan J, Maguire C, Tang R, Dong X, et al. Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2575-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncovered a central role for Dicer and miRNAs in NCC survival, migration, and patterning in craniofacial and cardiovascular development which, when mutated, lead to congenital neuro-craniofacial-cardiac defects. ..

More Information


  1. Sayed D, Rane S, Lypowy J, He M, Chen I, Vashistha H, et al. MicroRNA-21 targets Sprouty2 and promotes cellular outgrowths. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3272-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that an increase in miR-21 enhances the formation of various types of cellular protrusions through directly targeting and down-regulating SPRY2. ..
  2. Wu Z, Lu H, Sheng J, Li L. Inductive microRNA-21 impairs anti-mycobacterial responses by targeting IL-12 and Bcl-2. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:2459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, miR-21 also promoted dendritic cell (DC) apoptosis by targeting Bcl-2. Therefore, miR-21 may potentially be involved in fine-tuning of the anti-mycobacterial Th1 response and in regulating the efficacy of BCG vaccination. ..
  3. Perdiguero E, Sousa Victor P, Ruiz Bonilla V, Jardi M, Caelles C, Serrano A, et al. p38/MKP-1-regulated AKT coordinates macrophage transitions and resolution of inflammation during tissue repair. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:307-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel regulatory mechanism involving the appropriate balance of p38, MKP-1, miR-21, and AKT activities may have implications in chronic inflammatory degenerative diseases. ..
  4. Zhong X, Chung A, Chen H, Meng X, Lan H. Smad3-mediated upregulation of miR-21 promotes renal fibrosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:1668-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data demonstrate that Smad3, but not Smad2, signaling increases expression of miR-21, which promotes renal fibrosis. Inhibition of miR-21 may be a therapeutic approach to suppress renal fibrosis...
  5. Pan Y, Balazs L, Tigyi G, Yue J. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation. ..
  6. Sabatel C, Malvaux L, Bovy N, Deroanne C, Lambert V, Gonzalez M, et al. MicroRNA-21 exhibits antiangiogenic function by targeting RhoB expression in endothelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16979 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify miR-21 as a new angiogenesis inhibitor and suggest that inhibition of cell migration and tubulogenesis is mediated through repression of RhoB. ..
  7. Albinsson S, Suarez Y, Skoura A, Offermanns S, Miano J, Sessa W. MicroRNAs are necessary for vascular smooth muscle growth, differentiation, and function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Dicer-dependent miRNAs are important for VSM development and function by regulating proliferation and contractile differentiation. ..
  8. Marquez R, Wendlandt E, Galle C, Keck K, McCaffrey A. MicroRNA-21 is upregulated during the proliferative phase of liver regeneration, targets Pellino-1, and inhibits NF-kappaB signaling. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, miR-21 expression was upregulated during early stages of liver regeneration. Targeting of Peli1 by miR-21 could potentially provide the basis for a negative feedback cycle regulating NF-kappaB signaling. ..
  9. Roy S, Khanna S, Hussain S, Biswas S, Azad A, Rink C, et al. MicroRNA expression in response to murine myocardial infarction: miR-21 regulates fibroblast metalloprotease-2 via phosphatase and tensin homologue. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;82:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This work constitutes the first report describing changes in miR expression in response to IR in the mouse heart, showing that miR-21 regulates MMP-2 expression in CFs of the infarct zone via a PTEN pathway. ..
  10. Patrick D, Montgomery R, Qi X, Obad S, Kauppinen S, Hill J, et al. Stress-dependent cardiac remodeling occurs in the absence of microRNA-21 in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3912-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that miR-21 is not essential for pathological cardiac remodeling. ..
  11. Hatley M, Patrick D, Garcia M, Richardson J, Bassel Duby R, van Rooij E, et al. Modulation of K-Ras-dependent lung tumorigenesis by MicroRNA-21. Cancer Cell. 2010;18:282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-21 drives tumorigenesis through inhibition of negative regulators of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and inhibition of apoptosis...
  12. Ma X, Kumar M, Choudhury S, Becker Buscaglia L, Barker J, Kanakamedala K, et al. Loss of the miR-21 allele elevates the expression of its target genes and reduces tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide in vivo evidence that miR-21 exerts its oncogenic function through negatively regulating its target genes. ..
  13. Lu T, Hartner J, Lim E, Fabry V, Mingler M, Cole E, et al. MicroRNA-21 limits in vivo immune response-mediated activation of the IL-12/IFN-gamma pathway, Th1 polarization, and the severity of delayed-type hypersensitivity. J Immunol. 2011;187:3362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results define miR-21 as a major regulator of Th1 versus Th2 responses, defining a new mechanism for regulating polarized immunoinflammatory responses. ..
  14. Zhu S, Deng S, Ma Q, Zhang T, Jia C, Zhuo D, et al. MicroRNA-10A* and MicroRNA-21 modulate endothelial progenitor cell senescence via suppressing high-mobility group A2. Circ Res. 2013;112:152-64 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-10A* and miR-21 regulate EPC senescence via suppressing Hmga2 expression and modulation of microRNAs may represent a potential therapeutic intervention in improving EPC-mediated angiogenesis and vascular repair. ..
  15. Lu T, Munitz A, Rothenberg M. MicroRNA-21 is up-regulated in allergic airway inflammation and regulates IL-12p35 expression. J Immunol. 2009;182:4994-5002 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have identified a miRNA signature in allergic airway inflammation, which includes miR-21 that modulates IL-12, a molecule germane to Th cell polarization. ..
  16. Yang S, Banerjee S, Freitas A, Cui H, Xie N, Abraham E, et al. miR-21 regulates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L521-9 pubmed publisher
  17. Ng R, Song G, Roll G, Frandsen N, Willenbring H. A microRNA-21 surge facilitates rapid cyclin D1 translation and cell cycle progression in mouse liver regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1097-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that miR-21 enables rapid hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration by accelerating cyclin D1 translation. ..
  18. Lee T, Yoo J, Shu D, Li H, Zhang J, Yu J, et al. RNA Nanoparticle-Based Targeted Therapy for Glioblastoma through Inhibition of Oncogenic miR-21. Mol Ther. 2017;25:1544-1555 pubmed publisher
    ..that multi-valent folate (FA)-conjugated 3WJ RNP constructed to harbor anti-miR-21 LNA sequences (FA-3WJ-LNA-miR21) specifically targeted and delivered anti-miR-21 LNA and knocked down miR-21 expression in glioblastoma cells in ..
  19. Anastasiadou E, Garg N, Bigi R, Yadav S, Campese A, Lapenta C, et al. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces miR-21 in terminally differentiated malignant B cells. Int J Cancer. 2015;137:1491-7 pubmed publisher
  20. White K, Dempsie Y, Caruso P, Wallace E, McDonald R, Stevens H, et al. Endothelial apoptosis in pulmonary hypertension is controlled by a microRNA/programmed cell death 4/caspase-3 axis. Hypertension. 2014;64:185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Broadly, these findings support the existence of a microRNA-21-responsive PDCD4/caspase-3 pathway in the pulmonary tissues that when active serves to promote endothelial apoptosis in vitro and PH in vivo. ..
  21. Lu X, Sun C, Zheng D, Liu R, Wei X, Wu Z. [The miR-21 attenuates hepatocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;33:497-502 pubmed
    ..Conclusion The miR-21 can alleviate the hepatocyte apoptosis by inhibiting the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the process of H/R. ..
  22. Garchow B, Bartulos Encinas O, Leung Y, Tsao P, Eisenberg R, Caricchio R, et al. Silencing of microRNA-21 in vivo ameliorates autoimmune splenomegaly in lupus mice. EMBO Mol Med. 2011;3:605-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that tiny LNAs can be used to efficiently antagonize endogenous miRNAs in peripheral lymphocytes in vivo and in primary lymphocytes cultured ex vivo and can alter the course of a spontaneous genetic disease in mice...
  23. Kölling M, Kaucsár T, Schauerte C, Hübner A, Dettling A, Park J, et al. Therapeutic miR-21 Silencing Ameliorates Diabetic Kidney Disease in Mice. Mol Ther. 2017;25:165-180 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, miR-21 antagonism rescued various functional and structural parameters in mice with diabetic nephropathy and, thus, might be a viable option in the treatment of patients with diabetic kidney disease. ..
  24. Hayashi T, Koyama N, Azuma Y, Kashimata M. Mesenchymal miR-21 regulates branching morphogenesis in murine submandibular gland in vitro. Dev Biol. 2011;352:299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that branching morphogenesis is regulated by miR-21 through gene expression related to ECM degradation in the mesenchyme...
  25. Farsinejad S, Rahaie M, Alizadeh A, Mir Derikvand M, Gheisary Z, Nosrati H, et al. Expression of the circulating and the tissue microRNAs after surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in mice mammary tumor. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:14225-14234 pubmed
    ..It seems that the oncomiRs in the plasma can be an ideal noninvasive candidate biomarker for the early detection of breast cancer and also for following the response of the common therapies. ..
  26. Polajeva J, Swartling F, Jiang Y, Singh U, Pietras K, Uhrbom L, et al. miRNA-21 is developmentally regulated in mouse brain and is co-expressed with SOX2 in glioma. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:378 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we believe that miR-21 is a mediator of PDGF-driven brain tumors, which suggests miR-21 as a promising target for treatment of glioma. ..
  27. Xie X, Song J, Li G. MiR-21a-5p suppresses bisphenol A-induced pre-adipocyte differentiation by targeting map2k3 through MKK3/p38/MAPK. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;473:140-146 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that miR-21a-5p inhibited BPA induced adipocyte differentiation by targeting map2k3 through MKK3/p38/MAPK in 3T3-L1 cells, providing a potential therapeutic strategy for BPA induced obesity. ..
  28. Chen X, Song M, Chen W, Dimitrova Shumkovska J, Zhao Y, Cao Y, et al. MicroRNA-21 Contributes to Liver Regeneration by Targeting PTEN. Med Sci Monit. 2016;22:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-21 overexpression contributes to liver regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation by targeting PTEN. Upregulation of miR-21 might be a useful therapeutic strategy to promote liver regeneration. ..
  29. Zhang J, Jiao J, Cermelli S, Muir K, Jung K, Zou R, et al. miR-21 Inhibition Reduces Liver Fibrosis and Prevents Tumor Development by Inducing Apoptosis of CD24+ Progenitor Cells. Cancer Res. 2015;75:1859-67 pubmed publisher
  30. Liu C, Gao F, Li B, Mitchel R, Liu X, Lin J, et al. TLR4 knockout protects mice from radiation-induced thymic lymphoma by downregulation of IL6 and miR-21. Leukemia. 2011;25:1516-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Wu F, Dong F, Arendovich N, Zhang J, Huang Y, Kwon J. Divergent influence of microRNA-21 deletion on murine colitis phenotypes. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20:1972-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The demonstration that miR-21-/- deletion exacerbated CD4+ T-cell-mediated models of colitis provide further evidence that miRNAs play significant roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. ..
  32. Richart A, Loyer X, Neri T, Howangyin K, Guerin C, Ngkelo A, et al. MicroRNA-21 coordinates human multipotent cardiovascular progenitors therapeutic potential. Stem Cells. 2014;32:2908-22 pubmed publisher
  33. Bang C, Batkai S, Dangwal S, Gupta S, Foinquinos A, Holzmann A, et al. Cardiac fibroblast-derived microRNA passenger strand-enriched exosomes mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:2136-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts secrete star miRNA-enriched exosomes and identify fibroblast-derived miR-21* as a paracrine signaling mediator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy that has potential as a therapeutic target. ..
  34. Godwin J, Ge X, Stephan K, Jurisch A, Tullius S, Iacomini J. Identification of a microRNA signature of renal ischemia reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, overexpression of miR-21 alone was not sufficient to prevent TEC death following ischemia. Our findings therefore define a molecular fingerprint of renal injury and suggest miR-21 may play a role in protecting TEC from death. ..
  35. Kim R, Horvat J, Pinkerton J, Starkey M, Essilfie A, Mayall J, et al. MicroRNA-21 drives severe, steroid-insensitive experimental asthma by amplifying phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated suppression of histone deacetylase 2. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139:519-532 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify a previously unrecognized role for an miR-21/PI3K/HDAC2 axis in SSIAAD. Our data highlight miR-21 as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of this form of asthma. ..
  36. Isanejad A, Alizadeh A, Amani Shalamzari S, Khodayari H, Khodayari S, Khori V, et al. MicroRNA-206, let-7a and microRNA-21 pathways involved in the anti-angiogenesis effects of the interval exercise training and hormone therapy in breast cancer. Life Sci. 2016;151:30-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that miR-21, miR-206 and let-7a pathways may involve in the anti-angiogenesis effects of the interval exercise training with hormone therapy in mice model of breast tumor. ..
  37. Zhou Y, Liu Y, Cheng L. miR-21 expression is related to particle-induced osteolysis pathogenesis. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1837-42 pubmed publisher
  38. Strickland I, Richards L, Holmes F, Wynick D, Uney J, Wong L. Axotomy-induced miR-21 promotes axon growth in adult dorsal root ganglion neurons. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23423 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that miR-21 is an axotomy-induced miRNA that enhances axon growth, and suggest that miRNAs are important players in regulating growth pathways following peripheral nerve injury. ..
  39. Subedi A, Kim M, Nepal S, Lee E, Kim J, Sohn D, et al. Globular adiponectin modulates expression of programmed cell death 4 and miR-21 in RAW 264.7 macrophages through the MAPK/NF-?B pathway. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:1556-61 pubmed publisher
    ..7 macrophages and further suggest that the miR-21/PDCD4 axis may be a novel target mediating adiponectin-induced biological responses. ..
  40. Bhagat T, Zhou L, Sokol L, Kessel R, Caceres G, Gundabolu K, et al. miR-21 mediates hematopoietic suppression in MDS by activating TGF-? signaling. Blood. 2013;121:2875-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies demonstrate the role of miR-21 in regulating overactivated TGF-? signaling in MDS. ..
  41. Bhalala O, Pan L, Sahni V, McGuire T, Gruner K, Tourtellotte W, et al. microRNA-21 regulates astrocytic response following spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17935-47 pubmed publisher
  42. Liang H, Zhang C, Ban T, Liu Y, Mei L, Piao X, et al. A novel reciprocal loop between microRNA-21 and TGF?RIII is involved in cardiac fibrosis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:2152-60 pubmed publisher
  43. Mycko M, Cichalewska M, Machlanska A, Cwiklinska H, Mariasiewicz M, Selmaj K. MicroRNA-301a regulation of a T-helper 17 immune response controls autoimmune demyelination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E1248-57 pubmed publisher
  44. Tu Y, Wan L, Fan Y, Wang K, Bu L, Huang T, et al. Ischemic postconditioning-mediated miRNA-21 protects against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury via PTEN/Akt pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75872 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying the beneficial roles of IPost-regulated miRNAs in cardiac protection, which may be a rational target selection for ischemic cardioprotection. ..
  45. He X, Xie J, Zhang D, Su Q, Sai X, Bai R, et al. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated inhibition of microRNA-21 protects mice against the lethal schistosome infection by repressing both IL-13 and transforming growth factor beta 1 pathways. Hepatology. 2015;61:2008-2017 pubmed publisher
  46. Lu T, Lim E, Itskovich S, Besse J, Plassard A, Mingler M, et al. Targeted ablation of miR-21 decreases murine eosinophil progenitor cell growth. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59397 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that miR-21 can regulate the development of eosinophils by influencing eosinophil progenitor cell growth. Our findings have identified one of the first miRNAs with a role in regulating eosinophil development. ..
  47. Zhang X, Shen B, Zhang Y, Wan X, Yao Q, Wu G, et al. Induction of thoracic aortic remodeling by endothelial-specific deletion of microRNA-21 in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59002 pubmed publisher
    MicroRNAs (miRs) are known to have an important role in modulating vascular biology. MiR21 was found to be involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative vascular disease...
  48. Wang H, Bei Y, Shen S, Huang P, Shi J, Zhang J, et al. miR-21-3p controls sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction via regulating SORBS2. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016;94:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of miR-21-3p might be a protective strategy to treat sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. ..
  49. Liu X, Jin D, McManus M, Mourelatos Z. Precursor microRNA-programmed silencing complex assembly pathways in mammals. Mol Cell. 2012;46:507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide a comprehensive view of miRNP/RISC assembly pathways in mammals, and our assay provides a versatile platform for further mechanistic dissection of such pathways in mammals. ..
  50. Bornachea O, Santos M, Martínez Cruz A, García Escudero R, Dueñas M, Costa C, et al. EMT and induction of miR-21 mediate metastasis development in Trp53-deficient tumours. Sci Rep. 2012;2:434 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these data identify novel molecular mechanisms leading to metastasis in vivo originated by p53 loss in epithelia. ..
  51. Bhandari A, Gordon W, Dizon D, Hopkin A, Gordon E, Yu Z, et al. The Grainyhead transcription factor Grhl3/Get1 suppresses miR-21 expression and tumorigenesis in skin: modulation of the miR-21 target MSH2 by RNA-binding protein DND1. Oncogene. 2013;32:1497-507 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that decreased Grhl3 expression contributes to tumor progression and upregulation of the oncomir miR-21 in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. ..
  52. Li L, Zhang J, Diao W, Wang D, Wei Y, Zhang C, et al. MicroRNA-155 and MicroRNA-21 promote the expansion of functional myeloid-derived suppressor cells. J Immunol. 2014;192:1034-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a novel miR-155/miR-21-based regulatory mechanism that modulates functional MDSC induction. ..
  53. Paiva I, Gil da Costa R, Ribeiro J, Sousa H, Bastos M, Faustino Rocha A, et al. MicroRNA-21 expression and susceptibility to HPV-induced carcinogenesis - role of microenvironment in K14-HPV16 mice model. Life Sci. 2015;128:8-14 pubmed publisher