Gene Symbol: MIP-2
Description: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2
Alias: CINC-2a, GROb, Gro2, MIP-2, MIP-2a, Mgsa-b, Mip2, Scyb, Scyb2, C-X-C motif chemokine 2, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, small inducible cytokine subfamily, member 2
Species: mouse
Products:     MIP-2

Top Publications

  1. Wolpe S, Sherry B, Juers D, Davatelis G, Yurt R, Cerami A. Identification and characterization of macrophage inflammatory protein 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:612-6 pubmed
    ..This protein, which we term "macrophage inflammatory protein 2," is a potent chemotactic agent for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
  2. De Filippo K, Dudeck A, Hasenberg M, Nye E, Van Rooijen N, Hartmann K, et al. Mast cell and macrophage chemokines CXCL1/CXCL2 control the early stage of neutrophil recruitment during tissue inflammation. Blood. 2013;121:4930-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we demonstrate a positive role for mast cells in tissue inflammation and define how this comes about with contribution from a second tissue cell, the macrophage. ..
  3. Wuyts A, Haelens A, Proost P, Lenaerts J, Conings R, Opdenakker G, et al. Identification of mouse granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 from fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Functional comparison with natural KC and macrophage inflammatory protein-2. J Immunol. 1996;157:1736-43 pubmed
    ..In view of the absence of a murine homologue for IL-8, NH2-terminally processed GCP-2 can be considered a major neutrophil chemoattractant in the mouse during the inflammatory response. ..
  4. Cataisson C, Pearson A, Tsien M, Mascia F, Gao J, Pastore S, et al. CXCR2 ligands and G-CSF mediate PKCalpha-induced intraepidermal inflammation. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2757-66 pubmed
    ..the production of the chemotactic factors cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in murine plasma...
  5. Wengner A, Pitchford S, Furze R, Rankin S. The coordinated action of G-CSF and ELR + CXC chemokines in neutrophil mobilization during acute inflammation. Blood. 2008;111:42-9 pubmed
    ..8 x 10(6) and 5.4 x 10(6) neutrophils, respectively, while the infusion of KC and G-CSF together mobilized 19.5 x 10(6) neutrophils, indicating that these factors act cooperatively with respect to neutrophil mobilization. ..
  6. De Filippo K, Henderson R, Laschinger M, Hogg N. Neutrophil chemokines KC and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 are newly synthesized by tissue macrophages using distinct TLR signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2008;180:4308-15 pubmed
    ..In summary we show that TLR signaling by tissue macrophages directly controls the synthesis of neutrophil-attracting chemokines that are essential for the earliest recruitment step in the innate immune response to microbial challenge. ..
  7. Carlson T, Kroenke M, Rao P, Lane T, Segal B. The Th17-ELR+ CXC chemokine pathway is essential for the development of central nervous system autoimmune disease. J Exp Med. 2008;205:811-23 pubmed publisher
  8. Wuyts A, D Haese A, Cremers V, Menten P, Lenaerts J, De Loof A, et al. NH2- and COOH-terminal truncations of murine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 augment the in vitro and in vivo neutrophil chemotactic potency. J Immunol. 1999;163:6155-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings point to an important role of post-translationally modified GCP-2 to replace IL-8 in the mouse. ..
  9. Heufler C, Topar G, Koch F, Trockenbacher B, Kämpgen E, Romani N, et al. Cytokine gene expression in murine epidermal cell suspensions: interleukin 1 beta and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha are selectively expressed in Langerhans cells but are differentially regulated in culture. J Exp Med. 1992;176:1221-6 pubmed
    ..The cytokine expression profile of LC thus appears distinct from typical macrophages. The exact role of the cytokine genes we found transcribed in LC remains to be determined. ..

More Information


  1. Hardbower D, Asim M, Luis P, Singh K, Barry D, Yang C, et al. Ornithine decarboxylase regulates M1 macrophage activation and mucosal inflammation via histone modifications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E751-E760 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ODC in macrophages tempers antimicrobial, M1 macrophage responses during bacterial infections through histone modifications and altered euchromatin formation, leading to the persistence and pathogenesis of these organisms. ..
  2. Salminen A, Paananen R, Vuolteenaho R, Metsola J, Ojaniemi M, Autio Harmainen H, et al. Maternal endotoxin-induced preterm birth in mice: fetal responses in toll-like receptors, collectins, and cytokines. Pediatr Res. 2008;63:280-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we propose that maternal LPS response leads to PTB and acute decrease of immune proteins in epithelial lining of fetal lung. Instead, acceleration of lung maturity has been previously observed in intraamniotic inflammation. ..
  3. Langhansová H, Bopp T, Schmitt E, Kopecký J. Tick saliva increases production of three chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a histamine-releasing cytokine. Parasite Immunol. 2015;37:92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), thymus-derived chemotactic agent 3 (TCA-3) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). MCP-1 could be induced by tick saliva itself...
  4. Armstrong D, Major J, Chudyk A, Hamilton T. Neutrophil chemoattractant genes KC and MIP-2 are expressed in different cell populations at sites of surgical injury. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;75:641-8 pubmed
  5. Luan J, Furuta Y, Du J, Richmond A. Developmental expression of two CXC chemokines, MIP-2 and KC, and their receptors. Cytokine. 2001;14:253-63 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the roles for these chemokines and their receptors during development may be more significant than was initially thought based upon the phenotype of the mice with targeted deletion of CXCR2 and Duffy. ..
  6. Zhu M, Belkina A, DeFuria J, Carr J, Van Dyke T, Gyurko R, et al. B cells promote obesity-associated periodontitis and oral pathogen-associated inflammation. J Leukoc Biol. 2014;96:349-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results justify more intense analysis of obesity-associated changes in B cells that predispose PD in human T2D. ..
  7. Shao W, Jerva L, West J, Lolis E, Schweitzer B. Solution structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Biochemistry. 1998;37:8303-13 pubmed
    ..At the quaternary level, the difference between MIP-2 and IL-8, MGSA, or NAP-2 results from differing interhelical angles and separations. ..
  8. Bozic C, Gerard N, von Uexkull Guldenband C, Kolakowski L, Conklyn M, Breslow R, et al. The murine interleukin 8 type B receptor homologue and its ligands. Expression and biological characterization. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:29355-8 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that KC is the murine homologue of human Gro-alpha, and the KC receptor is an IL8 type B receptor homologue capable of binding both KC and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 with high affinity. ..
  9. Xue M, Thakur A, Willcox M. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor regulate corneal neovascularization induced by infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. Immunol Cell Biol. 2002;80:323-7 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrates that both MIP-2 and VEGF are important mediators in the regulation of corneal neovascularization caused by P. aeruginosa infection, and that MIP-2 regulates the production of VEGF. ..
  10. Dlugolenski D, Jones L, Howerth E, WENTWORTH D, Tompkins S, Tripp R. Swine Influenza Virus PA and Neuraminidase Gene Reassortment into Human H1N1 Influenza Virus Is Associated with an Altered Pathogenic Phenotype Linked to Increased MIP-2 Expression. J Virol. 2015;89:5651-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of such factors provides a framework for pandemic modeling and surveillance. ..
  11. Tiwari N, Marudamuthu A, Tsukasaki Y, Ikebe M, Fu J, Shetty S. p53- and PAI-1-mediated induction of C-X-C chemokines and CXCR2: importance in pulmonary inflammation due to cigarette smoke exposure. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;310:L496-506 pubmed publisher
    ..We further provide evidence that targeting this pathway mitigates lung injury associated with chronic CS exposure. ..
  12. Xiong Q, Wang X, Rikihisa Y. High-cholesterol diet facilitates Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and up-regulates macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and CXCR2 expression in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1497-503 pubmed
    ..This bacterium requires cholesterol for host cell infection in vitro and incorporates exogenous cholesterol into its membrane...
  13. Pelus L, Fukuda S. Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization: the CXCR2 ligand GRObeta rapidly mobilizes hematopoietic stem cells with enhanced engraftment properties. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:1010-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, GRObeta may also have clinical mobilizing efficacy on its own, reducing the overall time and costs associated with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. ..
  14. Matsushita H, Hijioka M, Ishibashi H, Anan J, Kurauchi Y, Hisatsune A, et al. Suppression of CXCL2 upregulation underlies the therapeutic effect of the retinoid Am80 on intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. J Neurosci Res. 2014;92:1024-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, suppression of CXCL2 expression may contribute to the beneficial effect of Am80 as a therapeutic agent for ICH, and interruption of CXCL2 signaling may provide a promising target for ICH therapy. ..
  15. Kollmar O, Menger M, Schilling M. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 contributes to liver resection-induced acceleration of hepatic metastatic tumor growth. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:858-67 pubmed
    ..05). Of interest, liver resection-induced hepatocyte proliferation was not effected by anti-MIP-2 treatment. MIP-2 significantly contributes to liver resection-induced acceleration of colorectal CT26.WT hepatic metastasis growth. ..
  16. Salminen A, Vuolteenaho R, Paananen R, Ojaniemi M, Hallman M. Surfactant protein A modulates the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response related to preterm birth. Cytokine. 2011;56:442-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that SP-A modulates the levels of intrauterine inflammatory mediators involved in preterm birth and may contribute to inflammatory processes related to spontaneous preterm labor. ..
  17. Wang J, Gigliotti F, Maggirwar S, Johnston C, Finkelstein J, Wright T. Pneumocystis carinii activates the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in alveolar epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2005;73:2766-77 pubmed
    ..Given the global regulatory functions of the NF-kappaB family, these findings suggest that Pneumocystis directly alters AEC gene expression in a manner that promotes pulmonary immune and inflammatory responses...
  18. Abraham E, Gyetko M, Kuhn K, Arcaroli J, Strassheim D, Park J, et al. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced neutrophil activation. J Immunol. 2003;170:5644-51 pubmed
  19. Trottein F, Pavelka N, Vizzardelli C, Angeli V, Zouain C, Pelizzola M, et al. A type I IFN-dependent pathway induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs in mouse myeloid dendritic cells generates an inflammatory signature. J Immunol. 2004;172:3011-7 pubmed
    ..Taken as a whole, our data provide molecular insights into the immune evasion mechanism of schistosomula and suggest an unexpected role for type I IFN in the innate response to helminth eggs. ..
  20. Jaramillo M, Godbout M, Olivier M. Hemozoin induces macrophage chemokine expression through oxidative stress-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Immunol. 2005;174:475-84 pubmed
    ..Overall, our findings may help to better understand the molecular mechanisms through which parasite components, such as HZ, modulate the immune response during malaria infection. ..
  21. Oshima N, Ishihara S, Rumi M, Aziz M, Mishima Y, Kadota C, et al. A20 is an early responding negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 5 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells during inflammation. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;159:185-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the negative feedback regulation of TLR-5 signalling that maintains the innate immune system in the gut. ..
  22. Kim D, Kim J, Kwon S, Kim Y, Lee S, Lee Y, et al. Regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 gene expression in response to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene in RAW 264.7 cells. BMB Rep. 2008;41:316-21 pubmed
    ..These results provide additional insight of the mechanism of contact hypersensitivity induced by contact sensitizers. ..
  23. d Empaire G, Baer M, Gibson F. The K1 serotype capsular polysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis elicits chemokine production from murine macrophages that facilitates cell migration. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6236-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these data suggest that the host response to this antigen may contribute to the formation of the inflammatory cell lesion observed during P. gingivalis-elicited periodontal disease. ..
  24. Ha J, Lee Y, Kim H. CXCL2 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-primed precursors. Cytokine. 2011;55:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..More significantly, CXCL2-neutralization prevented bone destruction in mice treated with LPS. Therefore, CXCL2 might be a useful therapeutic target for inflammatory bone destructive diseases. ..
  25. Tanimoto N, Terasawa M, Nakamura M, Kegai D, Aoshima N, Kobayashi Y, et al. Involvement of KC, MIP-2, and MCP-1 in leukocyte infiltration following injection of necrotic cells into the peritoneal cavity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:533-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that KC and MIP-2 play important roles in the infiltration of neutrophils into the site of injection of necrotic cells and that neutrophils may regulate monocyte/macrophage infiltration in our model...
  26. Zenobia C, Luo X, Hashim A, Abe T, Jin L, Chang Y, et al. Commensal bacteria-dependent select expression of CXCL2 contributes to periodontal tissue homeostasis. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15:1419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence that the selective use of chemokine receptor ligands contributes to neutrophil homing to healthy periodontal tissue. ..
  27. Wislez M, Fujimoto N, Izzo J, Hanna A, Cody D, Langley R, et al. High expression of ligands for chemokine receptor CXCR2 in alveolar epithelial neoplasia induced by oncogenic kras. Cancer Res. 2006;66:4198-207 pubmed
    ..Thus, high expression of CXCR2 ligands may contribute to the expansion of early alveolar neoplastic lesions induced by oncogenic KRAS. ..
  28. Wolf R, Mascia F, Dharamsi A, Howard O, Cataisson C, Bliskovski V, et al. Gene from a psoriasis susceptibility locus primes the skin for inflammation. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2:61ra90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a pathogenetic psoriasis model using a psoriasis candidate gene to link the epidermis and innate immune system in inflammation priming, highlighting the S100A7A15-RAGE axis as a potential therapeutic target. ..
  29. Rajasekaran D, Keeler C, Syed M, Jones M, Harrison J, Wu D, et al. A model of GAG/MIP-2/CXCR2 interfaces and its functional effects. Biochemistry. 2012;51:5642-54 pubmed
    ..There is no difference in neutrophil recruitment between wild-type MIP-2 and mutants in the peritoneum, but all activity of the mutants is lost in the lung, supporting the concept that GAG regulation of chemokines is tissue-dependent. ..
  30. Sun J, Ramnath R, Bhatia M. Neuropeptide substance P upregulates chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in primary mouse neutrophils. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C696-704 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that SP exerts a direct stimulatory effect on the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in mouse neutrophils. The effect is NK-1R mediated, involving NF-kappaB activation. ..
  31. Hou Y, Liu M, Husted C, Chen C, Thiagarajan K, Johns J, et al. Activation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway during postnatal lung inflammation preserves alveolarization by suppressing macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L593-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these data suggest that neutralization of MIP-2 may represent a novel therapeutic target that could be beneficial in preserving lung growth in premature infants exposed to inflammatory stress. ..
  32. Smith J, Wadleigh D, Xia Y, Mar R, Herschman H, Lusis A. Cloning and genomic localization of the murine LPS-induced CXC chemokine (LIX) gene, Scyb5. Immunogenetics. 2002;54:599-603 pubmed
    ..The sequence and mapping data suggest that the human ENA78-PBP-PF4 and GCP2- psi PBP-PF4V1 loci arose from an evolutionarily recent duplication of an ancestral locus related to the murine Lix-Pbp-Pf4 locus. ..
  33. Zhang T, Tseng C, Zhang Y, Sirin O, Corn P, Li Ning Tapia E, et al. CXCL1 mediates obesity-associated adipose stromal cell trafficking and function in the tumour microenvironment. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11674 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that ASC recruitment to tumours, driven by CXCL1 and CXCL8, promotes prostate cancer progression. ..
  34. Fitch P, Wheelhouse N, Bowles P, Paterson M, Longbottom D, Entrican G, et al. Ectopic lymphoid tissue formation in the lungs of mice infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with epithelial macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXCL2 expression. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;162:372-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Cp infection can have long-term inflammatory effects on tissue that persist after clearance of active infection. ..
  35. Yoshimura T, Takeya M, Ogata H, Yamashiro S, Modi W, Gillitzer R. Molecular cloning of the guinea pig GRO gene and its rapid expression in the tissues of lipopolysaccharide-injected guinea pigs. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1999;119:101-11 pubmed
    ..The guinea pig will provide an excellent model to study the roles of IL-8 and GRO, important inflammatory mediators in the human. ..
  36. Ha J, Choi H, Lee Y, Kwon H, Song Y, Kim H. CXC chemokine ligand 2 induced by receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand enhances osteoclastogenesis. J Immunol. 2010;184:4717-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CXCL2 is a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory bone destructive diseases. ..
  37. Mohanty S, Ivantes C, Mourya R, Pacheco C, Bezerra J. Macrophages are targeted by rotavirus in experimental biliary atresia and induce neutrophil chemotaxis by Mip2/Cxcl2. Pediatr Res. 2010;67:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Most notably, addition of anti-Mip2/Cxcl2 antibodies depleted this chemokine in the conditioned media and completely prevented neutrophil chemotaxis...
  38. Rousseau S, Morrice N, Peggie M, Campbell D, Gaestel M, Cohen P. Inhibition of SAPK2a/p38 prevents hnRNP A0 phosphorylation by MAPKAP-K2 and its interaction with cytokine mRNAs. EMBO J. 2002;21:6505-14 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that LPS-induced binding of hnRNP A0 to AREs may contribute to the post-transcriptional regulation of specific mRNAs. ..
  39. Hosking M, Liu L, Ransohoff R, Lane T. A protective role for ELR+ chemokines during acute viral encephalomyelitis. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000648 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings highlight a previously unappreciated role for ELR-positive chemokines in enhancing host defense during acute viral infections of the CNS. ..
  40. Ren X, Carpenter A, Hogaboam C, Colletti L. Mitogenic properties of endogenous and pharmacological doses of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 after 70% hepatectomy in the mouse. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:563-70 pubmed
    ..These data show that MIP-2 is important for hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy and that pharmacological MIP-2 doses after hepatic injury accelerate hepatic regeneration. ..
  41. Ronchi F, Basso C, Preite S, Reboldi A, Baumjohann D, Perlini L, et al. Experimental priming of encephalitogenic Th1/Th17 cells requires pertussis toxin-driven IL-1? production by myeloid cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11541 pubmed publisher
  42. Maeda A, Bandow K, Kusuyama J, Kakimoto K, Ohnishi T, Miyawaki S, et al. Induction of CXCL2 and CCL2 by pressure force requires IL-1β-MyD88 axis in osteoblasts. Bone. 2015;74:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus MyD88 signal in osteoblasts may be required for bone resorption by pressure force through chemokine induction. ..
  43. Lin Q, Fang D, Fang J, Ren X, Yang X, Wen F, et al. Impaired wound healing with defective expression of chemokines and recruitment of myeloid cells in TLR3-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2011;186:3710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate an essential role for TLR3 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-? in wound healing by regulating chemokine production and recruitment of myeloid cells to wound for tissue repair. ..
  44. Tateno N, Matsumoto N, Motowaki T, Suzuki K, Aratani Y. Myeloperoxidase deficiency induces MIP-2 production via ERK activation in zymosan-stimulated mouse neutrophils. Free Radic Res. 2013;47:376-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results strongly suggest that both lack of HOCl and accumulation of H2O2 due to MPO deficiency contribute to the up-regulation of MIP-2 production in mouse neutrophils stimulated with zymosan. ..
  45. He Y, Fang J, Zhang C, Pan J, Jin Q, Yang Y, et al. TcpC secreting uropathogenic E. coli promoted kidney cells to secrete MIP-2 via p38 MAPK pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:3528-3534 pubmed publisher
    ..This data has provided novel evidence to further clarify the pathogenesis of pyelonephritis and novel directions on the pathogenicity of TcpC‑secreting UPEC. ..
  46. Biondo C, Mancuso G, Midiri A, Signorino G, Domina M, Lanza Cariccio V, et al. The interleukin-1β/CXCL1/2/neutrophil axis mediates host protection against group B streptococcal infection. Infect Immun. 2014;82:4508-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data point to an essential role of these cells in controlling the progression and outcome of GBS disease. ..
  47. Watson K, Fan G. Macrophage inflammatory protein 2 inhibits beta-amyloid peptide (1-42)-mediated hippocampal neuronal apoptosis through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;67:757-65 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrated that the CXCR2 ligands macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), CXCL1, and CXCL8, protected hippocampal neurons against beta-amyloid (1-42) induced death...
  48. Rubio N, Sanz Rodriguez F, Lipton H. Theiler's virus induces the MIP-2 chemokine (CXCL2) in astrocytes from genetically susceptible but not from resistant mouse strains. Cell Immunol. 2006;239:31-40 pubmed
    ..This suggest an role for this chemokine in attracting immune cells within the CNS, which in turn, might trigger demyelination in this experimental model of MS. ..
  49. Rydström A, Wick M. Monocyte and neutrophil recruitment during oral Salmonella infection is driven by MyD88-derived chemokines. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3019-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide insight into the chemokines and TLR signaling pathways that orchestrate the early phagocyte response to oral Salmonella infection. ..
  50. van Faassen H, Kuolee R, Harris G, Zhao X, Conlan J, Chen W. Neutrophils play an important role in host resistance to respiratory infection with Acinetobacter baumannii in mice. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5597-608 pubmed
    ..alpha, interleukin-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs and development of severe bronchopneumonia and lymphoid tissue destruction in ..
  51. Boro M, Balaji K. CXCL1 and CXCL2 Regulate NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via G-Protein-Coupled Receptor CXCR2. J Immunol. 2017;199:1660-1671 pubmed publisher
  52. Kim S, Weinstein D, Starost M, Mansfield B, Chou J. Necrotic foci, elevated chemokines and infiltrating neutrophils in the liver of glycogen storage disease type Ia. J Hepatol. 2008;48:479-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In GSD-Ia mice these elevations correlate with elevated hepatic chemokine levels, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis. Taken together, peripheral neutrophilia and increased serum chemokines may indicate hepatic injuries in GSD-Ia. ..
  53. Fujimoto J, Wiener Kronish J, Hashimoto S, Sawa T. Effects of Cl2MDP-encapsulating liposomes in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced sepsis. J Liposome Res. 2002;12:239-57 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa pneumonia. ..
  54. Chen W, Lü X, Chen Y, Li M, Mo P, Tong Z, et al. Steroid Receptor Coactivator 3 Contributes to Host Defense against Enteric Bacteria by Recruiting Neutrophils via Upregulation of CXCL2 Expression. J Immunol. 2017;198:1606-1615 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we show that SRC-3 contributes to host defense against enteric bacteria, at least in part via upregulating CXCL2 expression to recruit neutrophils. ..
  55. Li X, Klintman D, Liu Q, Sato T, Jeppsson B, Thorlacius H. Critical role of CXC chemokines in endotoxemic liver injury in mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;75:443-52 pubmed
    ..Indeed, these findings demonstrate that interference with MIP-2 and KC functions protects against septic liver damage and may constitute a potential therapeutic strategy to control pathological inflammation in endotoxemia. ..
  56. He S, Liu Z, Chen X, Song C, Zhou L, Ma W, et al. IL-9(+) IL-10(+) T cells link immediate allergic response to late phase reaction. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;165:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..MIP1 facilitated macrophage extravasation in local tissue. Macrophage-derived MIP2 contributed to neutrophil infiltration in the intestine in LPR...
  57. Choi J, Bae S, Hong J, Azam T, Dinarello C, Her E, et al. Identification of the most active interleukin-32 isoform. Immunology. 2009;126:535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The gamma isoform of IL-32 was the most active, although all isoforms were biologically active. The present study will provide a specific target to neutralize endogenous IL-32, which may contribute to basic and clinical immunology. ..
  58. Fierer J, Swancutt M, Heumann D, Golenbock D. The role of lipopolysaccharide binding protein in resistance to Salmonella infections in mice. J Immunol. 2002;168:6396-403 pubmed
    ..This work confirms the importance of PMN in resistance to Salmonella infections and shows that this is facilitated by LBP. ..
  59. Thurman J, Lenderink A, Royer P, Coleman K, Zhou J, Lambris J, et al. C3a is required for the production of CXC chemokines by tubular epithelial cells after renal ishemia/reperfusion. J Immunol. 2007;178:1819-28 pubmed
    ..This innate immune system thereby recognizes hypoxic injury and triggers a systemic inflammatory response through the generation of C3a and subsequent activation of the NF-kappaB system. ..
  60. Zhao C, Pavicic P, Datta S, Sun D, Novotny M, Hamilton T. Cellular stress amplifies TLR3/4-induced CXCL1/2 gene transcription in mononuclear phagocytes via RIPK1. J Immunol. 2014;193:879-88 pubmed publisher
  61. Sawicki C, McKim D, Wohleb E, Jarrett B, Reader B, Norden D, et al. Social defeat promotes a reactive endothelium in a brain region-dependent manner with increased expression of key adhesion molecules, selectins and chemokines associated with the recruitment of myeloid cells to the brain. Neuroscience. 2015;302:151-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that key mediators of leukocyte recruitment were increased in the brain vasculature following RSD in an exposure- and brain region-dependent manner. ..
  62. Takahashi M, Kurosaka K, Kobayashi Y. Immature dendritic cells reduce proinflammatory cytokine production by a coculture of macrophages and apoptotic cells in a cell-to-cell contact-dependent manner. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;75:865-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study reveals a new mechanism by which MIP-2 production by macrophages phagocytosing apoptotic cells is prevented. ..
  63. Damann N, Owsianik G, Li S, Poll C, Nilius B. The calcium-conducting ion channel transient receptor potential canonical 6 is involved in macrophage inflammatory protein-2-induced migration of mouse neutrophils. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2009;195:3-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a novel cell function of TRP channel beyond their well-recognized role as universal cell sensors. ..
  64. Huang M, Gong Y, Grondolsky J, Hoover Plow J. Lp(a)/apo(a) modulate MMP-9 activation and neutrophil cytokines in vivo in inflammation to regulate leukocyte recruitment. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1503-17 pubmed publisher
  65. Lefebvre S, Fliniaux I, Schneider P, Mikkola M. Identification of ectodysplasin target genes reveals the involvement of chemokines in hair development. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:1094-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency in cxcR3 resulted in decreased primary hair follicle density but otherwise normal hair development, indicating that chemokine signaling influences the patterning of primary hair placodes only. ..
  66. Ohneda O, Ohneda K, Nomiyama H, Zheng Z, Gold S, Arai F, et al. WECHE: a novel hematopoietic regulatory factor. Immunity. 2000;12:141-50 pubmed
    ..WECHE hindered the growth of yolk sac-derived endothelial cells. WECHE was also chemotactic for bone marrow cells. Thus, WECHE is a novel chemokine that regulates hematopoietic differentiation. ..
  67. Riaz A, Schramm R, Sato T, Menger M, Jeppsson B, Thorlacius H. Oxygen radical-dependent expression of CXC chemokines regulate ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adhesion in the mouse colon. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;35:782-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our data demonstrate that CXC chemokines play a fundamental role in colonic I/R and that functional interference with CXC chemokines may protect against pathological inflammation in the colon. ..
  68. Hehlgans T, Muller P, Stopfer P, Männel D. Activation of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor induces NFkappaB-dependent interleukin-6 and MIP-2 secretion in mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2003;14:103-7 pubmed
    ..MIP-2 and IL-6 secretion was NFkappaB-dependent because IkappaB-transfected cells released significantly reduced amounts of both mediators. ..
  69. Zavitz C, Bauer C, Gaschler G, Fraser K, Strieter R, Hogaboam C, et al. Dysregulated macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 expression drives illness in bacterial superinfection of influenza. J Immunol. 2010;184:2001-13 pubmed publisher
  70. Sohn W, Lee K, Lee Y, Han J, Choe Y, Kim D, et al. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-induced macrophage inflammatory protein-2 gene expression is NF-kappaB-independent but c-Jun-dependent in macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Mol Immunol. 2005;42:1165-75 pubmed
    ..Our experimental results indicate that PDTC-induced proinflammatory cytokine expressions are mediated by SAPK/JNK pathway, which activates AP-1. ..
  71. Akhtar S, Gremse F, Kiessling F, Weber C, Schober A. CXCL12 promotes the stabilization of atherosclerotic lesions mediated by smooth muscle progenitor cells in Apoe-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CXCL12-induced SPC mobilization appears a promising approach to treat unstable atherosclerosis. ..
  72. Orlichenko L, Behari J, Yeh T, Liu S, Stolz D, Saluja A, et al. Transcriptional regulation of CXC-ELR chemokines KC and MIP-2 in mouse pancreatic acini. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G867-76 pubmed publisher
    ..MIP-2 upregulation requires both NF-?B and AP-1 in these cells. Thus dual inhibition of NF-?B and AP-1 may be a more successful strategy to reduce inflammation in pancreatitis than targeting NF-?B alone. ..
  73. Kwon Y, Kim Y, Eom S, Kim M, Park D, Kim H, et al. MicroRNA-26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 Loop Regulates Allergic Inflammation and Allergic Inflammation-promoted Enhanced Tumorigenic and Metastatic Potential of Cancer Cells. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:14245-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that the miR26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 loop regulates allergic inflammation and the feedback relationship between allergic inflammation and the enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential. ..
  74. Sonego F, Castanheira F, Czaikoski P, Kanashiro A, Souto F, França R, et al. MyD88-, but not Nod1- and/or Nod2-deficient mice, show increased susceptibility to polymicrobial sepsis due to impaired local inflammatory response. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103734 pubmed publisher
  75. Krausgruber T, Schiering C, Adelmann K, Harrison O, Chomka A, Pearson C, et al. T-bet is a key modulator of IL-23-driven pathogenic CD4(+) T cell responses in the intestine. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11627 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies T-bet as a key modulator of IL-23-driven colitogenic responses in the intestine and has important implications for understanding of heterogeneity among inflammatory bowel disease patients. ..
  76. Kajino Sakamoto R, Inagaki M, Lippert E, Akira S, Robine S, Matsumoto K, et al. Enterocyte-derived TAK1 signaling prevents epithelium apoptosis and the development of ileitis and colitis. J Immunol. 2008;181:1143-52 pubmed
    ..We propose that aberration in TAK1 signaling might disrupt intestinal homeostasis and favor the development of inflammatory disease. ..
  77. Kawamura H, Kawamura T, Kanda Y, Kobayashi T, Abo T. Extracellular ATP-stimulated macrophages produce macrophage inflammatory protein-2 which is important for neutrophil migration. Immunology. 2012;136:448-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that increased production of reactive oxygen species by ATP-stimulated macrophages activates the signalling pathways that promote MIP-2 production which, in turn, induces neutrophil migration. ..
  78. Chaochao Q, Lou G, Yang Y, Liu Y, Hu Y, Min Z, et al. Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-2 in High Mobility Group Box 1 Secretion of Macrophage Cells Exposed to Lipopolysaccharide. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:913-928 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms may occur through down-regulation of p38-MAPK, STAT3 and Akts phosphorylation and translocation of NF-?B p65. MIP-2 plays an important role in inflammation induced by LPS. ..
  79. Iyoda M, Shibata T, Kawaguchi M, Hizawa N, Yamaoka T, Kokubu F, et al. IL-17A and IL-17F stimulate chemokines via MAPK pathways (ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK) in mouse cultured mesangial cells: synergy with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F779-87 pubmed publisher