Gene Symbol: Mesp2
Description: mesoderm posterior 2
Alias: bHLHc6, mesoderm posterior protein 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Mesp2

Top Publications

  1. Rhee J, Takahashi Y, Saga Y, Wilson Rawls J, Rawls A. The protocadherin papc is involved in the organization of the epithelium along the segmental border during mouse somitogenesis. Dev Biol. 2003;254:248-61 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of the transcription factor Mesp2, or components of the Notch signaling pathway, led to defects in segmentation and a loss of anterior/posterior ..
  2. Takahashi Y, Hiraoka S, Kitajima S, Inoue T, Kanno J, Saga Y. Differential contributions of Mesp1 and Mesp2 to the epithelialization and rostro-caudal patterning of somites. Development. 2005;132:787-96 pubmed
    Mesp1 and Mesp2 are homologous basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are co-expressed in the anterior presomitic mesoderm (PSM) just prior to somite formation...
  3. Takahashi Y, Yasuhiko Y, Kitajima S, Kanno J, Saga Y. Appropriate suppression of Notch signaling by Mesp factors is essential for stripe pattern formation leading to segment boundary formation. Dev Biol. 2007;304:593-603 pubmed
    Mesp1 and Mesp2 are homologous transcription factors that are co-expressed in the anterior presomitic mesoderm (PSM) during mouse somitogenesis...
  4. Yasuhiko Y, Kitajima S, Takahashi Y, Oginuma M, Kagiwada H, Kanno J, et al. Functional importance of evolutionally conserved Tbx6 binding sites in the presomitic mesoderm-specific enhancer of Mesp2. Development. 2008;135:3511-9 pubmed publisher
    The T-box transcription factor Tbx6 controls the expression of Mesp2, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that has crucial roles in somitogenesis...
  5. Saga Y, Hata N, Koseki H, Taketo M. Mesp2: a novel mouse gene expressed in the presegmented mesoderm and essential for segmentation initiation. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1827-39 pubmed
    We isolated a novel bHLH protein gene Mesp2 (for mesoderm posterior 2) that cross-hybridizes with Mesp1 expressed in the early mouse mesoderm...
  6. Takahashi Y, Inoue T, Gossler A, Saga Y. Feedback loops comprising Dll1, Dll3 and Mesp2, and differential involvement of Psen1 are essential for rostrocaudal patterning of somites. Development. 2003;130:4259-68 pubmed
    ..Notch signal pathways with Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll3, and the transcription factor Mesp2 are implicated in the rostrocaudal patterning of the somite...
  7. Bessho Y, Sakata R, Komatsu S, Shiota K, Yamada S, Kageyama R. Dynamic expression and essential functions of Hes7 in somite segmentation. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2642-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Hes7 controls the cyclic expression of lunatic fringe and is essential for coordinated somite segmentation. ..
  8. Morimoto M, Takahashi Y, Endo M, Saga Y. The Mesp2 transcription factor establishes segmental borders by suppressing Notch activity. Nature. 2005;435:354-9 pubmed
    ..studies indicate that this interface is generated by suppression of Notch activity by mesoderm posterior 2 (Mesp2) through induction of the lunatic fringe gene (Lfng)...
  9. Shifley E, Vanhorn K, Perez Balaguer A, Franklin J, Weinstein M, Cole S. Oscillatory lunatic fringe activity is crucial for segmentation of the anterior but not posterior skeleton. Development. 2008;135:899-908 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Bussen M, Petry M, Schuster Gossler K, Leitges M, Gossler A, Kispert A. The T-box transcription factor Tbx18 maintains the separation of anterior and posterior somite compartments. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1209-21 pubmed
    ..AP-somite polarity is generated in the anterior presomitic mesoderm by Mesp2 and Delta/Notch signaling...
  2. Takahashi Y, Koizumi K, Takagi A, Kitajima S, Inoue T, Koseki H, et al. Mesp2 initiates somite segmentation through the Notch signalling pathway. Nat Genet. 2000;25:390-6 pubmed
    ..In mice, the lack of either of two molecules involved in the Notch-signalling pathway, Mesp2 or presenilin-1 (Ps1), results in contrasting phenotypes: caudalized versus rostralized vertebra...
  3. Zhang N, Norton C, Gridley T. Segmentation defects of Notch pathway mutants and absence of a synergistic phenotype in lunatic fringe/radical fringe double mutant mice. Genesis. 2002;33:21-8 pubmed
    ..These mice exhibit the skeletal defects normally observed in Lfng-deficient mice, but we detected no obvious synergistic or additive effects in the double mutant animals. ..
  4. Dunwoodie S, Clements M, Sparrow D, Sa X, Conlon R, Beddington R. Axial skeletal defects caused by mutation in the spondylocostal dysplasia/pudgy gene Dll3 are associated with disruption of the segmentation clock within the presomitic mesoderm. Development. 2002;129:1795-806 pubmed
  5. Barrantes I, Elia A, Wunsch K, Hrabe de Angelis M, Mak T, Rossant J, et al. Interaction between Notch signalling and Lunatic fringe during somite boundary formation in the mouse. Curr Biol. 1999;9:470-80 pubmed
    ..The Dll1, Notch1 and RBPJkappa mutations disrupt the expression of Lunatic fringe (L-fng), Jagged1, Mesp1, Mesp2 and Hes5 in the PSM. Furthermore, expression of EphA4, mCer 1 and uncx4...
  6. Young T, Rowland J, van de Ven C, Bialecka M, Novoa A, Carapuco M, et al. Cdx and Hox genes differentially regulate posterior axial growth in mammalian embryos. Dev Cell. 2009;17:516-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitant regulation of Cyp26a1 expression, restraining retinoic acid signaling away from the posterior growth zone, may likewise play a role in timing the trunk-tail transition. ..
  7. Vermot J, Gallego Llamas J, Fraulob V, Niederreither K, Chambon P, Dolle P. Retinoic acid controls the bilateral symmetry of somite formation in the mouse embryo. Science. 2005;308:563-6 pubmed
    ..These data implicate retinoic acid as an endogenous signal that maintains the bilateral synchrony of mesoderm segmentation, and therefore controls bilateral symmetry, in vertebrate embryos. ..
  8. Bryja V, Andersson E, Schambony A, Esner M, Bryjova L, Biris K, et al. The extracellular domain of Lrp5/6 inhibits noncanonical Wnt signaling in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:924-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide evidence that the extracellular domains of Lrp5/6 behave as physiologically relevant inhibitors of noncanonical Wnt signaling during Xenopus and mouse development in vivo. ..
  9. Nakajima Y, Morimoto M, Takahashi Y, Koseki H, Saga Y. Identification of Epha4 enhancer required for segmental expression and the regulation by Mesp2. Development. 2006;133:2517-25 pubmed
    ..A crucial protein for segment border formation is the bHLH transcription factor Mesp2, the expression of which is restricted to the anterior PSM...
  10. Lopez T, Fan C. Dynamic CREB family activity drives segmentation and posterior polarity specification in mammalian somitogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2019-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data support that the CREB family acts at the determination front to modulate Wnt signaling and strengthen Notch signaling as a means to orchestrate cells for somite segmentation and anterior/posterior patterning. ..
  11. Casaca A, Nóvoa A, Mallo M. Hoxb6 can interfere with somitogenesis in the posterior embryo through a mechanism independent of its rib-promoting activity. Development. 2016;143:437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest the requirement of precisely regulated Hoxb6 expression for proper segmentation at tailbud stages. ..
  12. Jin S, White E. Role of autophagy in cancer: management of metabolic stress. Autophagy. 2007;3:28-31 pubmed
  13. Ferjentsik Z, Hayashi S, Dale J, Bessho Y, Herreman A, De Strooper B, et al. Notch is a critical component of the mouse somitogenesis oscillator and is essential for the formation of the somites. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000662 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, at least in the mouse embryo, Notch activity is absolutely essential for the formation of a segmented body axis. ..
  14. Schwabe G, Trepczik B, Süring K, Brieske N, Tucker A, Sharpe P, et al. Ror2 knockout mouse as a model for the developmental pathology of autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:400-10 pubmed
    ..The Ror2(-/-) mouse provides a suitable model that may help to explain many of the underlying developmental malformations in individuals with Robinow syndrome. ..
  15. Beckers J, Schlautmann N, Gossler A. The mouse rib-vertebrae mutation disrupts anterior-posterior somite patterning and genetically interacts with a Delta1 null allele. Mech Dev. 2000;95:35-46 pubmed
    ..However, fine genetic mapping places rv into an interval on chromosome seven that does not contain a gene encoding a known component of the Notch signaling pathway. ..
  16. Kokubu C, Heinzmann U, Kokubu T, Sakai N, Kubota T, Kawai M, et al. Skeletal defects in ringelschwanz mutant mice reveal that Lrp6 is required for proper somitogenesis and osteogenesis. Development. 2004;131:5469-80 pubmed
    ..Together, we propose that Lrp6 is one of the key genetic components for the pathogenesis of vertebral segmentation defects and of osteoporosis in humans. ..
  17. Saga Y, Miyagawa Tomita S, Takagi A, Kitajima S, Miyazaki J, Inoue T. MesP1 is expressed in the heart precursor cells and required for the formation of a single heart tube. Development. 1999;126:3437-47 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that MesP1 is expressed in the heart tube precursor cells and is required for mesodermal cells to depart from the primitive streak and to generate a single heart tube. ..
  18. Yoon J, Moon R, Wold B. The bHLH class protein pMesogenin1 can specify paraxial mesoderm phenotypes. Dev Biol. 2000;222:376-91 pubmed
    ..rostral to the pMesogenin1 domain strongly upregulate expression of pMesogenin's closest known paralogs, MesP1 and MesP2 (Thylacine1/2 in Xenopus)...
  19. White P, Farkas D, McFadden E, Chapman D. Defective somite patterning in mouse embryos with reduced levels of Tbx6. Development. 2003;130:1681-90 pubmed
    ..The similarity in the phenotypes we describe here and that of some human birth defects, such as spondylocostal dysostosis, raises the possibility that mutations in Tbx6 or components of this pathway may be responsible for these defects. ..
  20. Makino Y, Takahashi Y, Tanabe R, Tamamura Y, Watanabe T, Haraikawa M, et al. Spatiotemporal disorder in the axial skeleton development of the Mesp2-null mouse: a model of spondylocostal dysostosis and spondylothoracic dysostosis. Bone. 2013;53:248-58 pubmed publisher
    Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCDO) is a genetic disorder characterized by severe malformation of the axial skeleton. Mesp2 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor that is required for somite formation...
  21. Naiche L, Holder N, Lewandoski M. FGF4 and FGF8 comprise the wavefront activity that controls somitogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4018-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these data show that FGF action maintains WNT signaling, and that both signaling pathways are required in parallel to maintain PSM progenitor tissue. ..
  22. Kitajima S, Takagi A, Inoue T, Saga Y. MesP1 and MesP2 are essential for the development of cardiac mesoderm. Development. 2000;127:3215-26 pubmed
    The transcription factors, MesP1 and MesP2, sharing an almost identical bHLH motif, have an overlapping expression pattern during gastrulation and somitogenesis...
  23. Morimoto M, Sasaki N, Oginuma M, Kiso M, Igarashi K, Aizaki K, et al. The negative regulation of Mesp2 by mouse Ripply2 is required to establish the rostro-caudal patterning within a somite. Development. 2007;134:1561-9 pubmed
    The Mesp2 transcription factor plays essential roles in segmental border formation and in the establishment of rostro-caudal patterning within a somite...
  24. Sonnen K, Lauschke V, Uraji J, Falk H, Petersen Y, Funk M, et al. Modulation of Phase Shift between Wnt and Notch Signaling Oscillations Controls Mesoderm Segmentation. Cell. 2018;172:1079-1090.e12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work hence reveals that dynamic signaling, i.e., the relative timing between oscillatory signals, encodes essential information during multicellular development. ..
  25. Warrier S, Nuwayhid S, Sabatino J, Sugrue K, Zohn I. Supt20 is required for development of the axial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2017;421:245-257 pubmed publisher
    ..In the anterior PSM, Mesp2 expression levels and cycling were unaffected; yet, expression of downstream targets such as Lfng, Ripply2, Mesp1 ..
  26. Zhao W, Ajima R, Ninomiya Y, Saga Y. Segmental border is defined by Ripply2-mediated Tbx6 repression independent of Mesp2. Dev Biol. 2015;400:105-17 pubmed publisher
    ..of somites formed during mouse somitogenesis is defined by a Tbx6 expression domain, which is established by Mesp2-mediated Tbx6 suppression in the anterior part of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM)...
  27. Saga Y. Genetic rescue of segmentation defect in MesP2-deficient mice by MesP1 gene replacement. Mech Dev. 1998;75:53-66 pubmed
    ..MesP1 belongs to the same family of bHLH transcription factors as MesP2. The early expression pattern observed in the early mesoderm at the onset of gastrulation is restricted to Mesp1, ..
  28. Krebs L, Deftos M, Bevan M, Gridley T. The Nrarp gene encodes an ankyrin-repeat protein that is transcriptionally regulated by the notch signaling pathway. Dev Biol. 2001;238:110-9 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate that the Nrarp gene is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional target of the Notch signaling pathway. ..
  29. Zakany J, Kmita M, Alarcon P, de la Pompa J, Duboule D. Localized and transient transcription of Hox genes suggests a link between patterning and the segmentation clock. Cell. 2001;106:207-17 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a molecular link between Hox gene activation and the segmentation clock. Such a linkage would efficiently keep in phase the production of novel segments with their morphological specification. ..
  30. Liang Q, Xu C, Chen X, Li X, Lu C, Zhou P, et al. The roles of Mesp family proteins: functional diversity and redundancy in differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and mammalian mesodermal development. Protein Cell. 2015;6:553-561 pubmed publisher
    Mesp family proteins comprise two members named mesodermal posterior 1 (Mesp1) and mesodermal posterior 2 (Mesp2). Both Mesp1 and Mesp2 are transcription factors and they share an almost identical basic helix-loop-helix motif...
  31. Chalamalasetty R, Dunty W, Biris K, Ajima R, Iacovino M, Beisaw A, et al. The Wnt3a/β-catenin target gene Mesogenin1 controls the segmentation clock by activating a Notch signalling program. Nat Commun. 2011;2:390 pubmed publisher
    ..Msgn1 also indirectly regulates cyclic genes in the Fgf and Wnt pathways. Thus, Msgn1 is a central component of a transcriptional cascade that translates a spatial Wnt3a gradient into a temporal pattern of clock gene expression. ..
  32. Achilleos A, Huffman N, Marcinkiewicyz E, Seidah N, Chen Q, Dallas S, et al. MBTPS1/SKI-1/S1P proprotein convertase is required for ECM signaling and axial elongation during somitogenesis and vertebral development†. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:2884-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this spinal phenotype and known functions of MBTPS1, we reason that loss-of-function mutations in Mbtps1 may cause the etiology of caudal regression syndrome. ..
  33. Takahashi J, Ohbayashi A, Oginuma M, Saito D, Mochizuki A, Saga Y, et al. Analysis of Ripply1/2-deficient mouse embryos reveals a mechanism underlying the rostro-caudal patterning within a somite. Dev Biol. 2010;342:134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mouse, Mesp2 is required for the rostral property whereas Notch signaling and Ripply2, a Mesp2-induced protein that suppresses ..
  34. Takahashi Y, Takagi A, Hiraoka S, Koseki H, Kanno J, Rawls A, et al. Transcription factors Mesp2 and Paraxis have critical roles in axial musculoskeletal formation. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1484-94 pubmed
    b>Mesp2 and Paraxis are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) -type transcription factors coexpressed in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and are required for normal somite formation...
  35. Pilon N, Oh K, Sylvestre J, Savory J, Lohnes D. Wnt signaling is a key mediator of Cdx1 expression in vivo. Development. 2007;134:2315-23 pubmed
    ..As Wnt signaling is implicated in somitogenesis upstream of the Notch pathway, it is conceivable that Cdx1 might play a role in this process. However, none of the Notch pathway genes assessed was overtly affected. ..
  36. Aulehla A, Wiegraebe W, Baubet V, Wahl M, Deng C, Taketo M, et al. A beta-catenin gradient links the clock and wavefront systems in mouse embryo segmentation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:186-93 pubmed
    ..This gradient of nuclear beta-catenin defines the size of the oscillatory field and controls key aspects of PSM maturation and segment formation, emphasizing the central role of Wnt signalling in this process. ..
  37. Galceran J, Sustmann C, Hsu S, Folberth S, Grosschedl R. LEF1-mediated regulation of Delta-like1 links Wnt and Notch signaling in somitogenesis. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2718-23 pubmed
    ..Finally, the induced expression of LEF1-beta-catenin activates the expression of endogenous Dll1 in fibroblastic cells. Thus, Wnt signaling can affect the Notch pathway by a LEF1-mediated regulation of Dll1. ..
  38. Chal J, Oginuma M, Al Tanoury Z, Gobert B, Sumara O, Hick A, et al. Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to muscle fiber to model Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Nat Biotechnol. 2015;33:962-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibers derived from ES cells of mdx mice exhibit an abnormal branched phenotype resembling that described in vivo, thus providing an attractive model to study the origin of the pathological defects associated with DMD. ..
  39. Wang C, Yano H, Nagashima K, Seino S. The Na+-driven Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. Cloning, tissue distribution, and functional characterization. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35486-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that NCBE is a Na(+)-driven Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger that regulates intracellular pH in native cells. ..
  40. Sparrow D, Chapman G, Turnpenny P, Dunwoodie S. Disruption of the somitic molecular clock causes abnormal vertebral segmentation. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2007;81:93-110 pubmed
    ..that spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) is caused by mutation in Delta-like 3 (DLL3), Mesoderm posterior 2 (MESP2), and Lunatic fringe (LFNG); three genes that are components of the Notch signaling pathway...
  41. van Rooijen C, Simmini S, Bialecka M, Neijts R, van de Ven C, Beck F, et al. Evolutionarily conserved requirement of Cdx for post-occipital tissue emergence. Development. 2012;139:2576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdx requirement for the post-head section of the axis is ancestral as it takes place in arthropods as well. ..
  42. Haraguchi S, Kitajima S, Takagi A, Takeda H, Inoue T, Saga Y. Transcriptional regulation of Mesp1 and Mesp2 genes: differential usage of enhancers during development. Mech Dev. 2001;108:59-69 pubmed
    Mesp1 and Mesp2 encode bHLH-type transcription factors, Mesp1 and Mesp2, respectively. The expression of both genes is observed in the nascent mesoderm, and subsequently in the rostral presomitic mesoderm...
  43. Williams D, Shifley E, Lather J, Cole S. Posterior skeletal development and the segmentation clock period are sensitive to Lfng dosage during somitogenesis. Dev Biol. 2014;388:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, they suggest that modulation of the Notch signaling by Lfng affects the clock period during development. ..
  44. Andersson E, Bryjova L, Biris K, Yamaguchi T, Arenas E, Bryja V. Genetic interaction between Lrp6 and Wnt5a during mouse development. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly these results reveal a further level of complexity in processes in which Wnt5a and LRP6 cooperate, or oppose each other, during mouse development. ..
  45. Kume T, Jiang H, Topczewska J, Hogan B. The murine winged helix transcription factors, Foxc1 and Foxc2, are both required for cardiovascular development and somitogenesis. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2470-82 pubmed
    ..that Foxc1 and Foxc2 are both required for transcription in the anterior presomitic mesoderm of paraxis, Mesp1, Mesp2, Hes5, and Notch1, and for the formation of sharp boundaries of Dll1, Lfng, and ephrinB2 expression...
  46. Sasaki N, Kiso M, Kitagawa M, Saga Y. The repression of Notch signaling occurs via the destabilization of mastermind-like 1 by Mesp2 and is essential for somitogenesis. Development. 2011;138:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..of Notch signaling is essential for the establishment of rostro-caudal polarity within a somite and that Mesp2 acts as a novel negative regulator of the Notch signaling pathway...
  47. Nomura Kitabayashi A, Takahashi Y, Kitajima S, Inoue T, Takeda H, Saga Y. Hypomorphic Mesp allele distinguishes establishment of rostrocaudal polarity and segment border formation in somitogenesis. Development. 2002;129:2473-81 pubmed
    A bHLH-type transcription factor, Mesp2, plays an essential role in somite segmentation in mice...
  48. Miura S, Davis S, Klingensmith J, Mishina Y. BMP signaling in the epiblast is required for proper recruitment of the prospective paraxial mesoderm and development of the somites. Development. 2006;133:3767-75 pubmed
    ..This suggests that BMP and FGF signaling function antagonistically during paraxial mesoderm development. ..
  49. Boulet A, Capecchi M. Signaling by FGF4 and FGF8 is required for axial elongation of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2012;371:235-45 pubmed publisher
  50. Kusumi K, Mimoto M, Covello K, Beddington R, Krumlauf R, Dunwoodie S. Dll3 pudgy mutation differentially disrupts dynamic expression of somite genes. Genesis. 2004;39:115-21 pubmed
    ..mutation has different effects on the expression of cycling (Lfng and Hes7) and stage-specific genes (Hey3 and Mesp2)...
  51. Oginuma M, Takahashi Y, Kitajima S, Kiso M, Kanno J, Kimura A, et al. The oscillation of Notch activation, but not its boundary, is required for somite border formation and rostral-caudal patterning within a somite. Development. 2010;137:1515-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, this mouse also showed a normal rostral-caudal compartment within a somite, conferred by a normal Mesp2 expression pattern with a rostral-caudal gradient...
  52. Yasuhiko Y, Haraguchi S, Kitajima S, Takahashi Y, Kanno J, Saga Y. Tbx6-mediated Notch signaling controls somite-specific Mesp2 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3651-6 pubmed
    b>Mesp2 is a transcription factor that plays fundamental roles in somitogenesis, and its expression is strictly restricted to the anterior presomitic mesoderm just before segment border formation...
  53. Oginuma M, Hirata T, Saga Y. Identification of presomitic mesoderm (PSM)-specific Mesp1 enhancer and generation of a PSM-specific Mesp1/Mesp2-null mouse using BAC-based rescue technology. Mech Dev. 2008;125:432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this method, we have analyzed the Mesp1 and/or Mesp2 enhancers and identified P1-PSME, a PSM-specific enhancer of Mesp1, which contains a T-box binding site similar to ..
  54. Sparrow D, Chapman G, Smith A, Mattar M, Major J, O Reilly V, et al. A mechanism for gene-environment interaction in the etiology of congenital scoliosis. Cell. 2012;149:295-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results potentially provide a mechanism for the genesis of a host of common sporadic congenital abnormalities through gene-environment interaction...
  55. Yoon J, Wold B. The bHLH regulator pMesogenin1 is required for maturation and segmentation of paraxial mesoderm. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3204-14 pubmed
    ..We infer that pMesogenin1 is an essential upstream regulator of trunk paraxial mesoderm development and segmentation. ..
  56. Schuster Gossler K, Harris B, Johnson K, Serth J, Gossler A. Notch signalling in the paraxial mesoderm is most sensitive to reduced Pofut1 levels during early mouse development. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced POFUT1 levels might affect Notch trafficking or overall O-fucosylation. Alternatively, reduced O-fucosylation might preferentially affect sites that are substrates for LFNG and thus important for somite formation and patterning. ..
  57. Oginuma M, Niwa Y, Chapman D, Saga Y. Mesp2 and Tbx6 cooperatively create periodic patterns coupled with the clock machinery during mouse somitogenesis. Development. 2008;135:2555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Mesp2 plays a crucial role in this process, regulating segmental border formation and rostro-caudal patterning...
  58. Johnson J, Rhee J, Parsons S, Brown D, Olson E, Rawls A. The anterior/posterior polarity of somites is disrupted in paraxis-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2001;229:176-87 pubmed established at the anterior end of the presomitic mesoderm prior to overt somitogenesis in response to both Mesp2 and Notch signaling...
  59. Sirbu I, Duester G. Retinoic-acid signalling in node ectoderm and posterior neural plate directs left-right patterning of somitic mesoderm. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:271-7 pubmed
  60. Koizumi K, Nakajima M, Yuasa S, Saga Y, Sakai T, Kuriyama T, et al. The role of presenilin 1 during somite segmentation. Development. 2001;128:1391-402 pubmed
    ..genes involved in the Notch signalling pathway was altered, including Delta-like3, Hes5, lunatic fringe (Lfng) and Mesp2. Thus, Ps1-dependent activation of the Notch pathway is essential for caudal half somite development...
  61. Inoue T, Ota M, Mikoshiba K, Aruga J. Zic2 and Zic3 synergistically control neurulation and segmentation of paraxial mesoderm in mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2007;306:669-84 pubmed
  62. Williams D, Shifley E, Braunreiter K, Cole S. Disruption of somitogenesis by a novel dominant allele of Lfng suggests important roles for protein processing and secretion. Development. 2016;143:822-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrasting phenotypes in the segmentation clock and somite patterning of mutant mice suggest that LFNG protein may have context-dependent effects on Notch activity. ..
  63. Biris K, Dunty W, Yamaguchi T. Mouse Ripply2 is downstream of Wnt3a and is dynamically expressed during somitogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:3167-72 pubmed
    ..Our data are consistent with Ripply2 functioning as a segment boundary determination gene during mammalian embryogenesis. Developmental ..
  64. Teppner I, Becker S, de Angelis M, Gossler A, Beckers J. Compartmentalised expression of Delta-like 1 in epithelial somites is required for the formation of intervertebral joints. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:68 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the restricted Dll1 expression in caudal epithelial somites may be particularly required for the proper development of the intervertebral joint forming compartment. ..
  65. Morimoto M, Kiso M, Sasaki N, Saga Y. Cooperative Mesp activity is required for normal somitogenesis along the anterior-posterior axis. Dev Biol. 2006;300:687-98 pubmed
    b>Mesp2 is a bHLH-type transcription factor that plays a key role during somitogenesis. Mesp2 is transiently expressed and is quickly degraded once translated...
  66. Chen J, Lu L, Shi S, Stanley P. Expression of Notch signaling pathway genes in mouse embryos lacking beta4galactosyltransferase-1. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:376-82 pubmed
    ..Four of these genes were altered in expression pattern or expression level. The Notch target genes Hes5 and Mesp2 were affected to some degree in all mutant embryos...
  67. Costello I, Pimeisl I, Dräger S, Bikoff E, Robertson E, Arnold S. The T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin acts upstream of Mesp1 to specify cardiac mesoderm during mouse gastrulation. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1084-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our experiments demonstrate that Eomes governs discrete context-dependent transcriptional programmes that sequentially specify cardiac and definitive endoderm progenitors during gastrulation. ..
  68. Zhao T, Gan Q, Stokes A, Lassiter R, Wang Y, Chan J, et al. ?-catenin regulates Pax3 and Cdx2 for caudal neural tube closure and elongation. Development. 2014;141:148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ?-catenin signaling is required for caudal neural tube closure and elongation, acting through the transcriptional regulation of key target genes in the PNP. ..
  69. Mankoo B, Skuntz S, Harrigan I, Grigorieva E, Candia A, Wright C, et al. The concerted action of Meox homeobox genes is required upstream of genetic pathways essential for the formation, patterning and differentiation of somites. Development. 2003;130:4655-64 pubmed
    ..In particular, our studies place Meox gene function upstream of Pax genes in the regulation of chondrogenic and myogenic differentiation of paraxial mesoderm. ..
  70. Shifley E, Cole S. Lunatic fringe protein processing by proprotein convertases may contribute to the short protein half-life in the segmentation clock. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:2384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important implications for the mechanisms that contribute to the tight control of Notch signaling during vertebrate segmentation...