Gene Symbol: Meis2
Description: Meis homeobox 2
Alias: A430109D20Rik, Mrg1, Stra10, homeobox protein Meis2, Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2, meis1-related protein 1, myeloid ecotropic viral integration site-related gene 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Meis2

Top Publications

  1. Kuss P, Villavicencio Lorini P, Witte F, Klose J, Albrecht A, Seemann P, et al. Mutant Hoxd13 induces extra digits in a mouse model of synpolydactyly directly and by decreasing retinoic acid synthesis. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that mutated Hoxd13 causes polydactyly in SPD by inducing extraneous interdigital chondrogenesis, both directly and indirectly, via a reduction in RA levels...
  2. Skogh C, Eriksson C, Kokaia M, Meijer X, Wahlberg L, Wictorin K, et al. Generation of regionally specified neurons in expanded glial cultures derived from the mouse and human lateral ganglionic eminence. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2001;17:811-20 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that at least a subpopulation of neurogenic LGE precursors exhibit glial characteristics. ..
  3. Zhang X, Rowan S, Yue Y, Heaney S, Pan Y, Brendolan A, et al. Pax6 is regulated by Meis and Pbx homeoproteins during pancreatic development. Dev Biol. 2006;300:748-57 pubmed
    ..As Meis homeoproteins have been previously demonstrated to regulate Pax6 expression during lens development, these results suggest a conserved mechanism of Pax6 regulation by Meis homeoproteins in two different organs. ..
  4. Cunningham T, Chatzi C, Sandell L, Trainor P, Duester G. Rdh10 mutants deficient in limb field retinoic acid signaling exhibit normal limb patterning but display interdigital webbing. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1142-50 pubmed publisher
    Retinoic acid (RA) is purported to be required for expression of genes controlling proximodistal (Meis2) or anteroposterior (Shh) limb patterning...
  5. Oulad Abdelghani M, Chazaud C, Bouillet P, Sapin V, Chambon P, Dolle P. Meis2, a novel mouse Pbx-related homeobox gene induced by retinoic acid during differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:173-83 pubmed
    We report the cDNA cloning, partial genomic organization, and expression pattern of Stra10, a novel retinoic acid-inducible gene in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells...
  6. Cecconi F, Proetzel G, Alvarez Bolado G, Jay D, Gruss P. Expression of Meis2, a Knotted-related murine homeobox gene, indicates a role in the differentiation of the forebrain and the somitic mesoderm. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:184-90 pubmed
    ..We have isolated the Kn-related gene Meis2 in mouse, which labels the lateral somitic compartment and its derivatives during early mouse embryogenesis and ..
  7. Selleri L, Depew M, Jacobs Y, Chanda S, Tsang K, Cheah K, et al. Requirement for Pbx1 in skeletal patterning and programming chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2001;128:3543-57 pubmed
    ..This impacts on the rate of endochondral ossification and bone formation and suggests a mechanistic basis for most of the observed skeletal malformations. ..
  8. Toresson H, Parmar M, Campbell K. Expression of Meis and Pbx genes and their protein products in the developing telencephalon: implications for regional differentiation. Mech Dev. 2000;94:183-7 pubmed
    ..8, 423-429). We have studied the expression of these genes in the mouse telencephalon and found that Meis1 and Meis2 display region-specific patterns of expression from embryonic day (E)10...
  9. Zhao X, Sirbu I, Mic F, Molotkova N, Molotkov A, Kumar S, et al. Retinoic acid promotes limb induction through effects on body axis extension but is unnecessary for limb patterning. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1050-7 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in limb bud patterning along the proximodistal or anteroposterior axes functioning through induction of Meis2 and Shh, respectively...

More Information


  1. Heine P, Dohle E, Bumsted O Brien K, Engelkamp D, Schulte D. Evidence for an evolutionary conserved role of homothorax/Meis1/2 during vertebrate retina development. Development. 2008;135:805-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in chicks and mice express two Hth-related proteins, Meis1 and Meis2 (Mrg1), in species-specific temporal sequences...
  2. Mercader N, Leonardo E, Azpiazu N, Serrano A, Morata G, Martinez C, et al. Conserved regulation of proximodistal limb axis development by Meis1/Hth. Nature. 1999;402:425-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that restriction of Meis1/Hth to proximal regions of the vertebrate and insect limb is essential to specify cell fates and differentiation patterns along the P-D axis of the limb. ..
  3. Williams T, Williams M, Innis J. Range of HOX/TALE superclass associations and protein domain requirements for HOXA13:MEIS interaction. Dev Biol. 2005;277:457-71 pubmed
  4. Marcil A, Dumontier E, Chamberland M, Camper S, Drouin J. Pitx1 and Pitx2 are required for development of hindlimb buds. Development. 2003;130:45-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, Pitx1 and Pitx2 genes are required for sustained hindlimb bud growth and formation of hindlimbs. ..
  5. Rosin J, Li W, Cox L, Rolfe S, Latorre V, Akiyama J, et al. A distal 594 bp ECR specifies Hmx1 expression in pinna and lateral facial morphogenesis and is regulated by the Hox-Pbx-Meis complex. Development. 2016;143:2582-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies highlight the conserved role for Hmx1 in BA2-derived tissues and provide an entry point for improved understanding of the causes of the frequent lateral facial birth defects in humans. ..
  6. Lewandoski M, Sun X, Martin G. Fgf8 signalling from the AER is essential for normal limb development. Nat Genet. 2000;26:460-3 pubmed
    ..Our data identify Fgf8 as the only known AER-Fgf individually necessary for normal limb development, and provide insight into the function of Fgf signalling from the AER in the normal outgrowth and patterning of the limb. ..
  7. Ye W, Song Y, Huang Z, Osterwalder M, Ljubojevic A, Xu J, et al. A unique stylopod patterning mechanism by Shox2-controlled osteogenesis. Development. 2016;143:2548-60 pubmed publisher
  8. Boivin F, Sarin S, Lim J, Javidan A, Svajger B, Khalili H, et al. Stromally expressed β-catenin modulates Wnt9b signaling in the ureteric epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120347 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that β-catenin in the renal stroma modulates a genetic program in ureteric epithelium that is required for the induction of nephron progenitors. ..
  9. Machon O, Kreslova J, Ruzickova J, Vacik T, Klimova L, Fujimura N, et al. Lens morphogenesis is dependent on Pax6-mediated inhibition of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the lens surface ectoderm. Genesis. 2010;48:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Pax6 is required for down-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling in the presumptive lens ectoderm...
  10. Coles G, Ackerman K. Kif7 is required for the patterning and differentiation of the diaphragm in a model of syndromic congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1898-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results provide evidence for a model in which inhibition of RA receptor signaling promotes CDH pathogenesis through a complex gene network. ..
  11. Zhang X, Friedman A, Heaney S, Purcell P, Maas R. Meis homeoproteins directly regulate Pax6 during vertebrate lens morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2097-107 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Meis1 and Meis2 homeoproteins are direct regulators of Pax6 expression in prospective lens ectoderm...
  12. Trimarchi J, Stadler M, Roska B, Billings N, Sun B, Bartch B, et al. Molecular heterogeneity of developing retinal ganglion and amacrine cells revealed through single cell gene expression profiling. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:1047-65 pubmed
    ..In addition, this study has allowed for the definition of some of the molecular heterogeneity both between developing ganglion and amacrine cells and among subclasses of each cell type. ..
  13. Compagnucci C, Debiais Thibaud M, Coolen M, Fish J, Griffin J, Bertocchini F, et al. Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula. Dev Biol. 2013;377:428-48 pubmed publisher
  14. Sheth R, Barozzi I, Langlais D, Osterwalder M, Nemec S, Carlson H, et al. Distal Limb Patterning Requires Modulation of cis-Regulatory Activities by HOX13. Cell Rep. 2016;17:2913-2926 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that proper termination of the early limb transcriptional program and activation of the late-distal limb program are coordinated by the dual action of HOX13 on cis-regulatory modules. ..
  15. Antosova B, Smolikova J, Klimova L, Lachova J, Bendova M, Kozmikova I, et al. The Gene Regulatory Network of Lens Induction Is Wired through Meis-Dependent Shadow Enhancers of Pax6. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006441 pubmed publisher
    ..Pax6 represents a key node in the gene regulatory network governing mammalian lens induction. Meis1 and Meis2 homeoproteins are considered as essential upstream regulators of Pax6 during lens morphogenesis based on their ..
  16. Niederreither K, Vermot J, Schuhbaur B, Chambon P, Dolle P. Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is required for forelimb growth and anteroposterior patterning in the mouse. Development. 2002;129:3563-74 pubmed
    ..We suggest that RA signaling cooperates with a posteriorly restricted factor such as dHand, to generate a functional zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). ..
  17. Hsieh J, Lee L, Zhang L, Wefer S, Brown K, DeRossi C, et al. Mesd encodes an LRP5/6 chaperone essential for specification of mouse embryonic polarity. Cell. 2003;112:355-67 pubmed
  18. Vieux Rochas M, Mantero S, Heude E, Barbieri O, Astigiano S, Couly G, et al. Spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression of the Edn1-Dlx5/6 pathway during development of the lower jaw. Genesis. 2010;48:262-373 pubmed publisher
    ..More in general, our findings emphasize the importance of quantitative gene expression in the fine control of morphogenetic events. ..
  19. Lopez Bendito G, Cautinat A, Sanchez J, Bielle F, Flames N, Garratt A, et al. Tangential neuronal migration controls axon guidance: a role for neuregulin-1 in thalamocortical axon navigation. Cell. 2006;125:127-42 pubmed
    ..These results show that neuronal tangential migration constitutes a novel mechanism to control the timely arrangement of guidance cues required for axonal tract formation in the mammalian brain. ..
  20. Pennimpede T, Cameron D, Maclean G, Petkovich M. Analysis of Cyp26b1/Rarg compound-null mice reveals two genetically separable effects of retinoic acid on limb outgrowth. Dev Biol. 2010;339:179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide genetic evidence to clarify the roles of both RA and CYP26B1 in limb outgrowth and proximo-distal patterning. ..
  21. Waclaw R, Wang B, Pei Z, Ehrman L, Campbell K. Distinct temporal requirements for the homeobox gene Gsx2 in specifying striatal and olfactory bulb neuronal fates. Neuron. 2009;63:451-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Gsx2 specifies striatal projection neuron and olfactory bulb interneuron identity at distinct time points during telencephalic neurogenesis. ..
  22. Marcos S, González Lázaro M, Beccari L, Carramolino L, Martín Bermejo M, Amarie O, et al. Meis1 coordinates a network of genes implicated in eye development and microphthalmia. Development. 2015;142:3009-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Meis1 is at the core of a genetic network implicated in eye patterning/microphthalmia, and represents an additional candidate for syndromic cases of these ocular malformations. ..
  23. Kondo T, Isono K, Kondo K, Endo T, Itohara S, Vidal M, et al. Polycomb potentiates meis2 activation in midbrain by mediating interaction of the promoter with a tissue-specific enhancer. Dev Cell. 2014;28:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used the mouse Meis2 gene as a model to identify a role of a tissue-specific enhancer in removing PcG from the promoter...
  24. Ferretti E, Villaescusa J, Di Rosa P, Fernandez Diaz L, Longobardi E, Mazzieri R, et al. Hypomorphic mutation of the TALE gene Prep1 (pKnox1) causes a major reduction of Pbx and Meis proteins and a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5650-62 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Prep1 is an essential gene that acts upstream of and within a Pbx-Meis network that regulates multiple aspects of embryonic development. ..
  25. Guo Q, Li K, Sunmonu N, Li J. Fgf8b-containing spliceforms, but not Fgf8a, are essential for Fgf8 function during development of the midbrain and cerebellum. Dev Biol. 2010;338:183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Fgf8b-containing spliceforms, but not Fgf8a, are essential for the function of Fgf8 during the development of the midbrain and cerebellum. ..
  26. Mic F, Sirbu I, Duester G. Retinoic acid synthesis controlled by Raldh2 is required early for limb bud initiation and then later as a proximodistal signal during apical ectodermal ridge formation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26698-706 pubmed
    ..This is associated with deficient expression of important limb determinants Tbx5, Meis2, and dHand needed to establish forelimb bud initiation, proximal identity, and the zone of polarizing activity (..
  27. Bouillet P, Oulad Abdelghani M, Vicaire S, Garnier J, Schuhbaur B, Dolle P, et al. Efficient cloning of cDNAs of retinoic acid-responsive genes in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and characterization of a novel mouse gene, Stra1 (mouse LERK-2/Eplg2). Dev Biol. 1995;170:420-33 pubmed
    ..We also report the sequence and expression pattern in mouse embryos and adult tissues of one of these novel RA-inducible genes, Stra1, and show that it corresponds to the mouse ligand for the Cek5 receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. ..
  28. Nakamura T, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Identification of a new family of Pbx-related homeobox genes. Oncogene. 1996;13:2235-42 pubmed
    ..By DNA cross-hybridization we have identified two Meis1-related genes, Meis2 and Meis3...
  29. Crespo Enríquez I, Partanen J, Martinez S, Echevarria D. Fgf8-related secondary organizers exert different polarizing planar instructions along the mouse anterior neural tube. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39977 pubmed publisher
  30. Ehrman L, Mu X, Waclaw R, Yoshida Y, Vorhees C, Klein W, et al. The LIM homeobox gene Isl1 is required for the correct development of the striatonigral pathway in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4026-35 pubmed publisher
  31. Di Giovannantonio L, Di Salvio M, Omodei D, Prakash N, Wurst W, Pierani A, et al. Otx2 cell-autonomously determines dorsal mesencephalon versus cerebellum fate independently of isthmic organizing activity. Development. 2014;141:377-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, Otx2 is cell-autonomously required in the m1a sub-domain to suppress cerebellar fate and promote mesencephalic differentiation independently of the MHB organizing activity...
  32. Jakovcevski M, Ruan H, Shen E, Dincer A, Javidfar B, Ma Q, et al. Neuronal Kmt2a/Mll1 histone methyltransferase is essential for prefrontal synaptic plasticity and working memory. J Neurosci. 2015;35:5097-108 pubmed publisher
    ..loss of the transcriptional mark, trimethyl-H3K4, at <50 loci, including the homeodomain transcription factor Meis2. Small RNA-mediated Meis2 knockdown in PFC was associated with working memory defects similar to those elicited by ..
  33. Mason M, Hockman D, Curry L, Cunningham T, Duester G, Logan M, et al. Retinoic acid-independent expression of Meis2 during autopod patterning in the developing bat and mouse limb. Evodevo. 2015;6:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Natal long-fingered bat (Miniopterus natalensis) fore- and hindlimbs, we demonstrate that the transcription factor Meis2 has a significantly higher expression in bat forelimb autopods compared to hindlimbs...
  34. Depew M, Lufkin T, Rubenstein J. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science. 2002;298:381-5 pubmed
    ..We suggest that nested Dlx expression in the arches patterns their proximodistal axes. Evolutionary acquisition and subsequent refinement of jaws may have been dependent on modification of Dlx expression. ..
  35. Lu P, Yu Y, Perdue Y, Werb Z. The apical ectodermal ridge is a timer for generating distal limb progenitors. Development. 2008;135:1395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we have uncovered a novel mechanism, whereby the AER regulates the number of autopod progenitors by determining the onset of their generation. ..
  36. Sapin V, Bouillet P, Oulad Abdelghani M, Dastugue B, Chambon P, Dolle P. Differential expression of retinoic acid-inducible (Stra) genes during mouse placentation. Mech Dev. 2000;92:295-9 pubmed
    ..e. the yolk sac and/or the labyrinthine zone of the mature placenta. The Meis2 homeobox gene appears to be specifically expressed in maternally-derived cell populations...
  37. Molotkova N, Molotkov A, Duester G. Role of retinoic acid during forebrain development begins late when Raldh3 generates retinoic acid in the ventral subventricular zone. Dev Biol. 2007;303:601-10 pubmed
    ..of chick embryos has been suggested to function in early forebrain patterning by regulating Fgf8, Shh, and Meis2 expression. Similar expression of Raldh3 exists in E8...
  38. Wassef M, Chomette D, Pouilhe M, Stedman A, Havis E, Desmarquet Trin Dinh C, et al. Rostral hindbrain patterning involves the direct activation of a Krox20 transcriptional enhancer by Hox/Pbx and Meis factors. Development. 2008;135:3369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..sites allowed us to establish that Krox20 is under the direct transcriptional control of both Meis (presumably Meis2) and Hox/Pbx factors in r3...
  39. Kuerbitz J, Arnett M, Ehrman S, Williams M, Vorhees C, Fisher S, et al. Loss of Intercalated Cells (ITCs) in the Mouse Amygdala of Tshz1 Mutants Correlates with Fear, Depression, and Social Interaction Phenotypes. J Neurosci. 2018;38:1160-1177 pubmed publisher
  40. Liu Y, MacDonald R, Swift G. DNA binding and transcriptional activation by a PDX1.PBX1b.MEIS2b trimer and cooperation with a pancreas-specific basic helix-loop-helix complex. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:17985-93 pubmed
    ..Only the N-terminal region of MEIS2, including the conserved MEIS domains, is required for formation of a trimer on DNA and transcriptional activity: ..
  41. Qin P, Cimildoro R, Kochhar D, Soprano K, Soprano D. PBX, MEIS, and IGF-I are potential mediators of retinoic acid-induced proximodistal limb reduction defects. Teratology. 2002;66:224-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, we examined the expression of MEIS1, MEIS2, and MEIS3 because these proteins are necessary for PBX nuclear localization...
  42. Chang I, Parrilla M. Expression patterns of homeobox genes in the mouse vomeronasal organ at postnatal stages. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;21:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..and Tgif1 also expressed in some neuronal progenitors and precursors; 12 homeobox genes (Adnp, Cux1, Dlx5, Dlx6, Meis2, Pbx2, Pknox1, Pou2f1, Satb1, Tshz1, Tshz3, Zhx2) with expression in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell ..
  43. Capellini T, Di Giacomo G, Salsi V, Brendolan A, Ferretti E, Srivastava D, et al. Pbx1/Pbx2 requirement for distal limb patterning is mediated by the hierarchical control of Hox gene spatial distribution and Shh expression. Development. 2006;133:2263-73 pubmed
  44. Steelman S, Moskow J, Muzynski K, North C, Druck T, Montgomery J, et al. Identification of a conserved family of Meis1-related homeobox genes. Genome Res. 1997;7:142-56 pubmed
    ..We report the sequence of Mrg1 and MRG2 as well as their chromosomal locations in murine and human genomes...
  45. Probst S, Kraemer C, Demougin P, Sheth R, Martin G, Shiratori H, et al. SHH propagates distal limb bud development by enhancing CYP26B1-mediated retinoic acid clearance via AER-FGF signalling. Development. 2011;138:1913-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, SHH promotes distal progression of limb development by enhancing CYP26B1-mediated RA clearance as part of a signalling network linking the SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop to the newly identified AER-FGF/CYP26B1/RA module. ..
  46. Fernandez Diaz L, Laurent A, Girasoli S, Turco M, Longobardi E, Iotti G, et al. The absence of Prep1 causes p53-dependent apoptosis of mouse pluripotent epiblast cells. Development. 2010;137:3393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this early lethal phenotype, Prep1 is not essential for ES cell establishment. A differential embryonic expression pattern underscores the unique function of Prep1 within the Meis-Prep family. ..
  47. García Moreno F, Pedraza M, Di Giovannantonio L, Di Salvio M, López Mascaraque L, Simeone A, et al. A neuronal migratory pathway crossing from diencephalon to telencephalon populates amygdala nuclei. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:680-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The diencephalic transcription factor OTP was necessary for this migratory behavior. ..
  48. Hau A, Grebbin B, Agoston Z, Anders Maurer M, Müller T, Groß A, et al. MEIS homeodomain proteins facilitate PARP1/ARTD1-mediated eviction of histone H1. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2715-2729 pubmed publisher
    ..These results for the first time link MEIS proteins to PARP-regulated chromatin dynamics and provide a mechanistic basis to explain the profound cellular changes elicited by these proteins. ..
  49. Yu L, Liu H, Yan M, Yang J, Long F, Muneoka K, et al. Shox2 is required for chondrocyte proliferation and maturation in proximal limb skeleton. Dev Biol. 2007;306:549-59 pubmed
    ..Our results establish a key role for Shox2 in regulating the growth of stylopod by controlling chondrocyte maturation via Runx2 and Runx3. ..
  50. Zhang L, Yuan H, Cao B, Kong C, Yuan F, Li J, et al. MGE-derived nNOS+ interneurons promote fear acquisition in nNOS-/- mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1560-1566 pubmed publisher
  51. Koentgen F, Lin J, Katidou M, Chang I, Khan M, Watts J, et al. Exclusive transmission of the embryonic stem cell-derived genome through the mouse germline. Genesis. 2016;54:326-33 pubmed publisher
    ..genesis 54:326-333, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  52. Bielle F, Marcos Mondejar P, Keita M, Mailhes C, Verney C, Nguyen Ba Charvet K, et al. Slit2 activity in the migration of guidepost neurons shapes thalamic projections during development and evolution. Neuron. 2011;69:1085-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that subtle differences in the migration of conserved intermediate target neurons trigger large-scale changes in thalamic connectivity, and opens perspectives on Slit functions and the evolution of brain wiring. ..
  53. Yakushiji Kaminatsui N, Kondo T, Endo T, Koseki Y, Kondo K, Ohara O, et al. RING1 proteins contribute to early proximal-distal specification of the forelimb bud by restricting Meis2 expression. Development. 2016;143:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional deletion of Meis2 induced partial restoration of the distal gene expression and limb formation seen in the Ring1A/B-deficient mice, ..
  54. Machon O, Masek J, Machonova O, Krauss S, Kozmik Z. Meis2 is essential for cranial and cardiac neural crest development. BMC Dev Biol. 2015;15:40 pubmed publisher
    ..studies of Pbx1, 2 and 3 and Meis1 documented specific functions in embryogenesis, however, functional studies of Meis2 in mouse are still missing...
  55. Abu Abed S, Dolle P, Metzger D, Beckett B, Chambon P, Petkovich M. The retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme, CYP26A1, is essential for normal hindbrain patterning, vertebral identity, and development of posterior structures. Genes Dev. 2001;15:226-40 pubmed
  56. Amin S, Donaldson I, Zannino D, Hensman J, Rattray M, Losa M, et al. Hoxa2 selectively enhances Meis binding to change a branchial arch ground state. Dev Cell. 2015;32:265-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that Hoxa2 operates as a tissue-specific cofactor, enhancing Meis binding to specific sites that provide the IIBA with its anatomical identity. ..
  57. Bumsted O Brien K, Hendrickson A, Haverkamp S, Ashery Padan R, Schulte D. Expression of the homeodomain transcription factor Meis2 in the embryonic and postnatal retina. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:58-72 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the Meis family protein Meis2 is expressed by a subpopulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic amacrine (AM) cells in the adult and ..
  58. Pruitt S, Bussman A, Maslov A, Natoli T, Heinaman R. Hox/Pbx and Brn binding sites mediate Pax3 expression in vitro and in vivo. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:671-85 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate that binding elements for both neural and anterior-posterior position specific transcription factors mediate domains of Pax3 expression. ..
  59. Bobick B, Cobb J. Shox2 regulates progression through chondrogenesis in the mouse proximal limb. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:6071-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide evidence that Shox2 regulates progression through chondrogenesis at two distinct stages--the onset of early differentiation and the transition to maturation and hypertrophy. ..
  60. Uehara M, Yashiro K, Mamiya S, Nishino J, Chambon P, Dolle P, et al. CYP26A1 and CYP26C1 cooperatively regulate anterior-posterior patterning of the developing brain and the production of migratory cranial neural crest cells in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2007;302:399-411 pubmed
  61. Jeong J, Park S, Dickinson S, Luo J. A Constitutive Intrinsic Inflammatory Signaling Circuit Composed of miR-196b, Meis2, PPP3CC, and p65 Drives Prostate Cancer Castration Resistance. Mol Cell. 2017;65:154-167 pubmed publisher
    ..that an intrinsic constitutively activated feedforward signaling circuit composed of I?B?/NF-?B(p65), miR-196b-3p, Meis2, and PPP3CC is formed during the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
  62. Toresson H, Mata De Urquiza A, Fagerstrom C, Perlmann T, Campbell K. Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. Development. 1999;126:1317-26 pubmed
    ..Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum...
  63. Agoston Z, Heine P, Brill M, Grebbin B, Hau A, Kallenborn Gerhardt W, et al. Meis2 is a Pax6 co-factor in neurogenesis and dopaminergic periglomerular fate specification in the adult olfactory bulb. Development. 2014;141:28-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence for a dual role of the Meis family protein Meis2 in adult olfactory bulb (OB) neurogenesis...
  64. Fujino T, Yamazaki Y, Largaespada D, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Hirokawa K, et al. Inhibition of myeloid differentiation by Hoxa9, Hoxb8, and Meis homeobox genes. Exp Hematol. 2001;29:856-63 pubmed
    ..Myeloid differentiation of 32Dcl3 was induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Meis2 was coactivated with Hoxb8 in WEHI-3B cells...
  65. Aubert J, Dunstan H, Chambers I, Smith A. Functional gene screening in embryonic stem cells implicates Wnt antagonism in neural differentiation. Nat Biotechnol. 2002;20:1240-5 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal the importance of Wnt signaling in regulating ES-cell lineage diversification. More generally, this study establishes a path for rapid and direct validation of candidate genes in ES cells. ..
  66. Yashiro K, Zhao X, Uehara M, Yamashita K, Nishijima M, Nishino J, et al. Regulation of retinoic acid distribution is required for proximodistal patterning and outgrowth of the developing mouse limb. Dev Cell. 2004;6:411-22 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that RA acts as a morphogen to determine proximodistal identity, and that CYP26B1 prevents apoptosis and promotes chondrocyte maturation, in the developing limb. ..
  67. Sgadò P, Ferretti E, Grbec D, Bozzi Y, Simon H. The atypical homeoprotein Pbx1a participates in the axonal pathfinding of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Neural Dev. 2012;7:24 pubmed publisher
  68. Rowan S, Siggers T, Lachke S, Yue Y, Bulyk M, Maas R. Precise temporal control of the eye regulatory gene Pax6 via enhancer-binding site affinity. Genes Dev. 2010;24:980-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we describe a mechanism whereby Pax6 levels are determined by transcriptional synergy of Prep1 bound to the two sites, while timing of enhancer activation is determined by binding site affinity. ..
  69. Shim S, Kim Y, Shin J, Kim J, Park S. Regulation of EphA8 gene expression by TALE homeobox transcription factors during development of the mesencephalon. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1614-30 pubmed
    ..b>Meis2 and Pbx1/2 are specifically expressed in the entire region of the dorsal mesencephalon, where specific ..
  70. Stenman J, Yu R, Evans R, Campbell K. Tlx and Pax6 co-operate genetically to establish the pallio-subpallial boundary in the embryonic mouse telencephalon. Development. 2003;130:1113-22 pubmed
    ..This correlates well with the malformation of the lateral and basolateral amygdala in Tlx mutants, both of which have been suggested to derive from ventral portions of the pallium. ..
  71. Capellini T, Zewdu R, Di Giacomo G, Asciutti S, Kugler J, Di Gregorio A, et al. Pbx1/Pbx2 govern axial skeletal development by controlling Polycomb and Hox in mesoderm and Pax1/Pax9 in sclerotome. Dev Biol. 2008;321:500-14 pubmed publisher
  72. MacLean G, Dolle P, Petkovich M. Genetic disruption of CYP26B1 severely affects development of neural crest derived head structures, but does not compromise hindbrain patterning. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:732-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest different periods of sensitivity of anterior and posterior hindbrain neural crest derivatives to elevated levels of RA in the absence of CYP26B1. ..