Gene Symbol: Mbd2
Description: methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2
Alias: MBD2a, methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2, methyl-CpG-binding protein MBD2, testis-specific methyl-CpG binding protein 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Mbd2

Top Publications

  1. Barr H, Hermann A, Berger J, Tsai H, Adie K, Prokhortchouk A, et al. Mbd2 contributes to DNA methylation-directed repression of the Xist gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3750-7 pubmed
    ..The absence of Mbd2 caused significant low-level reactivation of Xist, but silencing was restored by exogenous Mbd2...
  2. Brero A, Easwaran H, Nowak D, Grunewald I, Cremer T, Leonhardt H, et al. Methyl CpG-binding proteins induce large-scale chromatin reorganization during terminal differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:733-43 pubmed
    ..Similar to MeCP2, another methyl CpG-binding protein, MBD2, also increased during myogenic differentiation and could induce clustering of pericentric regions, arguing for ..
  3. Sansom O, Berger J, Bishop S, Hendrich B, Bird A, Clarke A. Deficiency of Mbd2 suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis. Nat Genet. 2003;34:145-7 pubmed
    Gene silencing through de novo methylation of CpG island promoters contributes to cancer. We find that Mbd2, which recruits co-repressor complexes to methylated DNA, is essential for efficient tumorigenesis in the mouse intestine...
  4. Hutchins A, Mullen A, Lee H, Sykes K, High F, Hendrich B, et al. Gene silencing quantitatively controls the function of a developmental trans-activator. Mol Cell. 2002;10:81-91 pubmed
    ..We examined cells lacking methyl CpG binding domain protein-2 (MBD2), a molecule that has been proposed to link DNA methylation to silent chromatin...
  5. Hendrich B, Guy J, Ramsahoye B, Wilson V, Bird A. Closely related proteins MBD2 and MBD3 play distinctive but interacting roles in mouse development. Genes Dev. 2001;15:710-23 pubmed
    b>MBD2 and MBD3 are closely related proteins with consensus methyl-CpG binding domains. MBD2 is a transcriptional repressor that specifically binds to methylated DNA and is a component of the MeCP1 protein complex...
  6. Guy J, Hendrich B, Holmes M, Martin J, Bird A. A mouse Mecp2-null mutation causes neurological symptoms that mimic Rett syndrome. Nat Genet. 2001;27:322-6 pubmed
  7. Luo S, Zhang C, Zhang B, Kim C, Qiu Y, Du Q, et al. Regulation of heterochromatin remodelling and myogenin expression during muscle differentiation by FAK interaction with MBD2. EMBO J. 2009;28:2568-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a new signalling of FAK in regulating chromatin remodelling by its interaction with MBD2 (methyl CpG-binding protein 2), underlying FAK regulation of myogenin expression and muscle differentiation...
  8. Hendrich B, Bird A. Identification and characterization of a family of mammalian methyl-CpG binding proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:6538-47 pubmed
    ..We describe here three novel human and mouse proteins (MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4) that contain the methyl-CpG binding domain...
  9. Wood K, Johnson B, Welsh S, Lee J, Cui Y, Krizman E, et al. Tagging methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins reveals different spatiotemporal expression and supports distinct functions. Epigenomics. 2016;8:455-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple MBDs are linked to neurodevelopmental disorders in humans and mice. However, the functions of MBD2 are poorly understood...

More Information


  1. Ghoshal K, Majumder S, Datta J, Motiwala T, Bai S, Sharma S, et al. Role of human ribosomal RNA (rRNA) promoter methylation and of methyl-CpG-binding protein MBD2 in the suppression of rRNA gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:6783-93 pubmed
    ..Immunofluorescence studies showed that the methyl-CpG-binding proteins, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MeCP2, are localized both in the nuclei and nucleoli of HepG2 cells...
  2. Jeffery L, Nakielny S. Components of the DNA methylation system of chromatin control are RNA-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49479-87 pubmed
    ..The RNA and methyl-CG binding properties of the MBD proteins are mutually exclusive. We speculate that DNMTs and MBD proteins allow RNA molecules to participate in DNA methylation-mediated chromatin control. ..
  3. Cao Y, Guo W, Tian S, He X, Wang X, Liu X, et al. miR-290/371-Mbd2-Myc circuit regulates glycolytic metabolism to promote pluripotency. EMBO J. 2015;34:609-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we identified Mbd2, a reader for methylated CpGs, as the target of miR-290 cluster that represses glycolysis and reprogramming...
  4. Yuan K, Xie K, Fox J, Zeng H, Gao H, Huang C, et al. Decreased levels of miR-224 and the passenger strand of miR-221 increase MBD2, suppressing maspin and promoting colorectal tumor growth and metastasis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2013;145:853-64.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the 3' untranslated region of MBD2 messenger RNA as a target of miR-221* and miR-224...
  5. Ruddock D Cruz N, Xue J, Wilson K, Heffernan C, Prashadkumar S, Cooney M, et al. Dynamic changes in the localization of five members of the methyl binding domain (MBD) gene family during murine and bovine preimplantation embryo development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:48-59 pubmed
    ..b>MBD2 was not expressed in murine or bovine oocytes and MeCP2 was not detected in murine blastocysts, subcellular protein ..
  6. Zhong J, Yu Q, Yang P, Rao X, He L, Fang J, et al. MBD2 regulates TH17 differentiation and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by controlling the homeostasis of T-bet/Hlx axis. J Autoimmun. 2014;53:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrated that methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2), an epigenetic regulator, controls autoimmunity and EAE through T-bet/Hlx...
  7. Cook P, Owen H, Deaton A, Borger J, Brown S, Clouaire T, et al. A dominant role for the methyl-CpG-binding protein Mbd2 in controlling Th2 induction by dendritic cells. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6920 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate a key role for the protein methyl-CpG-binding domain-2 (Mbd2), which links DNA methylation to repressive chromatin structure, in regulating expression of a range of genes that ..
  8. Li H, Wan R, Tang L, Liu S, Zhao Q, Gao M, et al. Alteration of Scn3a expression is mediated via CpG methylation and MBD2 in mouse hippocampus during postnatal development and seizure condition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1849:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We then demonstrated that the sequence containing -39C was a MBD2-binding motif and the CpG methylation of the promoter region increased the capability of MBD2's binding to the ..
  9. Denner D, Rauchman M. Mi-2/NuRD is required in renal progenitor cells during embryonic kidney development. Dev Biol. 2013;375:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrated that Sall1 and Mi2? exhibited a strong in vivo genetic interaction in the developing kidney. Together these findings indicate that Sall1 and NuRD act cooperatively to maintain CM progenitor cells. ..
  10. Feng S, Ota K, Ito T. A yeast one-hybrid system to screen for methylated DNA-binding proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:e189 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied the dual-bait system to screen cDNA libraries and demonstrated efficient isolation of clones for methylated DNA-binding proteins. This system would serve as a unique research tool for epigenetics. ..
  11. Ohki I, Shimotake N, Fujita N, Jee J, Ikegami T, Nakao M, et al. Solution structure of the methyl-CpG binding domain of human MBD1 in complex with methylated DNA. Cell. 2001;105:487-97 pubmed
    ..The structure indicates how MBD may access nucleosomal DNA without encountering steric interference from core histones, and provides a basis to interpret mutations linked to Rett syndrome in MeCP2. ..
  12. Stirzaker C, Song J, Ng W, Du Q, Armstrong N, Locke W, et al. Methyl-CpG-binding protein MBD2 plays a key role in maintenance and spread of DNA methylation at CpG islands and shores in cancer. Oncogene. 2017;36:1328-1338 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous work demonstrated that MBD2 preferentially binds to the hypermethylated GSTP1 promoter CpG island in prostate cancer cells...
  13. MacDonald J, Verster A, Berndt A, Roskams A. MBD2 and MeCP2 regulate distinct transitions in the stage-specific differentiation of olfactory receptor neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:55-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the MBD proteins MBD2 and MeCP2 regulate distinct transitional stages of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) differentiation in vivo...
  14. Craig J, Earle E, Canham P, Wong L, Anderson M, Choo K. Analysis of mammalian proteins involved in chromatin modification reveals new metaphase centromeric proteins and distinct chromosomal distribution patterns. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:3109-21 pubmed
    ..neocentromere, and the active centromere of a dicentric chromosome, with six of these proteins (Sin3A, PCAF, MYST, MBD2, ORC2, P300/CBP) being demonstrated at mammalian centromeres for the first time...
  15. Cheng J, Song J, He X, Zhang M, Hu S, Zhang S, et al. Loss of Mbd2 Protects Mice Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance by Regulating the Homeostasis of Energy Storage and Expenditure. Diabetes. 2016;65:3384-3395 pubmed
    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that methyl-CpG-binding domain 2 (MBD2) acts as a reader to decipher DNA methylome-encoded information...
  16. Godmann M, Auger V, Ferraroni Aguiar V, Di Sauro A, Sette C, Behr R, et al. Dynamic regulation of histone H3 methylation at lysine 4 in mammalian spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:754-64 pubmed
    ..with H3-K4 methylation in the testis, including the association of AOF2 and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2a/b) in a complex with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)...
  17. Fuso A, Nicolia V, Cavallaro R, Scarpa S. DNA methylase and demethylase activities are modulated by one-carbon metabolism in Alzheimer's disease models. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that DNA methylases (DNMT1, 3a and 3b) and a putative demethylase (MBD2) were differently modulated, in line with the previously observed changes of PSEN1 methylation pattern in the same ..
  18. Kersh E. Impaired memory CD8 T cell development in the absence of methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2. J Immunol. 2006;177:3821-6 pubmed
    ..Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) is a transcriptional repressor that binds to methylated DNA and mediates the biological consequences of epigenetic ..
  19. Wang L, Liu Y, Han R, Beier U, Thomas R, Wells A, et al. Mbd2 promotes foxp3 demethylation and T-regulatory-cell function. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..recruit histone-modifying and chromatin-remodeling complexes to methylated sites, we tested whether targeting of Mbd2 might promote demethylation of Foxp3 and thereby promote Treg numbers or function...
  20. Jiang C, Jin S, Pfeifer G. MBD3L1 is a transcriptional repressor that interacts with methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MBD2) and components of the NuRD complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52456-64 pubmed
    Methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins 2 and 3 (MBD2 and MBD3) are transcriptional repressors that contain methyl-CpG binding domains and are components of a CpG-methylated DNA binding complex named MeCP1...
  21. Lu Y, Song J, Cho H, Fan G, Yokoyama K, Chiu R. Cyclophilin a protects Peg3 from hypermethylation and inactive histone modification. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39081-7 pubmed
    ..of acetylation and a gain of lysine 9 trimethylation in histone 3, as well as enhanced DNA methyltransferase 1 and MBD2 binding on the cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) islands of Peg3...
  22. Rao X, Zhong J, Zhang S, Zhang Y, Yu Q, Yang P, et al. Loss of methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 enhances endothelial angiogenesis and protects mice against hind-limb ischemic injury. Circulation. 2011;123:2964-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We used methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2), an interpreter for DNA methylome-encoded information, to dissect the impact of DNA methylation on endothelial ..
  23. Lembo F, Pero R, Angrisano T, Vitiello C, Iuliano R, Bruni C, et al. MBDin, a novel MBD2-interacting protein, relieves MBD2 repression potential and reactivates transcription from methylated promoters. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1656-65 pubmed
    We have identified a human gene encoding a novel MBD2-interacting protein (MBDin) that contains an N-terminal GTP-binding site, a putative nuclear export signal (NES), and a C-terminal acidic region...
  24. Katryniok C, Schnur N, Gillis A, von Knethen A, Sorg B, Looijenga L, et al. Role of DNA methylation and methyl-DNA binding proteins in the repression of 5-lipoxygenase promoter activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Using ChIP assays, we found that the methyl-DNA binding proteins MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 bind to the methylated 5-LO core promoter in U937 cells...
  25. Jin S, Jiang C, Rauch T, Li H, Pfeifer G. MBD3L2 interacts with MBD3 and components of the NuRD complex and can oppose MBD2-MeCP1-mediated methylation silencing. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:12700-9 pubmed
    b>MBD2 and MBD3 are two proteins that contain methyl-CpG binding domains and have a transcriptional repression function...
  26. Martín Caballero I, Hansen J, Leaford D, Pollard S, Hendrich B. The methyl-CpG binding proteins Mecp2, Mbd2 and Kaiso are dispensable for mouse embryogenesis, but play a redundant function in neural differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4315 pubmed publisher
    ..be due to functional redundancy between Mecps, we created mice and neural stem cells simultaneously lacking Mecp2, Mbd2 and Zbtb33...
  27. Hum J, Day R, Bidwell J, Wang Y, Pavalko F. Mechanical loading in osteocytes induces formation of a Src/Pyk2/MBD2 complex that suppresses anabolic gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97942 pubmed publisher
    ..in DNA methylation and the interpretation of DNA methylation patterns -methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2)...
  28. Chatzinikolaou G, Apostolou Z, Aid Pavlidis T, Ioannidou A, Karakasilioti I, Papadopoulos G, et al. ERCC1-XPF cooperates with CTCF and cohesin to facilitate the developmental silencing of imprinted genes. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:421-432 pubmed publisher
    ..ERCC1-XPF complex interacts with the insulator binding protein CTCF, the cohesin subunits SMC1A and SMC3 and with MBD2; the factors co-localize with ATRX at the promoters and control regions (ICRs) of imprinted genes during postnatal ..
  29. Phesse T, Parry L, Reed K, Ewan K, Dale T, Sansom O, et al. Deficiency of Mbd2 attenuates Wnt signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6094-103 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that deficiency of the methyl binding domain protein Mbd2 dramatically reduces adenoma burden on an Apc(Min/+) background...
  30. Lal G, Zhang N, van der Touw W, Ding Y, Ju W, Bottinger E, et al. Epigenetic regulation of Foxp3 expression in regulatory T cells by DNA methylation. J Immunol. 2009;182:259-73 pubmed
    ..activated CD4(+) T cells, and peripheral TGFbeta-induced Treg in which it was bound by DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2, and MBD2. Demethylation of this CpG site using the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza) induced ..
  31. Rodriguez P, Bonte E, Krijgsveld J, Kolodziej K, Guyot B, Heck A, et al. GATA-1 forms distinct activating and repressive complexes in erythroid cells. EMBO J. 2005;24:2354-66 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the different roles of GATA-1 in erythroid differentiation. ..
  32. Kantor B, Makedonski K, Shemer R, Razin A. Expression and localization of components of the histone deacetylases multiprotein repressory complexes in the mouse preimplantation embryo. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:697-702 pubmed
    ..MBD3 is a component of the HDAC associated chromatin remodeling complex Mi2/NuRD. The addition of MBD2 to the Mi2/NuRD complex creates MeCP1, a complex that is known to inactivate methylated promoters...
  33. Keil K, Altmann H, Mehta V, Abler L, Elton E, Vezina C. Catalog of mRNA expression patterns for DNA methylating and demethylating genes in developing mouse lower urinary tract. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:413-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Future investigation into how DNA methylation patterns are established, maintained and remodeled during the course of embryonic prostatic bud formation may provide insight into prostate morphogenesis and disease. ..
  34. Sansom O, Bishop S, Bird A, Clarke A. MBD2 deficiency does not accelerate p53 mediated lymphomagenesis. Oncogene. 2005;24:2430-2 pubmed
    ..Given our recent finding that loss of methyl-binding domain protein 2 (Mbd2) suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis, we have tested whether loss of Mbd2 increases lymphomagenesis by ..
  35. Hsieh C, Jones P. Meddling with methylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:502-4 pubmed
  36. Becker A, Allmann L, Hofstätter M, Casa V, Weber P, Lehmkuhl A, et al. Direct homo- and hetero-interactions of MeCP2 and MBD2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53730 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that the level of MeCP2 and MBD2, two members of the MBD family, increased during differentiation and their ectopic expression induced ..
  37. Rupon J, Wang S, Gaensler K, Lloyd J, Ginder G. Methyl binding domain protein 2 mediates gamma-globin gene silencing in adult human betaYAC transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6617-22 pubmed
    ..We describe here a role for DNA methylation and MBD2 in the silencing of the human fetal gamma-globin gene...
  38. Desai M, Webb H, Sinanan L, Scarsdale J, Walavalkar N, Ginder G, et al. An intrinsically disordered region of methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) recruits the histone deacetylase core of the NuRD complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:3100-13 pubmed publisher
    The MBD2-NuRD (Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase) complex is an epigenetic reader of DNA methylation that regulates genes involved in normal development and neoplastic diseases...
  39. Wang M, Wang Y, You M, Devereux T. Analysis of the Par2 modifier of pulmonary adenoma formation in mice. Exp Lung Res. 2005;31:193-204 pubmed
    ..The authors recently conducted studies to positionally clone the Par2 gene. This review summarizes the effort and progress towards the identification of Par2 candidates. ..
  40. Pan J, Wang C, Yu Q, Zhang S, Li B, Hu J. Effect of Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) on AMD-like lesions in ApoE-deficient mice. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2014;34:408-414 pubmed publisher
    The role of methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) in an ApoE-deficient mouse model of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated...
  41. Hainer S, McCannell K, Yu J, Ee L, Zhu L, Rando O, et al. DNA methylation directs genomic localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 in embryonic stem cells. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Two MBD proteins, Mbd2 and Mbd3, were previously shown to bind methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA, respectively; however, both of these ..
  42. Berger J, Bird A. Role of MBD2 in gene regulation and tumorigenesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:1537-40 pubmed
    ..b>MBD2, a member of the MBD protein family, binds to methylated promoter CpG islands (clusters of high-density CpG ..
  43. Linke M, May A, Reifenberg K, Haaf T, Zechner U. The impact of ovarian stimulation on the expression of candidate reprogramming genes in mouse preimplantation embryos. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2013;139:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of ovarian stimulation on the expression of developmentally important reprogramming genes (Apex1, Lig1, Lig3, Mbd2, Mbd3, Mbd4, and Polb) in single early mouse morula embryos (16-cell stage)...
  44. Mann W, Haaf T. Single cell RT-PCR on mouse embryos: a general approach for developmental biology. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;630:3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..It is tempting to speculate that cells expressing the reprogramming machinery have a higher developmental potential. ..
  45. May A, Kirchner R, Muller H, Hartmann P, El Hajj N, Tresch A, et al. Multiplex rt-PCR expression analysis of developmentally important genes in individual mouse preimplantation embryos and blastomeres. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunolocalization of DNMT3A, MBD3, APEX1, and LIG3 in most or all nuclei of 40-60-cell embryos is a good indicator of functional activity of genes that are activated by the 16-cell stage...
  46. Hendrich B, Abbott C, McQueen H, Chambers D, Cross S, Bird A. Genomic structure and chromosomal mapping of the murine and human Mbd1, Mbd2, Mbd3, and Mbd4 genes. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:906-12 pubmed
    ..DNA methylation is essential for murine development and is implicated in the control of gene expression. MeCP2, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4 comprise a family of mammalian, nuclear proteins related by the presence in each of an amino acid ..
  47. Hutchins A, Artis D, Hendrich B, Bird A, Scott P, Reiner S. Cutting edge: a critical role for gene silencing in preventing excessive type 1 immunity. J Immunol. 2005;175:5606-10 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we show that inactivation of the Mbd2 gene, which links DNA methylation and repressed chromatin, results in enhanced resistance to the protozoan parasite ..
  48. Varshney D, Vavrova Anderson J, Oler A, Cowling V, Cairns B, White R. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6569 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. ..
  49. Berger J, Sansom O, Clarke A, Bird A. MBD2 is required for correct spatial gene expression in the gut. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4049-57 pubmed
    ..Analysis of gene expression in colons from mice lacking the methyl-CpG binding repressor MBD2 revealed frequent activation of genes that are normally only expressed in the exocrine pancreas and duodenum...
  50. Wang G, Wei L, Loh H. Transcriptional regulation of mouse delta-opioid receptor gene by CpG methylation: involvement of Sp3 and a methyl-CpG-binding protein, MBD2, in transcriptional repression of mouse delta-opioid receptor gene in Neuro2A cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40550-6 pubmed
    ..mDOR promoter fragment formed a MeCP1-like protein complex that contained methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) and Sp3...
  51. Klinowska T, Alexander C, Georges Labouesse E, van der Neut R, Kreidberg J, Jones C, et al. Epithelial development and differentiation in the mammary gland is not dependent on alpha 3 or alpha 6 integrin subunits. Dev Biol. 2001;233:449-67 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates that mammary tissue genetically lacking major laminin-binding integrin receptors is still able to develop and function. ..