Gene Symbol: Mavs
Description: mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein
Alias: D430028G21Rik, IPS-1, Visa, cardif, mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein, CARD adapter inducing interferon beta, IFN-beta promoter stimulator-1, interferon beta promoter stimulator protein 1, mitochondrial anti-viral signaling protein, virus-induced signaling adapter
Species: mouse
Products:     Mavs

Top Publications

  1. Suthar M, RAMOS H, Brassil M, Netland J, Chappell C, Blahnik G, et al. The RIG-I-like receptor LGP2 controls CD8(+) T cell survival and fitness. Immunity. 2012;37:235-48 pubmed publisher
  2. Rudd P, Wilson J, Gardner J, Larcher T, Babarit C, Le T, et al. Interferon response factors 3 and 7 protect against Chikungunya virus hemorrhagic fever and shock. J Virol. 2012;86:9888-98 pubmed publisher
  3. Sun Q, Sun L, Liu H, Chen X, Seth R, Forman J, et al. The specific and essential role of MAVS in antiviral innate immune responses. Immunity. 2006;24:633-42 pubmed
    The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) mediates the activation of NFkappaB and IRFs and the induction of interferons in response to viral infection...
  4. Dixit E, Boulant S, Zhang Y, Lee A, Odendall C, Shum B, et al. Peroxisomes are signaling platforms for antiviral innate immunity. Cell. 2010;141:668-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) adaptor protein MAVS is located on peroxisomes and mitochondria...
  5. Perry S, Prestwood T, Lada S, Benedict C, Shresta S. Cardif-mediated signaling controls the initial innate response to dengue virus in vivo. J Virol. 2009;83:8276-81 pubmed publisher
    The role of Cardif-dependent signaling in controlling dengue virus (DENV) infection and regulating type I interferon (IFN) production in vivo was examined in Cardif-deficient mice...
  6. Seth R, Sun L, Ea C, Chen Z. Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3. Cell. 2005;122:669-82 pubmed
    ..Herein, we report the identification of a novel protein termed MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), which mediates the activation of NF-kappaB and IRF 3 in response to viral ..
  7. Koyama S, Ishii K, Kumar H, Tanimoto T, Coban C, Uematsu S, et al. Differential role of TLR- and RLR-signaling in the immune responses to influenza A virus infection and vaccination. J Immunol. 2007;179:4711-20 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that either the MyD88 or IPS-1 signaling pathway is sufficient for initial antiviral responses, whereas the protective adaptive immune responses to influenza A virus are governed by the TLR7-MyD88 pathway. ..
  8. Michallet M, Meylan E, Ermolaeva M, Vazquez J, Rebsamen M, Curran J, et al. TRADD protein is an essential component of the RIG-like helicase antiviral pathway. Immunity. 2008;28:651-61 pubmed publisher
    Upon detection of viral RNA, the helicases RIG-I and/or MDA5 trigger, via their adaptor Cardif (also known as IPS-1, MAVS, or VISA), the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce an antiviral ..
  9. Ishii K, Kawagoe T, Koyama S, Matsui K, Kumar H, Kawai T, et al. TANK-binding kinase-1 delineates innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. Nature. 2008;451:725-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that TBK1 is a key signalling molecule for DNA-vaccine-induced immunogenicity, by differentially controlling DNA-activated innate immune signalling through haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells. ..

More Information


  1. Xu L, Wang Y, Han K, Li L, Zhai Z, Shu H. VISA is an adapter protein required for virus-triggered IFN-beta signaling. Mol Cell. 2005;19:727-40 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified a protein termed VISA (for virus-induced signaling adaptor) as a critical component in the IFN-beta signaling pathways...
  2. Sharma S, Deoliveira R, Kalantari P, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Jiang Z, et al. Innate immune recognition of an AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Immunity. 2011;35:194-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these observations implicate AT-rich DNA sensing via STING, TBK1 and IRF3-IRF7 in P. falciparum malaria. ..
  3. Gall A, Treuting P, Elkon K, Loo Y, Gale M, Barber G, et al. Autoimmunity initiates in nonhematopoietic cells and progresses via lymphocytes in an interferon-dependent autoimmune disease. Immunity. 2012;36:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a stepwise progression of autoimmune disease in Trex1-deficient mice, with implications for the treatment of AGS and related disorders...
  4. Dewitte Orr S, Mehta D, Collins S, Suthar M, Gale M, Mossman K. Long double-stranded RNA induces an antiviral response independent of IFN regulatory factor 3, IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1, and IFN. J Immunol. 2009;183:6545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence of a novel antiviral pathway that is dependent on dsRNA length, but independent of the type 1 IFN system. ..
  5. Sabbah A, Chang T, Harnack R, Frohlich V, Tominaga K, Dube P, et al. Activation of innate immune antiviral responses by Nod2. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1073-80 pubmed publisher
    ..After recognition of a viral ssRNA genome, Nod2 used the adaptor protein MAVS to activate IRF3...
  6. Yoshida R, Takaesu G, Yoshida H, Okamoto F, Yoshioka T, Choi Y, et al. TRAF6 and MEKK1 play a pivotal role in the RIG-I-like helicase antiviral pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that IPS-1 requires TRAF6 and MEKK1 to activate NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases that are critical for the optimal induction of type I interferons. ..
  7. Meylan E, Curran J, Hofmann K, Moradpour D, Binder M, Bartenschlager R, et al. Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus. Nature. 2005;437:1167-72 pubmed
    ..Here we describe Cardif, a new CARD-containing adaptor protein that interacts with RIG-I and recruits IKKalpha, IKKbeta and IKKvarepsilon ..
  8. Subramanian N, Natarajan K, Clatworthy M, Wang Z, Germain R. The adaptor MAVS promotes NLRP3 mitochondrial localization and inflammasome activation. Cell. 2013;153:348-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the mitochondria-associated adaptor molecule, MAVS, is required for optimal NLRP3 inflammasome activity...
  9. Faul E, Wanjalla C, Suthar M, Gale M, Wirblich C, Schnell M. Rabies virus infection induces type I interferon production in an IPS-1 dependent manner while dendritic cell activation relies on IFNAR signaling. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001016 pubmed publisher
    ..We see that IPS-1-/- mice are more susceptible to infection than IPS-1+/+ mice and have a significantly increased incident of limb paralysis. ..
  10. Lazear H, Lancaster A, Wilkins C, Suthar M, Huang A, Vick S, et al. IRF-3, IRF-5, and IRF-7 coordinately regulate the type I IFN response in myeloid dendritic cells downstream of MAVS signaling. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003118 pubmed publisher
    ..wild type (WT), DKO, TKO, or Ifnar(-/-) mice, as well as from mice lacking the RIG-I like receptor adaptor protein MAVS. Whereas the gene induction pattern in DKO mDC was similar to WT cells, remarkably, almost no ISG induction was ..
  11. Bhoj V, Sun Q, Bhoj E, Somers C, Chen X, Torres J, et al. MAVS and MyD88 are essential for innate immunity but not cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against respiratory syncytial virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14046-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors signal through the adaptors MyD88 and MAVS, respectively, to induce type I IFNs (IFN-I) and other antiviral molecules, which are thought to be essential for ..
  12. Saha S, Pietras E, He J, Kang J, Liu S, Oganesyan G, et al. Regulation of antiviral responses by a direct and specific interaction between TRAF3 and Cardif. EMBO J. 2006;25:3257-63 pubmed
    Upon recognition of viral infection, RIG-I and Helicard recruit a newly identified adapter termed Cardif, which induces type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses through an unknown mechanism...
  13. Ichinohe T, Pang I, Iwasaki A. Influenza virus activates inflammasomes via its intracellular M2 ion channel. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:404-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show a mechanism by which influenza virus infection activates inflammasomes and identify the sensing of disturbances in intracellular ionic concentrations as a previously unknown pathogen-recognition pathway. ..
  14. McWhirter S, Barbalat R, Monroe K, Fontana M, Hyodo M, Joncker N, et al. A host type I interferon response is induced by cytosolic sensing of the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1899-911 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which host cells can induce an inflammatory response to a widely produced bacterial ligand. ..
  15. Suthar M, Ma D, Thomas S, Lund J, Zhang N, Daffis S, et al. IPS-1 is essential for the control of West Nile virus infection and immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000757 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data define an innate/adaptive immune interface mediated through IPS-1-dependent RLR signaling that regulates the quantity, quality, and balance of the immune response to WNV infection. ..
  16. Schilte C, Buckwalter M, Laird M, Diamond M, Schwartz O, Albert M. Cutting edge: independent roles for IRF-3 and IRF-7 in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells during host response to Chikungunya infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:2967-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the interplay between nonimmune and immune cells during Chikungunya virus infection and suggest an important role for nonhematopoietic cells as a critical source of IFN-?/?...
  17. Kumar H, Kawai T, Kato H, Sato S, Takahashi K, Coban C, et al. Essential role of IPS-1 in innate immune responses against RNA viruses. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1795-803 pubmed
    ..IPS-1, however, was not essential for the responses to either DNA virus or double-stranded B-DNA. Thus, IPS-1 is the sole adapter in both RIG-I and Mda5 signaling that mediates effective responses against a variety of RNA viruses. ..
  18. Fensterl V, Wetzel J, Ramachandran S, Ogino T, Stohlman S, Bergmann C, et al. Interferon-induced Ifit2/ISG54 protects mice from lethal VSV neuropathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002712 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathogenesis by another neurotropic RNA virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, was not enhanced in the brains of Ifit2(-/-) mice. Our study provides a clear demonstration of tissue-, virus- and ISG-specific antiviral action of interferon. ..
  19. Fredericksen B, Keller B, Fornek J, Katze M, Gale M. Establishment and maintenance of the innate antiviral response to West Nile Virus involves both RIG-I and MDA5 signaling through IPS-1. J Virol. 2008;82:609-16 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which RIG-I and MDA5 operate cooperatively to establish an antiviral state and mediate an IFN amplification loop that supports immune effector gene expression during WNV infection. ..
  20. Yasukawa K, Oshiumi H, Takeda M, Ishihara N, Yanagi Y, Seya T, et al. Mitofusin 2 inhibits mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra47 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), a mitochondrial outer membrane adaptor protein, plays an important role in this process...
  21. Miyake T, Kumagai Y, Kato H, Guo Z, Matsushita K, Satoh T, et al. Poly I:C-induced activation of NK cells by CD8 alpha+ dendritic cells via the IPS-1 and TRIF-dependent pathways. J Immunol. 2009;183:2522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, poly I:C activates the IPS-1- and TRIF-dependent pathways in CD8alpha(+) cDCs, which in turn leads to NK cell activation. ..
  22. Henry T, Brotcke A, Weiss D, Thompson L, Monack D. Type I interferon signaling is required for activation of the inflammasome during Francisella infection. J Exp Med. 2007;204:987-94 pubmed
    ..This connection underscores the importance of the cytosolic recognition of pathogens and highlights how multiple innate immunity pathways interact before commitment to critical host responses...
  23. Kumar H, Koyama S, Ishii K, Kawai T, Akira S. Cutting edge: cooperation of IPS-1- and TRIF-dependent pathways in poly IC-enhanced antibody production and cytotoxic T cell responses. J Immunol. 2008;180:683-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that the adjuvant effects of poly IC require a cooperative activation of TLR and cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways. ..
  24. Suthar M, Brassil M, Blahnik G, McMillan A, RAMOS H, Proll S, et al. A systems biology approach reveals that tissue tropism to West Nile virus is regulated by antiviral genes and innate immune cellular processes. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003168 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of infected livers from Mavs(-/-) × Ifnar(-/-) mice revealed the loss of expression of several key components within the natural killer (NK) ..
  25. Liu S, Chen J, Cai X, Wu J, Chen X, Wu Y, et al. MAVS recruits multiple ubiquitin E3 ligases to activate antiviral signaling cascades. elife. 2013;2:e00785 pubmed publisher
    ..are detected by the RIG-I family of receptors, which induce type-I interferons through the mitochondrial protein MAVS. MAVS forms large prion-like polymers that activate the cytosolic kinases IKK and TBK1, which in turn activate NF-?..
  26. Loo Y, Fornek J, Crochet N, Bajwa G, Perwitasari O, Martinez Sobrido L, et al. Distinct RIG-I and MDA5 signaling by RNA viruses in innate immunity. J Virol. 2008;82:335-45 pubmed
  27. Hou F, Sun L, Zheng H, Skaug B, Jiang Q, Chen Z. MAVS forms functional prion-like aggregates to activate and propagate antiviral innate immune response. Cell. 2011;146:448-61 pubmed publisher
    In response to viral infection, RIG-I-like RNA helicases bind to viral RNA and activate the mitochondrial protein MAVS, which in turn activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-?B to induce type I interferons...
  28. Daffis S, Suthar M, Szretter K, Gale M, Diamond M. Induction of IFN-beta and the innate antiviral response in myeloid cells occurs through an IPS-1-dependent signal that does not require IRF-3 and IRF-7. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000607 pubmed publisher
  29. Ono C, Ninomiya A, Yamamoto S, Abe T, Wen X, Fukuhara T, et al. Innate immune response induced by baculovirus attenuates transgene expression in mammalian cells. J Virol. 2014;88:2157-67 pubmed publisher
  30. Fleige H, Ravens S, Moschovakis G, Bölter J, Willenzon S, Sutter G, et al. IL-17-induced CXCL12 recruits B cells and induces follicle formation in BALT in the absence of differentiated FDCs. J Exp Med. 2014;211:643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results identify distinct pathogen-dependent induction and maturation pathways for BALT formation. ..
  31. King K, Aguirre A, Ye Y, Sun Y, Roh J, Ng R, et al. IRF3 and type I interferons fuel a fatal response to myocardial infarction. Nat Med. 2017;23:1481-1487 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify IRF3 and the type I IFN response as a potential therapeutic target for post-MI cardioprotection. ..
  32. Johnson J, Molle C, Aksoy E, Goldman M, Goriely S, Willems F. A conventional protein kinase C inhibitor targeting IRF-3-dependent genes differentially regulates IL-12 family members. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:1484-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data identify cPKCs as critical components that control IRF-3-dependent IL-12p35 and IL-27p28 gene expression downstream of TLR3 and TLR4. ..
  33. Li H, Fujikura D, Harada T, Uehara J, Kawai T, Akira S, et al. IPS-1 is crucial for DAP3-mediated anoikis induction by caspase-8 activation. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, DAP3-mediated anoikis induction was inhibited by knockdown of IPS-1 expression. Therefore, we elucidated a novel function of IPS-1 for anoikis induction by caspase-8 activation. ..
  34. El Maadidi S, Faletti L, Berg B, Wenzl C, Wieland K, Chen Z, et al. A novel mitochondrial MAVS/Caspase-8 platform links RNA virus-induced innate antiviral signaling to Bax/Bak-independent apoptosis. J Immunol. 2014;192:1171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Bax/Bak-independent pathway involves dsRNA-induced innate immune signaling via mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and caspase-8...
  35. Wang Y, Tong X, Ye X. Ndfip1 negatively regulates RIG-I-dependent immune signaling by enhancing E3 ligase Smurf1-mediated MAVS degradation. J Immunol. 2012;189:5304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that Ndfip1 is involved in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), which is a key adaptor protein in RIG-I-like receptor-mediated immune signaling...
  36. Pang I, Pillai P, Iwasaki A. Efficient influenza A virus replication in the respiratory tract requires signals from TLR7 and RIG-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that IAV uses physiological levels of inflammatory responses for its replicative advantage and highlight the complex interplay between viruses and the host innate-immune responses. ..
  37. Pokatayev V, Hasin N, Chon H, Cerritelli S, Sakhuja K, Ward J, et al. RNase H2 catalytic core Aicardi-Goutières syndrome-related mutant invokes cGAS-STING innate immune-sensing pathway in mice. J Exp Med. 2016;213:329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that the G37S knock-in mouse provides an excellent animal model for studying RNASEH2-associated autoimmune diseases. ..
  38. Dong X, Feng H, Sun Q, Li H, Wu T, Sun R, et al. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 hijacks MAVS and IKKbeta to initiate lytic replication. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001001 pubmed publisher
    Upon viral infection, the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS)-IKKbeta pathway is activated to restrict viral replication. Manipulation of immune signaling events by pathogens has been an outstanding theme of host-pathogen interaction...
  39. Shime H, Kojima A, Maruyama A, Saito Y, Oshiumi H, Matsumoto M, et al. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells confer tumor-suppressive functions on natural killer cells via polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid treatment in mouse tumor models. J Innate Immun. 2014;6:293-305 pubmed publisher
    ..KO mice and function-blocking monclonal antibody revealed that MDSCs produced IFN-? via the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) pathway after in vivo administration of poly I:C, and activated NK cells through the ..
  40. Goutagny N, Jiang Z, Tian J, Parroche P, Schickli J, Monks B, et al. Cell type-specific recognition of human metapneumoviruses (HMPVs) by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and TLR7 and viral interference of RIG-I ligand recognition by HMPV-B1 phosphoprotein. J Immunol. 2010;184:1168-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data reveal differential mechanisms of sensing for two closely related viruses, which operate in cell type-specific manners...
  41. Deng W, Shi M, Han M, Zhong J, Li Z, Li W, et al. Negative regulation of virus-triggered IFN-beta signaling pathway by alternative splicing of TBK1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35590-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TBK1s is induced in both human and mouse cells and binds to RIG-1, disrupting the interaction between RIG-I and VISA. Consistent with that result, overexpression of TBK1s inhibits IRF3 nuclear translocation and leads to a shutdown ..
  42. Jounai N, Takeshita F, Kobiyama K, Sawano A, Miyawaki A, Xin K, et al. The Atg5 Atg12 conjugate associates with innate antiviral immune responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14050-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to its role in promoting the bactericidal process, a component of the autophagic machinery appears to block innate antiviral immune responses, thereby contributing to RNA virus replication in host cells. ..
  43. Liu B, Zhang M, Chu H, Zhang H, Wu H, Song G, et al. The ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM31 promotes aggregation and activation of the signaling adaptor MAVS through Lys63-linked polyubiquitination. Nat Immunol. 2017;18:214-224 pubmed publisher
    The signaling adaptor MAVS forms prion-like aggregates to activate an innate antiviral immune response after viral infection. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate MAVS aggregation are poorly understood...
  44. Härtlova A, Erttmann S, Raffi F, Schmalz A, Resch U, Anugula S, et al. DNA damage primes the type I interferon system via the cytosolic DNA sensor STING to promote anti-microbial innate immunity. Immunity. 2015;42:332-343 pubmed publisher
  45. Pinto A, RAMOS H, Wu X, Aggarwal S, Shrestha B, Gorman M, et al. Deficient IFN signaling by myeloid cells leads to MAVS-dependent virus-induced sepsis. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004086 pubmed publisher
    ..In Mavs-/-×Ifnar-/- myeloid cells and mice lacking both Ifnar and the RIG-I-like receptor adaptor gene Mavs, cytokine ..
  46. Baccarella A, Fontana M, Chen E, Kim C. Toll-like receptor 7 mediates early innate immune responses to malaria. Infect Immun. 2013;81:4431-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that TLR7 plays a central role in early immune activation during malaria infection, whereas TLR7 and TLR9 contribute combinatorially to immune responses as infection progresses. ..
  47. Moriwaki A, Matsumoto K, Matsunaga Y, Fukuyama S, Matsumoto T, Kan O K, et al. IL-13 suppresses double-stranded RNA-induced IFN-? production in lung cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:922-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that IL-13 may be a putative cytokine suppressing IFN-? production against airway viral infections in asthmatics. ..
  48. McAllister C, Samuel C. The RNA-activated protein kinase enhances the induction of interferon-beta and apoptosis mediated by cytoplasmic RNA sensors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1644-51 pubmed publisher
    ..PKR, in addition to IPS-1 and IRF3 but not TRIF, was required for maximal type I IFN-beta induction and the induction of apoptosis by both transfected PRNAs and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. ..
  49. Downey J, Pernet E, Coulombe F, Allard B, Meunier I, Jaworska J, et al. RIPK3 interacts with MAVS to regulate type I IFN-mediated immunity to Influenza A virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006326 pubmed publisher
    ..M? infected with IAV in vitro, we found that RIPK3 regulates type I IFN both transcriptionally, by interacting with MAVS and limiting RIPK1 interaction with MAVS, and post-transcriptionally, by activating protein kinase R (PKR)-a ..
  50. Zou J, Kawai T, Tsuchida T, Kozaki T, Tanaka H, Shin K, et al. Poly IC triggers a cathepsin D- and IPS-1-dependent pathway to enhance cytokine production and mediate dendritic cell necroptosis. Immunity. 2013;38:717-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that cathepsin D-triggered, IPS-1-dependent necroptosis is a mechanism that propagates the adjuvant efficacy of poly IC. ..
  51. Guan K, Zheng Z, Song T, He X, Xu C, Zhang Y, et al. MAVS regulates apoptotic cell death by decreasing K48-linked ubiquitination of voltage-dependent anion channel 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3137-49 pubmed publisher
    The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein MAVS (IPS-1, VISA, or Cardif) plays an important role in the host defense against viral infection by inducing type I interferon...
  52. Oshiumi H, Miyashita M, Okamoto M, Morioka Y, Okabe M, Matsumoto M, et al. DDX60 Is Involved in RIG-I-Dependent and Independent Antiviral Responses, and Its Function Is Attenuated by Virus-Induced EGFR Activation. Cell Rep. 2015;11:1193-207 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that DDX60 is involved in RIG-I-independent viral RNA degradation. DDX60 and RIG-I adaptor MAVS double-knockout mice reveal a role for DDX60-dependent RNA degradation in antiviral responses...
  53. Ueta M, Kawai T, Yokoi N, Akira S, Kinoshita S. Contribution of IPS-1 to polyI:C-induced cytokine production in conjunctival epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:419-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that conjunctival epithelial cells express RIG-I and MDA5, and IPS-1, an adaptor molecule common to RIG-I and MDA5, contributes to polyI:C-inducible cytokine production in conjunctival epithelial cells. ..
  54. Zhang Q, Xu X, Yuan Y, Gong X, Chen Z, Xu X. IPS-1 plays a dual function to directly induce apoptosis in murine melanoma cells by inactivated Sendai virus. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:224-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data provides new insights into the mechanism underlying HVJ-E-induced apoptosis in tumor cells. ..
  55. Goritzka M, Makris S, Kausar F, Durant L, Pereira C, Kumagai Y, et al. Alveolar macrophage-derived type I interferons orchestrate innate immunity to RSV through recruitment of antiviral monocytes. J Exp Med. 2015;212:699-714 pubmed publisher
    ..AMs detect RSV via mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-coupled retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), and loss of MAVS ..
  56. Franchi L, Eigenbrod T, Muñoz Planillo R, Ozkurede U, Kim Y, Arindam C, et al. Cytosolic double-stranded RNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via MAVS-induced membrane permeabilization and K+ efflux. J Immunol. 2014;193:4214-4222 pubmed publisher
    ..differentiation-associated gene 5 act redundantly via the common adaptor mitochondrial antiviral signaling (Mavs) to induce Nlrp3 activation in response to poly(I:C), but not ATP or nigericin...
  57. Leong C, Oshiumi H, Okamoto M, Azuma M, Takaki H, Matsumoto M, et al. A MAVS/TICAM-1-independent interferon-inducing pathway contributes to regulation of hepatitis B virus replication in the mouse hydrodynamic injection model. J Innate Immun. 2015;7:47-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence indicated that viral replication was not affected by MAVS or TICAM-1 knockout, but absence of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 transcription factors, as well ..
  58. Liehl P, Zuzarte Luis V, Chan J, Zillinger T, Baptista F, Carapau D, et al. Host-cell sensors for Plasmodium activate innate immunity against liver-stage infection. Nat Med. 2014;20:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This response, initiated by liver-resident cells through the adaptor molecule for cytosolic RNA sensors, Mavs, and the transcription factors Irf3 and Irf7, is propagated by hepatocytes in an interferon-?/? receptor-dependent ..
  59. Wollish A, Ferris M, Blevins L, Loo Y, Gale M, Heise M. An attenuating mutation in a neurovirulent Sindbis virus strain interacts with the IPS-1 signaling pathway in vivo. Virology. 2013;435:269-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the control of the nsP1 T538I mutant virus is largely mediated by IPS-1-dependent RLR signaling, with TRIF-dependent TLR signaling also contributing to protection from virus-induced neurologic disease. ..
  60. Hee J, Cresswell P. Viperin interaction with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) limits viperin-mediated inhibition of the interferon response in macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0172236 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify the mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein MAVS as a novel viperin interaction partner, most likely in mitochondria associated membranes, and characterize a more ..
  61. Buskiewicz I, Montgomery T, Yasewicz E, Huber S, Murphy M, Hartley R, et al. Reactive oxygen species induce virus-independent MAVS oligomerization in systemic lupus erythematosus. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra115 pubmed
    ..We showed that mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, which normally forms a complex with retinoic acid gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases during viral infection, ..
  62. Kang M, Lee C, Lee J, Dela Cruz C, Chen Z, Enelow R, et al. Cigarette smoke selectively enhances viral PAMP- and virus-induced pulmonary innate immune and remodeling responses in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2771-84 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR3-dependent and -independent pathways as well as a pathway or pathways that are dependent on mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), IL-18Ralpha, IFN-gamma, and PKR...
  63. Tarallo V, Hirano Y, Gelfand B, Dridi S, Kerur N, Kim Y, et al. DICER1 loss and Alu RNA induce age-related macular degeneration via the NLRP3 inflammasome and MyD88. Cell. 2012;149:847-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also reveal a function of the inflammasome outside the immune system and an immunomodulatory action of mobile elements. ..
  64. Wang F, Xia W, Liu F, Li J, Wang G, Gu J. Interferon regulator factor 1/retinoic inducible gene I (IRF1/RIG-I) axis mediates 25-hydroxycholesterol-induced interleukin-8 production in atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;93:190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that RIG-I signalling mediates atherosclerotic inflammation. Targeting RIG-I signalling should provide a way to inhibit atherosclerotic inflammation, which holds potential for the therapy of atherosclerosis. ..
  65. Brunette R, Young J, Whitley D, Brodsky I, Malik H, Stetson D. Extensive evolutionary and functional diversity among mammalian AIM2-like receptors. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1969-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings validate ALRs as key activators of the antiviral response and provide an evolutionary and functional framework for understanding their roles in innate immunity. ..
  66. Kochs G, Bauer S, Vogt C, Frenz T, Tschopp J, Kalinke U, et al. Thogoto virus infection induces sustained type I interferon responses that depend on RIG-I-like helicase signaling of conventional dendritic cells. J Virol. 2010;84:12344-50 pubmed publisher
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    VISA (also known as MAVS, Cardif, IPS-1) is the essential adaptor protein for virus-induced activation of IFN regulatory factors 3 and 7 and production of type I IFNs...
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    ..They provide further information as to how tyrosine kinases such as STKs play a role in the regulation of antiviral immunity. ..
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    ..not only demonstrated that NIK associated with RIG-I and its downstream adaptor, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), but also showed the association between IKKalpha and MAVS. To further understand the role of the NIK...
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    ..the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)/melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) pathway...
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    ..Our study offers a new role for MyD88 in restricting TLR3 signaling through a hitherto unknown mechanism whereby MyD88 specifically impairs IKK?-mediated induction of IRF3 and concomitant IFN-? and RANTES production. ..