Gene Symbol: Mark2
Description: MAP/microtubule affinity regulating kinase 2
Alias: EMK-1, Emk, Par-1, Par-1b, serine/threonine-protein kinase MARK2, ELKL motif kinase 1, PAR1 homolog b
Species: mouse
Products:     Mark2

Top Publications

  1. Bessone S, Vidal F, Le Bouc Y, Epelbaum J, Bluet Pajot M, Darmon M. EMK protein kinase-null mice: dwarfism and hypofertility associated with alterations in the somatotrope and prolactin pathways. Dev Biol. 1999;214:87-101 pubmed
    Gene trapping was used in embryonic stem (ES) cells in an attempt to inactivate genes involved in development. The Emk (ELKL motif kinase) gene has been disrupted and a mutant mouse line derived...
  2. Hurov J, Huang M, White L, Lennerz J, Choi C, Cho Y, et al. Loss of the Par-1b/MARK2 polarity kinase leads to increased metabolic rate, decreased adiposity, and insulin hypersensitivity in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5680-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that the polarity kinase Par-1b/MARK2 is required for regulating glucose metabolism in vivo...
  3. Hurov J, Stappenbeck T, Zmasek C, White L, Ranganath S, Russell J, et al. Immune system dysfunction and autoimmune disease in mice lacking Emk (Par-1) protein kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3206-19 pubmed
    b>Emk is a serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in regulating polarity, cell cycle progression, and microtubule dynamics...
  4. Segu L, Pascaud A, Costet P, Darmon M, Buhot M. Impairment of spatial learning and memory in ELKL Motif Kinase1 (EMK1/MARK2) knockout mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29:231-40 pubmed
    ..EMK1 (MARK2) is a serine/threonine kinase which phosphorylates tau and MAP2...
  5. Lennerz J, Hurov J, White L, Lewandowski K, Prior J, Planer G, et al. Loss of Par-1a/MARK3/C-TAK1 kinase leads to reduced adiposity, resistance to hepatic steatosis, and defective gluconeogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5043-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammalian Par-1 family consists of four members. Knockout studies of mice implicate Par-1b/MARK2/EMK in regulating fertility, immune homeostasis, learning, and memory as well as adiposity, insulin ..
  6. Granot Z, Swisa A, Magenheim J, Stolovich Rain M, Fujimoto W, Manduchi E, et al. LKB1 regulates pancreatic beta cell size, polarity, and function. Cell Metab. 2009;10:296-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin secretion and content are restricted by LKB1, at least in part, via AMPK. These results expose a molecular mechanism, orchestrated by LKB1, for the coordinated maintenance of beta cell size, form, and function. ..
  7. Wada Y, Kubota H, Maeda M, Taniwaki M, Hattori M, Imamura S, et al. Mitogen-inducible SIPA1 is mapped to the conserved syntenic groups of chromosome 19 in mouse and chromosome 11q13.3 centromeric to BCL1 in human. Genomics. 1997;39:66-73 pubmed
    ..3 subregion. It was further indicated by double-color FISH that SIPA1 was located in the centromeric neighborhood of CCND1/ PRAD1, a presumed BCL1 oncogene. ..
  8. Fernandes M, Lespinasse F, Rotomondo F, Poirier C, Guenet J, Gaudray P, et al. Comparative mapping of two adjacent regions of MMU19 with their human counterpart on HSA11q13. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;81:237-46 pubmed
    ..5-Mb region. Strikingly, the 0.5-Mb region has a similar size in human but gene order is shuffled. The overall comparative map shows that these two regions are inverted on MMU19 when compared with HSA11q13. ..
  9. Hezel A, Gurumurthy S, Granot Z, Swisa A, Chu G, Bailey G, et al. Pancreatic LKB1 deletion leads to acinar polarity defects and cystic neoplasms. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2414-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These genetic studies provide in vivo evidence of a key role for LKB1 in the establishment of epithelial cell polarity that is vital for pancreatic acinar cell function and viability and for the suppression of neoplasia. ..

More Information


  1. Guida L, Charlton P, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Nicholls R. Genetic mapping of the galanin-GMAP (Galn) gene to mouse chromosome 19. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:240-2 pubmed
  2. Figueiredo C, Drohomyrecky P, McCarthy S, Leontyev D, Ma X, Branch D, et al. Optimal attenuation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by intravenous immunoglobulin requires an intact interleukin-11 receptor. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e101947 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, IL-11 was shown to directly inhibit IL-17 production of lymph node cells in culture. These results implicate IL-11 as an important immune effector of IVIg in the prevention of Th17-mediated autoimmune inflammation during EAE. ..
  3. Sapir T, Sapoznik S, Levy T, Finkelshtein D, Shmueli A, Timm T, et al. Accurate balance of the polarity kinase MARK2/Par-1 is required for proper cortical neuronal migration. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5710-20 pubmed publisher
    Radial neuronal migration is key in structuring the layered cortex. Here we studied the role of MARK2/Par-1 in this process...
  4. French S, Paramitha A, Moon M, Dickins R, Hamilton J. Humanizing the Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) Expression Profile in Mouse Platelets by Knocking PAR1 into the Par3 Locus Reveals PAR1 Expression Is Not Tolerated in Mouse Platelets. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0165565 pubmed publisher
  5. Mejia Gervacio S, Murray K, Sapir T, Belvindrah R, Reiner O, Lledo P. MARK2/Par-1 guides the directionality of neuroblasts migrating to the olfactory bulb. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;49:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the polarity kinase MARK2 maintains its expression in the postnatal SVZ-OB system...
  6. Moore C, Zernicka Goetz M. PAR-1 and the microtubule-associated proteins CLASP2 and dynactin-p50 have specific localisation on mouse meiotic and first mitotic spindles. Reproduction. 2005;130:311-20 pubmed
    ..Thus we show specific localisation of microtubule regulatory proteins in mouse oocytes, which could indicate roles in meiotic spindle organisation. ..
  7. Vinot S, Le T, Ohno S, Pawson T, Maro B, Louvet Vallee S. Asymmetric distribution of PAR proteins in the mouse embryo begins at the 8-cell stage during compaction. Dev Biol. 2005;282:307-19 pubmed
    ..Finally, they reinforce the idea that the first developmentally relevant asymmetries are set up during compaction...
  8. Inglis J, Lee M, Hill R. Emk, a protein kinase with homologs in yeast maps to mouse chromosome 19. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:401-3 pubmed
  9. Hartleben B, Schweizer H, Lübben P, Bartram M, Möller C, Herr R, et al. Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23033-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Fu A, Ng A, Depatie C, Wijesekara N, He Y, Wang G, et al. Loss of Lkb1 in adult beta cells increases beta cell mass and enhances glucose tolerance in mice. Cell Metab. 2009;10:285-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that inhibiting Lkb1 activity in beta cells may facilitate beta cell expansion and glucose tolerance in vivo. ..
  11. Dickey C, Koren J, Zhang Y, Xu Y, Jinwal U, Birnbaum M, et al. Akt and CHIP coregulate tau degradation through coordinated interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3622-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that Akt and the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 (PAR1/MARK2), a known tau kinase, interact directly...
  12. Lee S, Muniyappa R, Yan X, Chen H, Yue L, Hong E, et al. Comparison between surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity and resistance and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp estimates in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E261-70 pubmed
    ..This may reflect intrinsic differences between human and rodent physiology as well as increased technical difficulties in performing glucose clamps in mice. ..
  13. Hayashi K, Suzuki A, Hirai S, Kurihara Y, Hoogenraad C, Ohno S. Maintenance of dendritic spine morphology by partitioning-defective 1b through regulation of microtubule growth. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12094-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present results suggested a novel function for PAR1b in the maintenance of mature dendritic spine morphology by regulating microtubule growth and the accumulation of p140Cap in dendritic spines. ..
  14. Uboha N, Flajolet M, Nairn A, Picciotto M. A calcium- and calmodulin-dependent kinase Ialpha/microtubule affinity regulating kinase 2 signaling cascade mediates calcium-dependent neurite outgrowth. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4413-23 pubmed
    ..CaMKIalpha was therefore used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid assay and microtubule affinity regulating kinase 2 (MARK2)/Par-1b was identified as an interacting partner of CaMKI in three independent screens...
  15. Klutho P, Costanzo Garvey D, Lewis R. Regulation of glucose homeostasis by KSR1 and MARK2. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29304 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinase MARK2 is closely related to C-TAK1, a known regulator of KSR1...
  16. Tao H, Inoue K, Kiyonari H, Bassuk A, Axelrod J, Sasaki H, et al. Nuclear localization of Prickle2 is required to establish cell polarity during early mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;364:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell polarity phenotype was efficiently rescued by nuclear but not cytoplasmic Pk2, demonstrating the nuclear localization of Pk2 is critical for its function. ..
  17. Sapir T, Shmueli A, Levy T, Timm T, Elbaum M, Mandelkow E, et al. Antagonistic effects of doublecortin and MARK2/Par-1 in the developing cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13008-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report on the relationship between the polarity kinase MARK2/Par-1 and its substrate, the well-known lissencephaly-associated gene doublecortin (DCX), during cortical radial ..
  18. Daley W, Gervais E, Centanni S, Gulfo K, Nelson D, Larsen M. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity. Development. 2012;139:411-22 pubmed publisher
    ..ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue ..
  19. Deng S, Wu L, Wang Y, Cao P, Xu L, Li Q, et al. Protein kinase A rescues microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2-induced microtubule instability and neurite disruption by phosphorylating serine 409. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:3149-60 pubmed publisher
    Microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 (MARK2)/PAR-1b and protein kinase A (PKA) are both involved in the regulation of microtubule stability and neurite outgrowth, but whether a direct cross-talk exists between them remains unclear...
  20. Gervais E, Sequeira S, Wang W, Abraham S, Kim J, Leonard D, et al. Par-1b is required for morphogenesis and differentiation of myoepithelial cells during salivary gland development. Organogenesis. 2016;12:194-216 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the basal localization of Par-1b in the outer epithelial cells is required for myoepithelial cell compression, and Par-1b is required for myoepithelial differentiation, regardless of its localization. ..