Gene Symbol: Mapk9
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 9
Alias: AI851083, JNK2, Prkm9, p54aSAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase 9, JNK/SAPK alpha, Jun kinase, MAP kinase 9, MAPK 9, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2, protein kinase, mitogen-activated 9, stress-activated protein kinase JNK2
Species: mouse
Products:     Mapk9

Top Publications

  1. Sabapathy K, Hu Y, Kallunki T, Schreiber M, David J, Jochum W, et al. JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. Curr Biol. 1999;9:116-25 pubmed
    ..We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes...
  2. Das M, Sabio G, Jiang F, Rincon M, Flavell R, Davis R. Induction of hepatitis by JNK-mediated expression of TNF-alpha. Cell. 2009;136:249-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we examined the phenotype of mice with compound disruption of the Jnk1 and Jnk2 genes...
  3. Liu J, Minemoto Y, Lin A. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1), but not JNK2, is essential for tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced c-Jun kinase activation and apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10844-56 pubmed
    ..Here we report that JNK1, but not JNK2, is essential for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced c-Jun kinase activation, c-Jun expression, and apoptosis...
  4. Kuan C, Whitmarsh A, Yang D, Liao G, Schloemer A, Dong C, et al. A critical role of neural-specific JNK3 for ischemic apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15184-9 pubmed an important contributor to stress-induced apoptosis, but it is unclear whether JNK and its isoforms (JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3) have distinct roles in cerebral ischemia...
  5. Morel C, Carlson S, White F, Davis R. Mcl-1 integrates the opposing actions of signaling pathways that mediate survival and apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data establish that Mcl-1 functions as a site of signal integration between the proapoptotic activity of JNK and the prosurvival activity of the AKT pathway that inhibits GSK3. ..
  6. Chen N, Nomura M, She Q, Ma W, Bode A, Wang L, et al. Suppression of skin tumorigenesis in c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-2-deficient mice. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3908-12 pubmed
    ..We show here that in JNK2-deficient (Jnk2(-/-)) mice, the multiplicity of papillomas induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) ..
  7. Yang P, Zhao Z, Reece E. Involvement of c-Jun N-terminal kinases activation in diabetic embryopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:749-54 pubmed
    ..6-fold higher than that in the non-diabetic WT control group. Jnk2 null mutant (JNKKO mice) was associated with a 71% reduction in the malformation rate of embryos under maternal ..
  8. Sabapathy K, Hochedlinger K, Nam S, Bauer A, Karin M, Wagner E. Distinct roles for JNK1 and JNK2 in regulating JNK activity and c-Jun-dependent cell proliferation. Mol Cell. 2004;15:713-25 pubmed
    ..Although JNK1 and JNK2 were shown to differentially regulate fibroblast proliferation, the underlying mechanistic basis remains unclear...
  9. Tournier C, Hess P, Yang D, Xu J, Turner T, Nimnual A, et al. Requirement of JNK for stress-induced activation of the cytochrome c-mediated death pathway. Science. 2000;288:870-4 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that mitochondria are influenced by proapoptotic signal transduction through the JNK pathway. ..

More Information


  1. Alcorn J, Guala A, van der Velden J, McElhinney B, Irvin C, Davis R, et al. Jun N-terminal kinase 1 regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-beta1. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1036-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) from wild-type, JNK1-/- or JNK2-/- mice were comparatively evaluated for their ability to undergo EMT in response to TGF-beta1...
  2. Zhong S, Johnson D. The JNKs differentially regulate RNA polymerase III transcription by coordinately modulating the expression of all TFIIIB subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12682-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, loss or reduction in JNK2 expression induces transcription. The JNKs coordinately regulate expression of all 3 TFIIIB subunits...
  3. Arbour N, Naniche D, Homann D, Davis R, Flavell R, Oldstone M. c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)1 and JNK2 signaling pathways have divergent roles in CD8(+) T cell-mediated antiviral immunity. J Exp Med. 2002;195:801-10 pubmed
    ..To determine whether JNKs are involved in antiviral T cell immunity, and whether JNK1 and JNK2 bear biological differences, we investigated the immune responses of JNK1-deficient and JNK2-deficient mice to ..
  4. Hunot S, Vila M, Teismann P, Davis R, Hirsch E, Przedborski S, et al. JNK-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase 2 is required for neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:665-70 pubmed
    ..Examination of various JNK-deficient mice shows that both JNK2 and JNK3, but not JNK1, are required for MPTP-induced c-Jun activation and dopaminergic cell demise...
  5. Takatori A, Geh E, Chen L, Zhang L, Meller J, Xia Y. Differential transmission of MEKK1 morphogenetic signals by JNK1 and JNK2. Development. 2008;135:23-32 pubmed
    JNK1 and JNK2 are two ubiquitously expressed isoforms that exert redundant roles in many physiological processes, but the extent of their relative contributions to these processes has not been well characterized...
  6. Dong C, Yang D, Tournier C, Whitmarsh A, Xu J, Davis R, et al. JNK is required for effector T-cell function but not for T-cell activation. Nature. 2000;405:91-4 pubmed
    ..Previously, we found that T cells from mice deficient in the Jnk1 or Jnk2 gene can be activated and produce IL-2 normally, but are deficient in functional differentiation into Th1 or Th2 ..
  7. Varona Santos J, Pileggi A, Molano R, Sanabria N, Ijaz A, Atsushi M, et al. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 is deleterious to the function and survival of murine pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 2008;51:2271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..C57BL/6J (wild-type [WT]), Jnk1 (also known as Mapk8)(-/-) and Jnk2 (also known as Mapk9)(-/-) mice were used as donor/recipients in a syngeneic islet transplantation model...
  8. Chen P, O Neal J, Ebelt N, Cantrell M, Mitra S, Nasrazadani A, et al. Jnk2 effects on tumor development, genetic instability and replicative stress in an oncogene-driven mouse mammary tumor model. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10443 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we show that jnk2 knockout mice expressing the Polyoma Middle T Antigen transgene developed mammary tumors earlier and experienced ..
  9. Hui L, Zatloukal K, Scheuch H, Stepniak E, Wagner E. Proliferation of human HCC cells and chemically induced mouse liver cancers requires JNK1-dependent p21 downregulation. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3943-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that activation of JNK1 but not JNK2 was increased in human primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs)...
  10. Jaeschke A, Rincon M, Doran B, Reilly J, Neuberg D, Greiner D, et al. Disruption of the Jnk2 (Mapk9) gene reduces destructive insulitis and diabetes in a mouse model of type I diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6931-5 pubmed
    ..Studies of nonobese diabetic mice demonstrated that disruption of the Mapk9 gene (which encodes the JNK2 protein kinase) decreased destructive insulitis and reduced disease progression to ..
  11. Fernandes K, Harder J, Fornarola L, Freeman R, Clark A, Pang I, et al. JNK2 and JNK3 are major regulators of axonal injury-induced retinal ganglion cell death. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:393-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Using mice lacking specific Jnk isoforms, we show that Jnk2 and Jnk3 are the isoforms activated in injured axons...
  12. Li X, Weng H, Xu C, Reece E, Yang P. Oxidative stress-induced JNK1/2 activation triggers proapoptotic signaling and apoptosis that leads to diabetic embryopathy. Diabetes. 2012;61:2084-92 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of JNK1/2 signaling, 2) JNK1 contributes to the teratogenicity of hyperglycemia, and 3) both JNK1 and JNK2 activation cause activation of downstream transcription factors, caspase activation, and apoptosis, resulting in ..
  13. Tao J, Gao Y, Li M, He W, Chen L, Harvev B, et al. JNK2 negatively regulates CD8+ T cell effector function and anti-tumor immune response. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:818-29 pubmed
    JNK1 and JNK2 have distinct effects on activation, differentiation and function of CD8+ T cells. Our early studies demonstrated that JNK1 is required for CD8+ T cell-mediated tumor immune surveillance...
  14. Conze D, Krahl T, Kennedy N, Weiss L, Lumsden J, Hess P, et al. c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)1 and JNK2 have distinct roles in CD8(+) T cell activation. J Exp Med. 2002;195:811-23 pubmed
    ..Here we examined the role of JNK1 and JNK2 in CD8(+) T cells...
  15. Hübner A, Barrett T, Flavell R, Davis R. Multisite phosphorylation regulates Bim stability and apoptotic activity. Mol Cell. 2008;30:415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that phosphorylation can regulate Bim by multiple mechanisms and that the phosphorylation of Bim on different sites can contribute to the sensitivity of cellular apoptotic responses. ..
  16. Das M, Jiang F, Sluss H, Zhang C, Shokat K, Flavell R, et al. Suppression of p53-dependent senescence by the JNK signal transduction pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15759-64 pubmed
    ..and chemical genetic alleles of the ubiquitously expressed murine genes that encode the isoforms JNK1 and JNK2. Our analysis demonstrates that JNK is not essential for proliferation...
  17. Jaeschke A, Karasarides M, Ventura J, Ehrhardt A, Zhang C, Flavell R, et al. JNK2 is a positive regulator of the cJun transcription factor. Mol Cell. 2006;23:899-911 pubmed
    ..Studies of Jnk1(-/-) and Jnk2(-/-) mice suggest that the JNK1 and JNK2 isoforms have opposite effects on cJun expression and proliferation...
  18. Brecht S, Kirchhof R, Chromik A, Willesen M, Nicolaus T, Raivich G, et al. Specific pathophysiological functions of JNK isoforms in the brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:363-77 pubmed
    We have investigated the effect of JNK1 ko, JNK2 ko, JNK3 ko, JNK2+3 ko and c-JunAA mutation on neuronal survival in adult transgenic mice following ischemia, 6-hydroxydopamine induced neurotoxicity, axon transection and kainic acid ..
  19. Sabapathy K, Jochum W, Hochedlinger K, Chang L, Karin M, Wagner E. Defective neural tube morphogenesis and altered apoptosis in the absence of both JNK1 and JNK2. Mech Dev. 1999;89:115-24 pubmed
    Mice lacking both c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNK1 and JNK2) were generated to define their roles in development...
  20. Yang D, Conze D, Whitmarsh A, Barrett T, Davis R, Rincon M, et al. Differentiation of CD4+ T cells to Th1 cells requires MAP kinase JNK2. Immunity. 1998;9:575-85 pubmed
    ..Further, the differentiation of precursor CD4+ T cells into effector Th1 but not Th2 cells is impaired in JNK2-deficient mice...
  21. Kuan C, Yang D, Samanta Roy D, Davis R, Rakic P, Flavell R. The Jnk1 and Jnk2 protein kinases are required for regional specific apoptosis during early brain development. Neuron. 1999;22:667-76 pubmed
    ..Here, we address this issue using mutant mice lacking different members of the family (Jnk1, Jnk2, and Jnk3). Mice deficient in Jnk1, Jnk2, Jnk3, and Jnk1/Jnk3 or Jnk2/Jnk3 double mutants all survived normally...
  22. Sabapathy K, Kallunki T, David J, Graef I, Karin M, Wagner E. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)1 and JNK2 have similar and stage-dependent roles in regulating T cell apoptosis and proliferation. J Exp Med. 2001;193:317-28 pubmed
    ..Although T cells express both JNK1 and JNK2 isozymes, the absence of JNK2 alone can result in resistance to anti-CD3-induced thymocyte apoptosis and defective ..
  23. Wang Y, Singh R, Lefkowitch J, Rigoli R, Czaja M. Tumor necrosis factor-induced toxic liver injury results from JNK2-dependent activation of caspase-8 and the mitochondrial death pathway. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15258-67 pubmed
    ..Ablation of jnk2 did not inhibit GalN/LPS-induced c-Jun kinase activity, although activity was completely blocked in jnk1-/- mice...
  24. Hirosumi J, Tuncman G, Chang L, Gorgun C, Uysal K, Maeda K, et al. A central role for JNK in obesity and insulin resistance. Nature. 2002;420:333-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, JNK is a crucial mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and a potential target for therapeutics. ..
  25. Timmins J, Ozcan L, Seimon T, Li G, Malagelada C, Backs J, et al. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II links ER stress with Fas and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2925-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings raise the possibility that CaMKII inhibitors could be useful in preventing apoptosis in pathological settings involving ER stress-induced apoptosis. ..
  26. Matsuguchi T, Chiba N, Bandow K, Kakimoto K, Masuda A, Ohnishi T. JNK activity is essential for Atf4 expression and late-stage osteoblast differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:398-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, enhanced mineral deposition was observed by inducible overexpression of p54(JNK2), whereas it was not observed by the overexpression of p46(JNK1) or p46(JNK2), indicating a distinct enhancing role ..
  27. Hirai S, Kawaguchi A, Hirasawa R, Baba M, Ohnishi T, Ohno S. MAPK-upstream protein kinase (MUK) regulates the radial migration of immature neurons in telencephalon of mouse embryo. Development. 2002;129:4483-95 pubmed
    ..In COS-1 cells, MUK/DLK/ZPK overexpression impairs the radial organization of microtubules without massive depolymerization. These results suggest that MUK/DLK/ZPK and JNK regulate radial cell migration via microtubule-based events. ..
  28. Abdelli S, Puyal J, Bielmann C, Buchillier V, Abderrahmani A, Clarke P, et al. JNK3 is abundant in insulin-secreting cells and protects against cytokine-induced apoptosis. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas JNK1 and JNK2 are ubiquitously produced, JNK3 has been described exclusively in neurons...
  29. Chang L, Jones Y, Ellisman M, Goldstein L, Karin M. JNK1 is required for maintenance of neuronal microtubules and controls phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins. Dev Cell. 2003;4:521-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that JNK1 is required for maintaining the cytoskeletal integrity of neuronal cells and is a critical regulator of MAP activity and MT assembly. ..
  30. Schmidt M, Budirahardja Y, Klompmaker R, Medema R. Ablation of the spindle assembly checkpoint by a compound targeting Mps1. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:866-72 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, primary human cells are largely resistant to the checkpoint-inactivating action of SP600125, suggesting the existence of Mps1-independent checkpoint pathways that are compromised in tumour cells. ..
  31. Xu P, Davis R. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase is required for lineage-specific differentiation but not stem cell self-renewal. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with a deficiency of either the Jnk1 or the Jnk2 genes are viable, but a compound deficiency of both Jnk1 and Jnk2 causes early embryonic lethality...
  32. Noh H, Lee H, Park E, Park S. Proper closure of the optic fissure requires ephrin A5-EphB2-JNK signaling. Development. 2016;143:461-72 pubmed publisher
  33. Yuan D, Huang S, Berger E, Liu L, Gross N, Heinzmann F, et al. Kupffer Cell-Derived Tnf Triggers Cholangiocellular Tumorigenesis through JNK due to Chronic Mitochondrial Dysfunction and ROS. Cancer Cell. 2017;31:771-789.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Kupffer cell-derived Tnf favors cholangiocellular proliferation/differentiation and carcinogenesis. Targeting the ROS/Tnf/JNK axis may provide opportunities for ICC therapy. ..
  34. Vernia S, Cavanagh Kyros J, Barrett T, Jung D, Kim J, Davis R. Diet-induced obesity mediated by the JNK/DIO2 signal transduction pathway. Genes Dev. 2013;27:2345-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish a molecular mechanism that accounts for the regulation of energy expenditure and the development of obesity by the JNK signaling pathway. ..
  35. Wisdom R, Johnson R, Moore C. c-Jun regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis by distinct mechanisms. EMBO J. 1999;18:188-97 pubmed
    ..The results reveal critical roles for c-Jun in two different cellular processes and show that different extracellular stimuli can target c-Jun by distinct biochemical mechanisms. ..
  36. Pereira A, Leite F, Brasil B, Soares Martins J, Torres A, Pimenta P, et al. A vaccinia virus-driven interplay between the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway and cytoskeleton reorganization. J Virol. 2012;86:172-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, our findings uncover a regulatory role played by the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway in cytoskeleton reorganization during VACV infection...
  37. Yeap Y, Ng I, Badrian B, Nguyen T, Yip Y, Dhillon A, et al. c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun inhibits fibroblast proliferation by negatively regulating the levels of stathmin/oncoprotein 18. Biochem J. 2010;430:345-54 pubmed publisher
  38. Zhong W, Sun T, Wang Q, Wang Y, Xie Y, Johnson A, et al. SAPKgamma/JNK1 and SAPKalpha/JNK2 mRNA transcripts are expressed in early gestation human placenta and mouse eggs, preimplantation embryos, and trophoblast stem cells. Fertil Steril. 2004;82 Suppl 3:1140-8 pubmed
    ..of mRNA transcripts for stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPKgamma/JNK1, SAPKalpha/JNK2, and SAPKbeta/JNK3)...
  39. Sánchez Tilló E, Comalada M, Xaus J, Farrera C, Valledor A, Caelles C, et al. JNK1 Is required for the induction of Mkp1 expression in macrophages during proliferation and lipopolysaccharide-dependent activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12566-73 pubmed
    ..The two JNK genes, jnk1 and jnk2, are constitutively expressed in macrophages...
  40. Ryan A, Andrews M, Zhou J, Mallampalli R. c-Jun N-terminal kinase regulates CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;447:23-33 pubmed
    ..We report high-level expression of two major isoforms of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase family (JNK1 and JNK2) in murine lung epithelia...
  41. Choi H, Bode A, Shim J, Lee S, Dong Z. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 phosphorylates Myt1 to prevent UVA-induced skin cancer. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2168-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Although JNK1 and JNK2 have been shown to differentially regulate the development of skin cancer, the underlying mechanistic basis remains ..
  42. Chi H, Sarkisian M, Rakic P, Flavell R. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MEKK4) results in enhanced apoptosis and defective neural tube development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3846-51 pubmed
    ..MEKK4 therefore plays a critical role in regulating MKK4 activity and apoptotic cell death during neural tube development. Disruption of this signaling pathway may be clinically relevant to folate-resistant human NTDs. ..
  43. Samak G, Suzuki T, Bhargava A, Rao R. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-2 mediates osmotic stress-induced tight junction disruption in the intestinal epithelium. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G572-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of osmotic stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function and delineated the role of JNK2 in osmotic stress-induced tight junction (TJ) regulation in Caco-2 cell monolayers and ileum of Jnk(-/-) and Jnk2(-/..
  44. Amura C, Marek L, Winn R, Heasley L. Inhibited neurogenesis in JNK1-deficient embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10791-802 pubmed
    ..requirement for the JNK pathway in ES cell neurogenesis, ES cell lines bearing homozygous disruptions of the jnk1, jnk2, or jnk3 genes were derived and submitted to an embryoid body (EB) differentiation protocol...
  45. Hu D, Bi X, Fang W, Han A, Yang W. GSK3beta is involved in JNK2-mediated beta-catenin inhibition. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6640 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to determine whether JNK2, another MAPK, has similar and/or different functions in the regulation of beta-catenin signaling...
  46. Kawasaki Y, Kugimiya F, Chikuda H, Kamekura S, Ikeda T, Kawamura N, et al. Phosphorylation of GSK-3beta by cGMP-dependent protein kinase II promotes hypertrophic differentiation of murine chondrocytes. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2506-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes during skeletal growth is promoted by phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3beta by cGKII. ..
  47. Alavian K, Sgadò P, Alberi L, Subramaniam S, Simon H. Elevated P75NTR expression causes death of engrailed-deficient midbrain dopaminergic neurons by Erk1/2 suppression. Neural Dev. 2009;4:11 pubmed publisher
  48. Degousee N, Angoulvant D, Fazel S, Stefanski E, Saha S, Iliescu K, et al. c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated stabilization of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 mRNA regulates delayed microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 expression and prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis by cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16443-52 pubmed
    ..mPGES-1 protein synthesis was observed in LPS-stimulated neonatal cardiomyocytes from jnk1(-/-) or jnk2(-/-) mice...
  49. Lin M, Chang K, Lin S, Miner J. Epidermal hyperproliferation in mice lacking fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) involves ectopic EGF receptor and STAT3 signaling. Dev Biol. 2010;344:707-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of ichthyosis prematurity syndrome, a disease recently shown to be caused by FATP4 mutations. ..
  50. Liu J, Chen B, Lu Y, Guan Y, Chen F. JNK-dependent Stat3 phosphorylation contributes to Akt activation in response to arsenic exposure. Toxicol Sci. 2012;129:363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway by treatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125, siRNA knockdown of JNK, or genetic deficiency of the JNK1 or JNK2 gene abrogated As(3+)-induced S727 phosphorylation of Stat3, Akt activation, and the consequent release of vascular ..
  51. Miura E, Fukaya M, Sato T, Sugihara K, Asano M, Yoshioka K, et al. Expression and distribution of JNK/SAPK-associated scaffold protein JSAP1 in developing and adult mouse brain. J Neurochem. 2006;97:1431-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the characteristic cellular expression and subcellular distribution of JSAP1 might be beneficial for cells to efficiently link external stimuli to the JNK MAPK pathway and other intracellular machineries. ..
  52. Welsbie D, Mitchell K, Jaskula Ranga V, Sluch V, Yang Z, Kim J, et al. Enhanced Functional Genomic Screening Identifies Novel Mediators of Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase-Dependent Injury Signaling in Neurons. Neuron. 2017;94:1142-1154.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased understanding of the DLK pathway has implications for understanding and treating neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  53. Wang Y, Ma X, Lu L, Zhao L, Zhang X, Xu Q, et al. Defective antiviral CD8 T-cell response and viral clearance in the absence of c-Jun N-terminal kinases. Immunology. 2014;142:603-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of either JNK1 or JNK2 impaired viral clearance, subsequently resulting in an increased susceptibility to ectromelia virus in resistant ..
  54. Cao Y, Takada E, Hata K, Sudo K, Furuhata M, Mizuguchi J. Enhanced T cell-independent antibody responses in c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2)-deficient B cells following stimulation with CpG-1826 and anti-IgM. Immunol Lett. 2010;132:38-44 pubmed
    Although c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) 1 and JNK2 have been demonstrated to modulate T cell activation, role of JNKs in B cell activation remains largely unclear...
  55. Han Z, Chang L, Yamanishi Y, Karin M, Firestein G. Joint damage and inflammation in c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 knockout mice with passive murine collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:818-23 pubmed
    ..Passive collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in Jnk2(-/-) and wild-type mice by administering anti-type II collagen antibodies...
  56. Zhang Q, Kuang H, Chen C, Yan J, Do Umehara H, Liu X, et al. The kinase Jnk2 promotes stress-induced mitophagy by targeting the small mitochondrial form of the tumor suppressor ARF for degradation. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:458-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that the kinase Jnk2 was required for stress-induced mitophagy...
  57. Zhang D, Li J, Zhang M, Gao G, Zuo Z, Yu Y, et al. The requirement of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 in regulation of hypoxia-inducing factor-1? mRNA stability. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:34361-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, it was found that a deficiency of JNK2 expression reduced HIF-1? protein induction in response to nickel treatment resulting from the impaired expression ..
  58. Huang X, Tong J, Wang Z, Yang C, Qi S, Guo L, et al. JNK2 participates in spindle assembly during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Microsc Microanal. 2011;17:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that no specific JNK2 signal was detected in germinal vesicle stage...
  59. Tu Q, Zheng R, Li J, Hu L, Chang Y, Li L, et al. Palmitic acid induces autophagy in hepatocytes via JNK2 activation. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014;35:504-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific knockdown of JNK2, but not JNK1, in SMMC-7721 cells significantly suppressed PA-induced autophagy and enhanced its pro-apoptotic ..
  60. Kontoyiannis D, Boulougouris G, Manoloukos M, Armaka M, Apostolaki M, Pizarro T, et al. Genetic dissection of the cellular pathways and signaling mechanisms in modeled tumor necrosis factor-induced Crohn's-like inflammatory bowel disease. J Exp Med. 2002;196:1563-74 pubmed
    ..intestinal pathology was exacerbated in the absence of MAPKAP kinase 2, yet strongly attenuated in a Cot/Tpl2 or JNK2 kinase-deficient genetic background...
  61. Han M, Jung D, Morel C, Lakhani S, Kim J, Flavell R, et al. JNK expression by macrophages promotes obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation. Science. 2013;339:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that JNK in macrophages is required for the establishment of obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation. ..
  62. Seimon T, Obstfeld A, Moore K, Golenbock D, Tabas I. Combinatorial pattern recognition receptor signaling alters the balance of life and death in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19794-9 pubmed
    ..PRR-induced macrophage death may play important roles in advanced atherosclerosis and in other innate immunity-related processes in which the balance between macrophage survival and death is critical. ..
  63. Lee Y, Giraud J, Davis R, White M. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mediates feedback inhibition of the insulin signaling cascade. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2896-902 pubmed
    ..Insulin-stimulated Ser(307) phosphorylation was reduced 80% in cells lacking JNK1 and JNK2 or in cells expressing a mutant Irs1 protein lacking the JNK binding site...
  64. Vernia S, Cavanagh Kyros J, Barrett T, Tournier C, Davis R. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Mediates Glycemic Regulation by Hepatic JNK. Cell Rep. 2016;14:2273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that JNK contributes to the regulation of hepatic FGF21 expression during fasting/feeding cycles. These data demonstrate that the hepatokine FGF21 is a key mediator of JNK-regulated metabolic syndrome. ..
  65. Janssen K, Horn S, Niemann M, Daniel P, Schulze Osthoff K, Fischer U. Inhibition of the ER Ca2+ pump forces multidrug-resistant cells deficient in Bak and Bax into necrosis. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:4481-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, targeted application of ER stressors such as thapsigargin might be a promising approach for the treatment of Bak- and Bax-deficient, drug-resistant tumors. ..
  66. Reinecke K, Herdegen T, Eminel S, Aldenhoff J, Schiffelholz T. Knockout of c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1, 2 or 3 isoforms induces behavioural changes. Behav Brain Res. 2013;245:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have tested the behaviour of JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 knockout (ko) mice in elevated plus maze (EPM), open field (OF), novel object recognition memory (NORM) ..
  67. Kaiser R, Liang Q, Bueno O, Huang Y, Lackey T, Klevitsky R, et al. Genetic inhibition or activation of JNK1/2 protects the myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion-induced cell death in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32602-8 pubmed
    ..These transgenic mice displayed elevated cardiac c-Jun kinase activity but, ironically, were also significantly protected from ischemia-reperfusion...
  68. Wu Y, Quan Y, Liu Y, Liu K, Li H, Jiang Z, et al. Hyperglycaemia inhibits REG3A expression to exacerbate TLR3-mediated skin inflammation in diabetes. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13393 pubmed publisher
    ..This control is mediated by REG3A-induced SHP-1 protein, and acts selectively on TLR3-activated JNK2. In diabetic mouse skin, hyperglycaemia inhibits the expression of IL-17-induced IL-33 via glucose glycation...
  69. Barnat M, Enslen H, Propst F, Davis R, Soares S, Nothias F. Distinct roles of c-Jun N-terminal kinase isoforms in neurite initiation and elongation during axonal regeneration. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7804-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that neuritogenesis is delayed by lack of JNK2 and JNK3, but not JNK1...
  70. Fujii N, Boppart M, Dufresne S, Crowley P, Jozsi A, Sakamoto K, et al. Overexpression or ablation of JNK in skeletal muscle has no effect on glycogen synthase activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;287:C200-8 pubmed
    ..these findings, basal and contraction-induced glycogen synthase activity was normal in muscles of both JNK1- and JNK2-deficient mice...
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