Gene Symbol: Mapk3
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 3
Alias: Erk-1, Erk1, Ert2, Esrk1, Mnk1, Mtap2k, Prkm3, p44, p44erk1, p44mapk, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, MAP kinase 3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, insulin-stimulated MAP2 kinase, microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase, p44 MAP kinase, pp42/MAP kinase
Species: mouse
Products:     Mapk3

Top Publications

  1. Holm T, Habashi J, Doyle J, Bedja D, Chen Y, Van Erp C, et al. Noncanonical TGF? signaling contributes to aortic aneurysm progression in Marfan syndrome mice. Science. 2011;332:358-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas selective inhibition of ERK1/2 activation ameliorated aortic growth, Smad4 deficiency exacerbated aortic disease and caused premature death in ..
  2. Shimokawa K, Kimura Yoshida C, Nagai N, Mukai K, Matsubara K, Watanabe H, et al. Cell surface heparan sulfate chains regulate local reception of FGF signaling in the mouse embryo. Dev Cell. 2011;21:257-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results show that spatiotemporal expression of cell surface-tethered HS chains regulate the local reception of FGF-signaling activity during mammalian embryogenesis. ..
  3. Jin Y, Han X, Taketo M, Yoon J. Wnt9b-dependent FGF signaling is crucial for outgrowth of the nasal and maxillary processes during upper jaw and lip development. Development. 2012;139:1821-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has identified a previously unknown regulatory link between WNT9B and FGF signaling during lip and upper jaw development...
  4. Albinsson S, Suarez Y, Skoura A, Offermanns S, Miano J, Sessa W. MicroRNAs are necessary for vascular smooth muscle growth, differentiation, and function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Dicer-dependent miRNAs are important for VSM development and function by regulating proliferation and contractile differentiation. ..
  5. Toyoda R, Assimacopoulos S, Wilcoxon J, Taylor A, Feldman P, Suzuki Hirano A, et al. FGF8 acts as a classic diffusible morphogen to pattern the neocortex. Development. 2010;137:3439-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations support FGF8 as a classic diffusible morphogen in neocortex, thereby guiding future studies of neocortical pattern formation. ..
  6. Blasco R, Francoz S, Santamaria D, Canamero M, Dubus P, Charron J, et al. c-Raf, but not B-Raf, is essential for development of K-Ras oncogene-driven non-small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:652-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Ablation of Erk1 or Erk2 in K-Ras oncogene-expressing lung cells had no significant effect due to compensatory activities...
  7. He Y, Staser K, Rhodes S, Liu Y, Wu X, Park S, et al. Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive activity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24780 pubmed publisher
    The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and 2) are widely-expressed and they modulate proliferation, survival, differentiation, and protein synthesis in multiple cell lineages...
  8. Madakashira B, Kobrinski D, Hancher A, Arneman E, Wagner B, Wang F, et al. Frs2? enhances fibroblast growth factor-mediated survival and differentiation in lens development. Development. 2012;139:4601-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Lens epithelial cells express numerous RTKs with the ability to initiate the phosphorylation (activation) of Erk1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling...
  9. Le Grand F, Grifone R, Mourikis P, Houbron C, Gigaud C, Pujol J, et al. Six1 regulates stem cell repair potential and self-renewal during skeletal muscle regeneration. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:815-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that Six1 regulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway during regeneration via direct control of Dusp6 transcription...

More Information


  1. Habashi J, Doyle J, Holm T, Aziz H, Schoenhoff F, Bedja D, et al. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor signaling attenuates aortic aneurysm in mice through ERK antagonism. Science. 2011;332:361-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the protective nature of AT2 signaling and potentially inform the choice of therapies in MFS and related disorders...
  2. Osterweil E, Krueger D, Reinhold K, Bear M. Hypersensitivity to mGluR5 and ERK1/2 leads to excessive protein synthesis in the hippocampus of a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15616-27 pubmed publisher
    ..basal protein synthesis in Fmr1 KO mice is selectively reduced to wild-type levels by acute inhibition of mGluR5 or ERK1/2, but not by inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)...
  3. Guihard S, Clay D, Cocault L, Saulnier N, Opolon P, Souyri M, et al. The MAPK ERK1 is a negative regulator of the adult steady-state splenic erythropoiesis. Blood. 2010;115:3686-94 pubmed publisher
    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 are among the main signal transduction molecules, but little is known about their isoform-specific functions in vivo...
  4. Hoshi M, Batourina E, Mendelsohn C, Jain S. Novel mechanisms of early upper and lower urinary tract patterning regulated by RetY1015 docking tyrosine in mice. Development. 2012;139:2405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates novel inhibitory roles of RetY1015 and provides a possible mechanistic explanation for some of the confounding broad range phenotypes in individuals with CAKUT...
  5. Pan Y, Balazs L, Tigyi G, Yue J. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation. ..
  6. Di Paola R, Crisafulli C, Mazzon E, Genovese T, Paterniti I, Bramanti P, et al. Effect of PD98059, a selective MAPK3/MAPK1 inhibitor, on acute lung injury in mice. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009;22:937-50 pubmed
    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the contribution of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1-3 MAPK3/MAPK1) in a model of acute lung inflammation in mice...
  7. Qu X, Pan Y, Carbe C, Powers A, Grobe K, Zhang X. Glycosaminoglycan-dependent restriction of FGF diffusion is necessary for lacrimal gland development. Development. 2012;139:2730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that mesenchymal GAG controls lacrimal gland induction by restricting the diffusion of Fgf10...
  8. Alter B, Zhao C, Karim F, Landreth G, Gereau R. Genetic targeting of ERK1 suggests a predominant role for ERK2 in murine pain models. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11537-47 pubmed publisher
    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) isoforms, ERK1 and ERK2, are believed to be key signaling molecules in nociception and nociceptive sensitization...
  9. Upadhya D, Ogata M, Reneker L. MAPK1 is required for establishing the pattern of cell proliferation and for cell survival during lens development. Development. 2013;140:1573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>MAPK3 is known to be dispensable for lens development...
  10. Huang Z, Chen J, Regan J, Maguire C, Tang R, Dong X, et al. Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2575-86 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-21) and miRNA-181a (miR-181a), which in turn repressed the protein level of Sprouty 2, an inhibitor of Erk1/2 signaling...
  11. Ola R, Jakobson M, Kvist J, Perälä N, Kuure S, Braunewell K, et al. The GDNF target Vsnl1 marks the ureteric tip. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, Vsnl1 marks ureteric bud tips in embryonic kidneys, and its mosaic pattern demonstrates a heterogeneity of cell types that may be critical for normal ureteric branching. ..
  12. Chen Z, Wu J, Yang C, Fan P, Balazs L, Jiao Y, et al. DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein-mediated microRNA biogenesis is essential for vascular smooth muscle cell development in mice. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19018-28 pubmed publisher
    ..marker genes, including ?SMA, SM22, and CNN1, were significantly down-regulated, and the survival pathways of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT were attenuated...
  13. Ishibe S, Joly D, Zhu X, Cantley L. Phosphorylation-dependent paxillin-ERK association mediates hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated epithelial morphogenesis. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1275-85 pubmed
    ..These experiments reveal that paxillin-dependent ERK activation at sites of cell-matrix interaction is critical for HGF-stimulated epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  14. Matsushita T, Chan Y, Kawanami A, Balmes G, Landreth G, Murakami S. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 play essential roles in osteoblast differentiation and in supporting osteoclastogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5843-57 pubmed publisher
    Osteoblasts and chondrocytes arise from common osteo-chondroprogenitor cells. We show here that inactivation of ERK1 and ERK2 in osteo-chondroprogenitor cells causes a block in osteoblast differentiation and leads to ectopic chondrogenic ..
  15. Zhao H, Yang T, Madakashira B, Thiels C, Bechtle C, Garcia C, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Dev Biol. 2008;318:276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, while signaling by FGF receptors is essential for lens fiber differentiation, different FGF receptors function redundantly. ..
  16. Mazzucchelli C, Vantaggiato C, Ciamei A, Fasano S, Pakhotin P, Krezel W, et al. Knockout of ERK1 MAP kinase enhances synaptic plasticity in the striatum and facilitates striatal-mediated learning and memory. Neuron. 2002;34:807-20 pubmed
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and 2) are synaptic signaling components necessary for several forms of learning...
  17. Bourcier C, Jacquel A, Hess J, Peyrottes I, Angel P, Hofman P, et al. p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1)-dependent signaling contributes to epithelial skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2006;66:2700-7 pubmed
    ..Hence, we have investigated the specific function of ERK1 in skin homeostasis and tumorigenesis in ERK1 knockout mice...
  18. Bissonauth V, Roy S, Gravel M, Guillemette S, Charron J. Requirement for Map2k1 (Mek1) in extra-embryonic ectoderm during placentogenesis. Development. 2006;133:3429-40 pubmed
    ..Although the activation of MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 is widespread in the labyrinthine region, MAPK1 and MAPK3 activation is restricted to the cells lining the maternal sinuses, suggesting an important role for the ERK/MAPK ..
  19. Lefloch R, Pouyssegur J, Lenormand P. Single and combined silencing of ERK1 and ERK2 reveals their positive contribution to growth signaling depending on their expression levels. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:511-27 pubmed
    The proteins ERK1 and ERK2 are highly similar, are ubiquitously expressed, and share activators and substrates; however, erk2 gene invalidation is lethal in mice, while erk1 inactivation is not...
  20. Favreau C, Delbarre E, Courvalin J, Buendia B. Differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts expressing lamin A mutated at a site responsible for Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is improved by inhibition of the MEK-ERK pathway and stimulation of the PI3-kinase pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1392-405 pubmed publisher
  21. Li C, Scott D, Hatch E, Tian X, Mansour S. Dusp6 (Mkp3) is a negative feedback regulator of FGF-stimulated ERK signaling during mouse development. Development. 2007;134:167-76 pubmed
  22. Hatano N, Mori Y, Oh Hora M, Kosugi A, Fujikawa T, Nakai N, et al. Essential role for ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase in placental development. Genes Cells. 2003;8:847-56 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that ERK2 is essential for placental development and suggest that ERK2 in the trophoblast compartment may be indispensable for the vascularization of the labyrinth. ..
  23. Newbern J, Zhong J, Wickramasinghe R, Li X, Wu Y, Samuels I, et al. Mouse and human phenotypes indicate a critical conserved role for ERK2 signaling in neural crest development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17115-20 pubmed publisher
    Disrupted ERK1/2 (MAPK3/MAPK1) MAPK signaling has been associated with several developmental syndromes in humans; however, mutations in ERK1 or ERK2 have not been described...
  24. Calmont A, Wandzioch E, Tremblay K, Minowada G, Kaestner K, Martin G, et al. An FGF response pathway that mediates hepatic gene induction in embryonic endoderm cells. Dev Cell. 2006;11:339-48 pubmed
    ..The finding of separate pathways for endoderm tissue specification and growth provides insights for guiding cellular regeneration and stem cell differentiation. ..
  25. Shukla V, Coumoul X, Wang R, Kim H, Deng C. RNA interference and inhibition of MEK-ERK signaling prevent abnormal skeletal phenotypes in a mouse model of craniosynostosis. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1145-50 pubmed
    ..FGFR2 signaling is manifested by an alteration of the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), implicating the gene encoding ERK and the genes downstream of it in disease expressivity...
  26. Huber M, Guan T, Gerace L. Overlapping functions of nuclear envelope proteins NET25 (Lem2) and emerin in regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in myoblast differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work supports the hypothesis that deregulation of cell signaling contributes to NE-linked disorders and suggests that mutations in NET25 and MAN1 may cause muscle diseases. ..
  27. Fischer A, Katayama C, Pagès G, Pouyssegur J, Hedrick S. The role of erk1 and erk2 in multiple stages of T cell development. Immunity. 2005;23:431-43 pubmed
    ..In this report, we present an analysis of mice with targeted deletions in Erk1 and Erk2 to assess the relationship between Erk activity and cell-cycle progression, thymocyte development, and ..
  28. González J, Navarro Puche A, Casar B, Crespo P, Andres V. Fast regulation of AP-1 activity through interaction of lamin A/C, ERK1/2, and c-Fos at the nuclear envelope. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:653-66 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear fraction (ERNF) and its interaction with lamin A are reduced and enhanced by gain-of and loss-of ERK1/2 activity, respectively...
  29. Wang F, Ma Y, Barrett J, Gao X, Loh J, Barton E, et al. Disruption of Erk-dependent type I interferon induction breaks the myxoma virus species barrier. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:1266-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Erk-interferon-STAT1 signaling cascade elicited by myxoma virus in nonpermissive primary mouse embryo fibroblasts mediates an innate cellular barrier to poxvirus infection...
  30. Nadeau V, Guillemette S, Bélanger L, Jacob O, Roy S, Charron J. Map2k1 and Map2k2 genes contribute to the normal development of syncytiotrophoblasts during placentation. Development. 2009;136:1363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, even though Map2k1 plays a predominant role, these results enlighten the function of Map2k2 in placenta development. ..
  31. Datta B, Datta R, Majumdar A, Ghosh A. The stability of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-associated glycoprotein, p67, increases during skeletal muscle differentiation and that inhibits the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Exp Cell Res. 2005;303:174-82 pubmed
    ..p67 binds to ERK2 and inhibits its activity in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that the stability of p67 increases during myotube formation while inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERKs 1 and 2. ..
  32. D Souza W, Chang C, Fischer A, Li M, Hedrick S. The Erk2 MAPK regulates CD8 T cell proliferation and survival. J Immunol. 2008;181:7617-29 pubmed
    ..While Erk1 is dispensable for all aspects of CD8 T cell activation, Erk2 is required for the proliferation of CD8 T cells ..
  33. Saba El Leil M, Vella F, Vernay B, Voisin L, Chen L, Labrecque N, et al. An essential function of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk2 in mouse trophoblast development. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:964-8 pubmed
    The closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival...
  34. Melnikova V, Santamaria A, Bolshakov S, Ananthaswamy H. Mutant p53 is constitutively phosphorylated at Serine 15 in UV-induced mouse skin tumors: involvement of ERK1/2 MAP kinase. Oncogene. 2003;22:5958-66 pubmed
    ..phosphorylation of mutant p53, we tested the involvement of a wide range of protein kinases and found that ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase was physically associated with mutant p53 in the nucleus...
  35. Yasuda T, Sanjo H, Pages G, Kawano Y, Karasuyama H, Pouyssegur J, et al. Erk kinases link pre-B cell receptor signaling to transcriptional events required for early B cell expansion. Immunity. 2008;28:499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that deletion of both Erk1 and Erk2 kinases was associated with defective pre-BCR-mediated cell expansion as well as a block in the transition ..
  36. Zhong J, Li X, McNamee C, Chen A, Baccarini M, Snider W. Raf kinase signaling functions in sensory neuron differentiation and axon growth in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:598-607 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Raf function is crucial for several aspects of DRG neuron development, including differentiation and axon growth. ..
  37. Kumar P, Lau C, Mathur M, Wang P, Defea K. Differential effects of beta-arrestins on the internalization, desensitization and ERK1/2 activation downstream of protease activated receptor-2. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C346-57 pubmed
    ..It has been previously shown that beta-arrestins are required for signal termination, internalization, and ERK1/2 activation downstream of protease-activated-receptor-2 (PAR-2), but it is unclear whether they are functionally ..
  38. Selcher J, Nekrasova T, Paylor R, Landreth G, Sweatt J. Mice lacking the ERK1 isoform of MAP kinase are unimpaired in emotional learning. Learn Mem. 2001;8:11-9 pubmed
    ..To investigate the specific contribution of the ERK1 (p44) isoform of MAPK to mammalian learning, we performed a general behavioral and physiological characterization ..
  39. Vantaggiato C, Formentini I, Bondanza A, Bonini C, Naldini L, Brambilla R. ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases affect Ras-dependent cell signaling differentially. J Biol. 2006;5:14 pubmed publisher
    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p44ERK1 and p42ERK2 are crucial components of the regulatory machinery underlying normal and malignant cell proliferation...
  40. Pages G, Guerin S, Grall D, Bonino F, Smith A, Anjuere F, et al. Defective thymocyte maturation in p44 MAP kinase (Erk 1) knockout mice. Science. 1999;286:1374-7 pubmed
    The p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), also called Erk2 and Erk1, respectively, have been implicated in proliferation as well as in differentiation programs...
  41. Nakamura T, Colbert M, Krenz M, Molkentin J, Hahn H, Dorn G, et al. Mediating ERK 1/2 signaling rescues congenital heart defects in a mouse model of Noonan syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:2123-32 pubmed
    ..Fetal expression of Q79R led to the specific activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, and breeding of the Q79R transgenics into ERK1/2-null backgrounds confirmed the pathway's necessity and ..
  42. Fischer A, Radulovic M, Schrick C, Sananbenesi F, Godovac Zimmermann J, Radulovic J. Hippocampal Mek/Erk signaling mediates extinction of contextual freezing behavior. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007;87:149-58 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these findings, we propose that hippocampal Mek/Erk signaling might serve as one of the key mediators of contextual fear extinction. ..
  43. Rivera C, Yamben I, Shatadal S, Waldof M, Robinson M, Griep A. Cell-autonomous requirements for Dlg-1 for lens epithelial cell structure and fiber cell morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2292-308 pubmed publisher
    ..These fiber cell defects were recapitulated when Dlg-1 was disrupted only in fiber cells. These results suggest that Dlg-1 acts in a cell autonomous manner to regulate epithelial cell structure and fiber cell differentiation. ..
  44. Christie G, Williams D, MacIsaac F, Dickinson R, Rosewell I, Keyse S. The dual-specificity protein phosphatase DUSP9/MKP-4 is essential for placental function but is not required for normal embryonic development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8323-33 pubmed
  45. Murphy L, Smith S, Chen R, Fingar D, Blenis J. Molecular interpretation of ERK signal duration by immediate early gene products. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:556-64 pubmed
    ..We show that the immediate early gene product c-Fos functions as a sensor for ERK1 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1) and ERK2 signal duration...
  46. SAMUELS I, Karlo J, Faruzzi A, Pickering K, Herrup K, Sweatt J, et al. Deletion of ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase identifies its key roles in cortical neurogenesis and cognitive function. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6983-95 pubmed publisher
    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK1 and ERK2 are critical intracellular signaling intermediates; however, little is known about their isoform-specific functions in vivo...
  47. Miyagawa S, Moon A, Haraguchi R, Inoue C, Harada M, Nakahara C, et al. Dosage-dependent hedgehog signals integrated with Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulate external genitalia formation as an appendicular program. Development. 2009;136:3969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Fgf8 induces phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell proliferation in the GT mesenchyme in vitro, yet Fgf4/8 compound-mutant phenotypes indicate dispensable ..
  48. Galabova Kovacs G, Matzen D, Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Plyushch T, Chen A, et al. Essential role of B-Raf in ERK activation during extraembryonic development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1325-30 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate that B-Raf plays a nonredundant role in ERK activation during extraembyronic mammalian development in vivo. ..
  49. Bost F, Aouadi M, Caron L, Even P, Belmonte N, Prot M, et al. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase isoform ERK1 is specifically required for in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis. Diabetes. 2005;54:402-11 pubmed
    ..Using ERK1(-/-) mice, we investigated the role of this isoform in adipose tissue development...
  50. Maillet M, Purcell N, Sargent M, York A, Bueno O, Molkentin J. DUSP6 (MKP3) null mice show enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation at baseline and increased myocyte proliferation in the heart affecting disease susceptibility. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the physiological role that extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) dephosphorylation plays in vivo through targeted disruption of the gene encoding dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (..
  51. Fisher C, Michael L, Barnett M, Davies J. Erk MAP kinase regulates branching morphogenesis in the developing mouse kidney. Development. 2001;128:4329-38 pubmed
    ..MAP kinase is therefore essential for normal branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud, and lies downstream of significant extracellular regulators of ureteric bud development. ..
  52. Shu W, Guttentag S, Wang Z, Andl T, Ballard P, Lu M, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling acts upstream of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling to regulate proximal-distal patterning in the lung. Dev Biol. 2005;283:226-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a critical upstream regulator of proximal-distal patterning in the lung, in part, through regulation of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling. ..
  53. Pulido R, Zuniga A, Ullrich A. PTP-SL and STEP protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 by association through a kinase interaction motif. EMBO J. 1998;17:7337-50 pubmed
    Protein kinases and phosphatases regulate the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by controlling the phosphorylation of specific residues...
  54. Tronson N, Schrick C, Fischer A, Sananbenesi F, Pages G, Pouyssegur J, et al. Regulatory mechanisms of fear extinction and depression-like behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:1570-83 pubmed
    ..Wild-type and ERK1-deficient mice were used to study the dorsohippocampal actions of the putative ERK activators: mitogen-activated ..
  55. Que J, Okubo T, Goldenring J, Nam K, Kurotani R, Morrisey E, et al. Multiple dose-dependent roles for Sox2 in the patterning and differentiation of anterior foregut endoderm. Development. 2007;134:2521-31 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Sox2 plays a second role in establishing the boundary between the keratinized, squamous esophagus/forestomach and glandular hindstomach. ..
  56. Houser C, Huang C, Peng Z. Dynamic seizure-related changes in extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuroscience. 2008;156:222-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that increased pERK labeling could be one of the earliest immunohistochemical indicators of neurons that are activated at the time of a spontaneous seizure. ..
  57. Ting M, Wu N, Roybal P, Sun J, Liu L, Yen Y, et al. EphA4 as an effector of Twist1 in the guidance of osteogenic precursor cells during calvarial bone growth and in craniosynostosis. Development. 2009;136:855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the failure of this process in Twist1 and EphA4 mutants is the cause of craniosynostosis. ..
  58. Yamamoto T, Ebisuya M, Ashida F, Okamoto K, Yonehara S, Nishida E. Continuous ERK activation downregulates antiproliferative genes throughout G1 phase to allow cell-cycle progression. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1171-82 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may also work as a fail-safe mechanism, which prevents inappropriate stimuli that induce transient ERK activation from causing S phase entry. ..