Gene Symbol: Mapk1
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Alias: 9030612K14Rik, AA407128, AU018647, C78273, ERK, Erk2, MAPK2, PRKM2, Prkm1, p41mapk, p42mapk, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, ERK-2, ERT1, MAP kinase 1, MAP kinase 2, MAP kinase isoform p42, MAPK 1, MAPK 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, mitogen-activated protein kinase 2, p42-MAPK
Species: mouse
Products:     Mapk1

Top Publications

  1. Qian X, Esteban L, Vass W, Upadhyaya C, Papageorge A, Yienger K, et al. The Sos1 and Sos2 Ras-specific exchange factors: differences in placental expression and signaling properties. EMBO J. 2000;19:642-54 pubmed
    ..embryonic lethality that was secondary to impaired placental development and was associated with very low placental ERK activity...
  2. Hatano N, Mori Y, Oh Hora M, Kosugi A, Fujikawa T, Nakai N, et al. Essential role for ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase in placental development. Genes Cells. 2003;8:847-56 pubmed
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) has been implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. However, its role in vivo remains to be determined...
  3. Madakashira B, Kobrinski D, Hancher A, Arneman E, Wagner B, Wang F, et al. Frs2? enhances fibroblast growth factor-mediated survival and differentiation in lens development. Development. 2012;139:4601-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, tyrosine phosphorylation of Frs2? mediates Fgfr-dependent lens cell survival and provides a mechanistic basis for the unique fiber-differentiating capacity of Fgfs on mammalian lens epithelial cells. ..
  4. Sbroggiò M, Carnevale D, Bertero A, Cifelli G, De Blasio E, Mascio G, et al. IQGAP1 regulates ERK1/2 and AKT signalling in the heart and sustains functional remodelling upon pressure overload. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;91:456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Pull-down experiments indicated that IQGAP1 is able to bind the three components of the ERK cascade, namely c-Raf, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2, as well as AKT in the heart...
  5. Jin Y, Han X, Taketo M, Yoon J. Wnt9b-dependent FGF signaling is crucial for outgrowth of the nasal and maxillary processes during upper jaw and lip development. Development. 2012;139:1821-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has identified a previously unknown regulatory link between WNT9B and FGF signaling during lip and upper jaw development...
  6. Satoh Y, Endo S, Nakata T, Kobayashi Y, Yamada K, Ikeda T, et al. ERK2 contributes to the control of social behaviors in mice. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11953-67 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the specific role of ERK2 in in vivo brain functions is not fully understood...
  7. Habashi J, Doyle J, Holm T, Aziz H, Schoenhoff F, Bedja D, et al. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor signaling attenuates aortic aneurysm in mice through ERK antagonism. Science. 2011;332:361-5 pubmed publisher the aorta, but losartan uniquely inhibited TGF?-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by allowing continued signaling through AT2...
  8. Yasuda T, Kometani K, Takahashi N, Imai Y, Aiba Y, Kurosaki T. ERKs induce expression of the transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 and subsequent plasma cell differentiation. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra25 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic mice with conditional deletion of both ERK1 and ERK2 in germinal center (GC) B cells lacked plasma cells differentiated after GC formation, and memory B cells from ..
  9. Blasco R, Francoz S, Santamaria D, Canamero M, Dubus P, Charron J, et al. c-Raf, but not B-Raf, is essential for development of K-Ras oncogene-driven non-small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:652-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Ablation of Erk1 or Erk2 in K-Ras oncogene-expressing lung cells had no significant effect due to compensatory activities...

More Information


  1. Upadhya D, Ogata M, Reneker L. MAPK1 is required for establishing the pattern of cell proliferation and for cell survival during lens development. Development. 2013;140:1573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use the mouse lens as a model system to investigate whether MAPK1 plays a specific role during development. MAPK3 is known to be dispensable for lens development...
  2. Toyoda R, Assimacopoulos S, Wilcoxon J, Taylor A, Feldman P, Suzuki Hirano A, et al. FGF8 acts as a classic diffusible morphogen to pattern the neocortex. Development. 2010;137:3439-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations support FGF8 as a classic diffusible morphogen in neocortex, thereby guiding future studies of neocortical pattern formation. ..
  3. Huang Z, Chen J, Regan J, Maguire C, Tang R, Dong X, et al. Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2575-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncovered a central role for Dicer and miRNAs in NCC survival, migration, and patterning in craniofacial and cardiovascular development which, when mutated, lead to congenital neuro-craniofacial-cardiac defects. ..
  4. Kehat I, Davis J, Tiburcy M, Accornero F, Saba El Leil M, Maillet M, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 regulate the balance between eccentric and concentric cardiac growth. Circ Res. 2011;108:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used mice lacking all ERK1/2 protein in the heart (Erk1(-/-) Erk2(fl/fl-Cre)) and mice expressing activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Mek)1 in the heart to induce ..
  5. Ola R, Jakobson M, Kvist J, Perälä N, Kuure S, Braunewell K, et al. The GDNF target Vsnl1 marks the ureteric tip. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, Vsnl1 marks ureteric bud tips in embryonic kidneys, and its mosaic pattern demonstrates a heterogeneity of cell types that may be critical for normal ureteric branching. ..
  6. Holm T, Habashi J, Doyle J, Bedja D, Chen Y, Van Erp C, et al. Noncanonical TGF? signaling contributes to aortic aneurysm progression in Marfan syndrome mice. Science. 2011;332:358-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 and Smad2 are activated in a mouse model of MFS, and both are inhibited by therapies directed against TGF?...
  7. Shimokawa K, Kimura Yoshida C, Nagai N, Mukai K, Matsubara K, Watanabe H, et al. Cell surface heparan sulfate chains regulate local reception of FGF signaling in the mouse embryo. Dev Cell. 2011;21:257-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results show that spatiotemporal expression of cell surface-tethered HS chains regulate the local reception of FGF-signaling activity during mammalian embryogenesis. ..
  8. Chen Z, Wu J, Yang C, Fan P, Balazs L, Jiao Y, et al. DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein-mediated microRNA biogenesis is essential for vascular smooth muscle cell development in mice. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19018-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the DGCR8 gene is required for vascular development through the regulation of VSMC proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation...
  9. Pan Y, Balazs L, Tigyi G, Yue J. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation. ..
  10. Hoshi M, Batourina E, Mendelsohn C, Jain S. Novel mechanisms of early upper and lower urinary tract patterning regulated by RetY1015 docking tyrosine in mice. Development. 2012;139:2405-15 pubmed publisher Y1015F mutants persist owing to increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis, and showed abundance of phospho-ERK-positive cells...
  11. Qu X, Pan Y, Carbe C, Powers A, Grobe K, Zhang X. Glycosaminoglycan-dependent restriction of FGF diffusion is necessary for lacrimal gland development. Development. 2012;139:2730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that mesenchymal GAG controls lacrimal gland induction by restricting the diffusion of Fgf10...
  12. Zhong J, Li X, McNamee C, Chen A, Baccarini M, Snider W. Raf kinase signaling functions in sensory neuron differentiation and axon growth in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:598-607 pubmed
    ..Targeting of B-Raf, but not C-Raf, markedly attenuated baseline phosphorylation of Erk in neural tissues and led to growth retardation...
  13. Calmont A, Wandzioch E, Tremblay K, Minowada G, Kaestner K, Martin G, et al. An FGF response pathway that mediates hepatic gene induction in embryonic endoderm cells. Dev Cell. 2006;11:339-48 pubmed
    ..The finding of separate pathways for endoderm tissue specification and growth provides insights for guiding cellular regeneration and stem cell differentiation. ..
  14. Krenz M, Gulick J, Osinska H, Colbert M, Molkentin J, Robbins J. Role of ERK1/2 signaling in congenital valve malformations in Noonan syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18930-5 pubmed publisher vivo, Q79R-Shp2-expressing mice were crossed with mice carrying either a homozygous ERK1 or a heterozygous ERK2 deletion...
  15. Saba El Leil M, Vella F, Vernay B, Voisin L, Chen L, Labrecque N, et al. An essential function of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk2 in mouse trophoblast development. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:964-8 pubmed
    The closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival...
  16. Huber M, Guan T, Gerace L. Overlapping functions of nuclear envelope proteins NET25 (Lem2) and emerin in regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in myoblast differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work supports the hypothesis that deregulation of cell signaling contributes to NE-linked disorders and suggests that mutations in NET25 and MAN1 may cause muscle diseases. ..
  17. Li C, Scott D, Hatch E, Tian X, Mansour S. Dusp6 (Mkp3) is a negative feedback regulator of FGF-stimulated ERK signaling during mouse development. Development. 2007;134:167-76 pubmed
    ..FGFRs) are required for transcription of Dusp6, which encodes MKP3, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-specific MKP...
  18. Lefloch R, Pouyssegur J, Lenormand P. Single and combined silencing of ERK1 and ERK2 reveals their positive contribution to growth signaling depending on their expression levels. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:511-27 pubmed
    The proteins ERK1 and ERK2 are highly similar, are ubiquitously expressed, and share activators and substrates; however, erk2 gene invalidation is lethal in mice, while erk1 inactivation is not...
  19. Shukla V, Coumoul X, Wang R, Kim H, Deng C. RNA interference and inhibition of MEK-ERK signaling prevent abnormal skeletal phenotypes in a mouse model of craniosynostosis. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1145-50 pubmed
    ..of the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), implicating the gene encoding ERK and the genes downstream of it in disease expressivity...
  20. Son S, Kim M, Chung W, Son J, Kim Y, Kim Y, et al. Decursin and decursinol inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis by blocking the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Cancer Lett. 2009;280:86-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, decursin and decursinol reduced the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, but not p38 MAPK, in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs...
  21. Bissonauth V, Roy S, Gravel M, Guillemette S, Charron J. Requirement for Map2k1 (Mek1) in extra-embryonic ectoderm during placentogenesis. Development. 2006;133:3429-40 pubmed
    ..Although the activation of MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 is widespread in the labyrinthine region, MAPK1 and MAPK3 activation is restricted to the cells lining the maternal sinuses, suggesting an important role for the ..
  22. Lips D, Bueno O, Wilkins B, Purcell N, Kaiser R, Lorenz J, et al. MEK1-ERK2 signaling pathway protects myocardium from ischemic injury in vivo. Circulation. 2004;109:1938-41 pubmed
    ..causal relationship between ERK1/2 signaling and cardioprotection, we analyzed Erk1 nullizygous gene-targeted mice, Erk2 heterozygous gene-targeted mice, and transgenic mice with activated MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling in the heart...
  23. Fischer A, Katayama C, Pagès G, Pouyssegur J, Hedrick S. The role of erk1 and erk2 in multiple stages of T cell development. Immunity. 2005;23:431-43 pubmed
    ..In this report, we present an analysis of mice with targeted deletions in Erk1 and Erk2 to assess the relationship between Erk activity and cell-cycle progression, thymocyte development, and lineage ..
  24. Jorritsma P, Brogdon J, Bottomly K. Role of TCR-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the regulation of early IL-4 expression in naive CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2003;170:2427-34 pubmed
    Although extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation influences IL-4 production in various experimental systems, its role during Th differentiation is unclear...
  25. González J, Navarro Puche A, Casar B, Crespo P, Andres V. Fast regulation of AP-1 activity through interaction of lamin A/C, ERK1/2, and c-Fos at the nuclear envelope. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:653-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NE-bound ERK1/2 functions as a molecular switch for rapid mitogen-dependent AP-1 activation through phosphorylation-induced release of preexisting c-Fos from its inhibitory interaction with lamin A/C. ..
  26. Favreau C, Delbarre E, Courvalin J, Buendia B. Differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts expressing lamin A mutated at a site responsible for Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is improved by inhibition of the MEK-ERK pathway and stimulation of the PI3-kinase pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1392-405 pubmed publisher improve differentiation by treating these cells with a mixture of PD98059, an extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (also known as mitogen-activated kinase, MEK) inhibitor, and insulin-like growth factor-II, an activator of ..
  27. Voisin L, Saba El Leil M, Julien C, Frémin C, Meloche S. Genetic demonstration of a redundant role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases in promoting fibroblast proliferation. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2918-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the individual contribution of the isoforms ERK1 and ERK2 to cell proliferation control is unclear...
  28. Gille H, Kortenjann M, Thomae O, Moomaw C, Slaughter C, Cobb M, et al. ERK phosphorylation potentiates Elk-1-mediated ternary complex formation and transactivation. EMBO J. 1995;14:951-62 pubmed
    ..closely related to p62TCF in function, is a nuclear target of two members of the MAP kinase family, ERK1 and ERK2. Phosphorylation of Elk-1 increases the yield of ternary complex in vitro...
  29. Basson M, Akbulut S, Watson Johnson J, Simon R, Carroll T, Shakya R, et al. Sprouty1 is a critical regulator of GDNF/RET-mediated kidney induction. Dev Cell. 2005;8:229-39 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of negative feedback regulation of RTK signaling during kidney induction and suggest that failures in feedback control may underlie some human congenital kidney malformations. ..
  30. Uzgare A, Kaplan P, Greenberg N. Differential expression and/or activation of P38MAPK, erk1/2, and jnk during the initiation and progression of prostate cancer. Prostate. 2003;55:128-39 pubmed
    ..The expression and activation of three members of the MAPK family, namely, erk, jnk, and p38MAPK was examined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry during tumor progression in a ..
  31. Yao Y, Li W, Wu J, Germann U, Su M, Kuida K, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is necessary for mesoderm differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:12759-64 pubmed
    ..Exon 2 of erk2 was deleted by homologous recombination and resulted in embryonic lethality at embryonic day 6.5...
  32. Matsushita T, Chan Y, Kawanami A, Balmes G, Landreth G, Murakami S. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 play essential roles in osteoblast differentiation and in supporting osteoclastogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5843-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that inactivation of ERK1 and ERK2 in osteo-chondroprogenitor cells causes a block in osteoblast differentiation and leads to ectopic chondrogenic ..
  33. Ishibe S, Joly D, Zhu X, Cantley L. Phosphorylation-dependent paxillin-ERK association mediates hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated epithelial morphogenesis. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1275-85 pubmed
    ..In the present study we demonstrate that HGF stimulates the localization of ERK to sites of cell-matrix interactions and that this is mediated by the tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent ..
  34. Zhao H, Yang T, Madakashira B, Thiels C, Bechtle C, Garcia C, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Dev Biol. 2008;318:276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, while signaling by FGF receptors is essential for lens fiber differentiation, different FGF receptors function redundantly. ..
  35. Kunath T, Saba El Leil M, Almousailleakh M, Wray J, Meloche S, Smith A. FGF stimulation of the Erk1/2 signalling cascade triggers transition of pluripotent embryonic stem cells from self-renewal to lineage commitment. Development. 2007;134:2895-902 pubmed
    ..The key downstream role of Erk signalling is revealed by examination of Erk2-null ES cells, which fail to undergo either neural or mesodermal differentiation in adherent culture, and retain ..
  36. Ting M, Wu N, Roybal P, Sun J, Liu L, Yen Y, et al. EphA4 as an effector of Twist1 in the guidance of osteogenic precursor cells during calvarial bone growth and in craniosynostosis. Development. 2009;136:855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the failure of this process in Twist1 and EphA4 mutants is the cause of craniosynostosis. ..
  37. Sun H, Charles C, Lau L, Tonks N. MKP-1 (3CH134), an immediate early gene product, is a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates MAP kinase in vivo. Cell. 1993;75:487-93 pubmed
    ..factor-inducible gene, 3CH134, encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates and inactivates p42MAPK both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, 3CH134 protein dephosphorylates both T183 and Y185 in p42MAPK...
  38. Shu W, Guttentag S, Wang Z, Andl T, Ballard P, Lu M, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling acts upstream of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling to regulate proximal-distal patterning in the lung. Dev Biol. 2005;283:226-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a critical upstream regulator of proximal-distal patterning in the lung, in part, through regulation of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling. ..
  39. Tárrega C, Rios P, Cejudo Marín R, Blanco Aparicio C, van den Berk L, Schepens J, et al. ERK2 shows a restrictive and locally selective mechanism of recognition by its tyrosine phosphatase inactivators not shared by its activator MEK1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:37885-94 pubmed
    The two regulatory residues that control the enzymatic activity of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK2 are phosphorylated by the unique MAP kinase kinases MEK1/2 and dephosphorylated by several tyrosine-specific and dual ..
  40. Que J, Okubo T, Goldenring J, Nam K, Kurotani R, Morrisey E, et al. Multiple dose-dependent roles for Sox2 in the patterning and differentiation of anterior foregut endoderm. Development. 2007;134:2521-31 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Sox2 plays a second role in establishing the boundary between the keratinized, squamous esophagus/forestomach and glandular hindstomach. ..
  41. Shaw A, Meissner A, Dowdle J, Crowley D, Magendantz M, Ouyang C, et al. Sprouty-2 regulates oncogenic K-ras in lung development and tumorigenesis. Genes Dev. 2007;21:694-707 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that in the lung, Sprouty-2 plays a critical role in the regulation of oncogenic K-ras, and implicate counter-regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Ras-based disease. ..
  42. Pulido R, Zuniga A, Ullrich A. PTP-SL and STEP protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 by association through a kinase interaction motif. EMBO J. 1998;17:7337-50 pubmed
    ..Co-expression of ERK2 with catalytically active PTP-SL in COS-7 cells impaired the EGF-induced activation of ERK2, whereas a PTP-SL ..
  43. Shapiro P, Whalen A, Tolwinski N, Wilsbacher J, Froelich Ammon S, Garcia M, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activates topoisomerase IIalpha through a mechanism independent of phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3551-60 pubmed
    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-related kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2, regulate cellular responses by mediating extracellular growth signals toward cytoplasmic and nuclear targets...
  44. Fisher C, Michael L, Barnett M, Davies J. Erk MAP kinase regulates branching morphogenesis in the developing mouse kidney. Development. 2001;128:4329-38 pubmed
    ..We find that Erk MAP kinase is normally active in ureteric bud, and that inhibiting Erk activation with the MAP kinase kinase ..
  45. Galabova Kovacs G, Matzen D, Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Plyushch T, Chen A, et al. Essential role of B-Raf in ERK activation during extraembryonic development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1325-30 pubmed
    ..studied as activators of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) module in regulated and deregulated proliferation...
  46. Miyagawa S, Moon A, Haraguchi R, Inoue C, Harada M, Nakahara C, et al. Dosage-dependent hedgehog signals integrated with Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulate external genitalia formation as an appendicular program. Development. 2009;136:3969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the integration of growth factor signaling in the appendicular developmental programs that regulate external genitalia development...
  47. Pereira A, Fink G, Sundram S. Clozapine-induced ERK1 and ERK2 signaling in prefrontal cortex is mediated by the EGF receptor. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;39:185-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined how clozapine differentially modulated phosphorylation of the MAPK isoforms, ERK1/ERK2 in primary murine prefrontal cortical neurons compared to the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol...
  48. Rivera C, Yamben I, Shatadal S, Waldof M, Robinson M, Griep A. Cell-autonomous requirements for Dlg-1 for lens epithelial cell structure and fiber cell morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2292-308 pubmed publisher
    ..These fiber cell defects were recapitulated when Dlg-1 was disrupted only in fiber cells. These results suggest that Dlg-1 acts in a cell autonomous manner to regulate epithelial cell structure and fiber cell differentiation. ..
  49. Maillet M, Purcell N, Sargent M, York A, Bueno O, Molkentin J. DUSP6 (MKP3) null mice show enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation at baseline and increased myocyte proliferation in the heart affecting disease susceptibility. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that ERK1/2 signaling is physiologically restrained by DUSP6 in coordinating cellular development and survival characteristics, directly impacting disease-responsiveness in adulthood. ..
  50. SAMUELS I, Karlo J, Faruzzi A, Pickering K, Herrup K, Sweatt J, et al. Deletion of ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase identifies its key roles in cortical neurogenesis and cognitive function. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6983-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We have examined the role of ERK2 in neural development by conditional inactivation of the murine mapk1/ERK2 gene in neural progenitor cells of the developing cortex...
  51. Karlsson M, Mathers J, Dickinson R, Mandl M, Keyse S. Both nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of the dual specificity phosphatase MKP-3 and its ability to anchor MAP kinase in the cytoplasm are mediated by a conserved nuclear export signal. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41882-91 pubmed
    ..mediates the binding of MKP-3 to MAP kinase, we show that mutations of the kinase interaction motif which abrogate ERK2 binding do not affect MKP-3 localization...
  52. Christie G, Williams D, MacIsaac F, Dickinson R, Rosewell I, Keyse S. The dual-specificity protein phosphatase DUSP9/MKP-4 is essential for placental function but is not required for normal embryonic development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8323-33 pubmed
  53. Fischer A, Radulovic M, Schrick C, Sananbenesi F, Godovac Zimmermann J, Radulovic J. Hippocampal Mek/Erk signaling mediates extinction of contextual freezing behavior. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007;87:149-58 pubmed identify, verify, and analyze the alterations of the hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk-1/2)...
  54. Camarero G, Tyrsin O, Xiang C, Pfeiffer V, Pleiser S, Wiese S, et al. Cortical migration defects in mice expressing A-RAF from the B-RAF locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7103-15 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal that B-RAF is an important mediator of neuronal survival, migration, and dendrite formation and that A-RAF cannot fully compensate for these functions. ..
  55. Araki T, Mohi M, Ismat F, Bronson R, Williams I, Kutok J, et al. Mouse model of Noonan syndrome reveals cell type- and gene dosage-dependent effects of Ptpn11 mutation. Nat Med. 2004;10:849-57 pubmed
    ..Their endocardial cushions have increased Erk activation, but Erk hyperactivation is cell and pathway specific...
  56. Baines C, Zhang J, Wang G, Zheng Y, Xiu J, Cardwell E, et al. Mitochondrial PKCepsilon and MAPK form signaling modules in the murine heart: enhanced mitochondrial PKCepsilon-MAPK interactions and differential MAPK activation in PKCepsilon-induced cardioprotection. Circ Res. 2002;90:390-7 pubmed
    ..Examination of potential downstream targets of mitochondrial PKCepsilon-ERK signaling modules revealed that phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad was elevated in mitochondria...
  57. Kumar P, Lau C, Mathur M, Wang P, Defea K. Differential effects of beta-arrestins on the internalization, desensitization and ERK1/2 activation downstream of protease activated receptor-2. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C346-57 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest distinct temporal and functional roles for beta-arrestins in PAR-2 signaling, desensitization, and internalization. ..
  58. Vantaggiato C, Formentini I, Bondanza A, Bonini C, Naldini L, Brambilla R. ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases affect Ras-dependent cell signaling differentially. J Biol. 2006;5:14 pubmed publisher
    ..A currently accepted model maintains that ERK1 and ERK2 are regulated similarly and contribute to intracellular signaling by phosphorylating a largely common subset of ..
  59. Debata P, Ranasinghe B, Berliner A, Curcio G, Tantry S, Ponimaskin E, et al. Erk1/2-dependent phosphorylation of PKCalpha at threonine 638 in hippocampal 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;397:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)-R) causes activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (Erk) and protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) in both hippocampal HN2-5 cells and cultured hippocampal slices from ..
  60. Nakamura T, Colbert M, Krenz M, Molkentin J, Hahn H, Dorn G, et al. Mediating ERK 1/2 signaling rescues congenital heart defects in a mouse model of Noonan syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:2123-32 pubmed
  61. Wang F, Ma Y, Barrett J, Gao X, Loh J, Barton E, et al. Disruption of Erk-dependent type I interferon induction breaks the myxoma virus species barrier. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:1266-74 pubmed
    ..that myxoma virus infection of primary mouse embryo fibroblasts elicited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling, which was integrated to interferon regulatory factor 3 activation and type I interferon induction...
  62. Pages G, Guerin S, Grall D, Bonino F, Smith A, Anjuere F, et al. Defective thymocyte maturation in p44 MAP kinase (Erk 1) knockout mice. Science. 1999;286:1374-7 pubmed
    ..The p44 MAPK-/- mice were viable, fertile, and of normal size. Thus, p44 MAPK is apparently dispensable and p42 MAPK (Erk2) may compensate for its loss...
  63. Lorenz K, Schmitt J, Schmitteckert E, Lohse M. A new type of ERK1/2 autophosphorylation causes cardiac hypertrophy. Nat Med. 2009;15:75-83 pubmed publisher
    The extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 (commonly referred to as ERK1/2) have a crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy...
  64. Purcell N, Wilkins B, York A, Saba El Leil M, Meloche S, Robbins J, et al. Genetic inhibition of cardiac ERK1/2 promotes stress-induced apoptosis and heart failure but has no effect on hypertrophy in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14074-9 pubmed
    ..the requirement of ERK1/2 signaling in mediating the cardiac hypertrophic growth response in Erk1(-/-) and Erk2(+/-) mice, as well as in transgenic mice with inducible expression of an ERK1/2-inactivating phosphatase in the ..
  65. Nadeau V, Guillemette S, Bélanger L, Jacob O, Roy S, Charron J. Map2k1 and Map2k2 genes contribute to the normal development of syncytiotrophoblasts during placentation. Development. 2009;136:1363-74 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian genome contains two ERK/MAP kinase kinase genes, Map2k1 and Map2k2, which encode dual-specificity kinases responsible for ERK/MAP kinase activation...
  66. Ishibe S, Joly D, Liu Z, Cantley L. Paxillin serves as an ERK-regulated scaffold for coordinating FAK and Rac activation in epithelial morphogenesis. Mol Cell. 2004;16:257-67 pubmed
    ..In the present study we demonstrate that activated ERK phosphorylates paxillin on serine 83 and that mutation of this site eliminates HGF-stimulated increased association ..
  67. Adams R, Porras A, Alonso G, Jones M, Vintersten K, Panelli S, et al. Essential role of p38alpha MAP kinase in placental but not embryonic cardiovascular development. Mol Cell. 2000;6:109-16 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that p38alpha is required for placental organogenesis but is not essential for other aspects of mammalian embryonic development. ..
  68. Datta B, Datta R, Majumdar A, Ghosh A. The stability of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-associated glycoprotein, p67, increases during skeletal muscle differentiation and that inhibits the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Exp Cell Res. 2005;303:174-82 pubmed
    ..At this time of differentiation, the level of p67 is higher compared to 0 h of differentiation. p67 binds to ERK2 and inhibits its activity in vitro...