Gene Symbol: Map1lc3b
Description: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta
Alias: 1010001C15Rik, Atg8, LC3b, Map1lc3, microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B, MAP1 light chain 3-like protein 2, MAP1A/MAP1B LC3 B, MAP1A/MAP1B light chain 3 B, autophagy-related protein LC3 B, autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier LC3 B
Species: mouse
Products:     Map1lc3b

Top Publications

  1. Sou Y, Waguri S, Iwata J, Ueno T, Fujimura T, Hara T, et al. The Atg8 conjugation system is indispensable for proper development of autophagic isolation membranes in mice. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4762-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems, termed Atg12 and Atg8 systems, are essential for autophagosomal formation...
  2. Cann G, Guignabert C, Ying L, Deshpande N, Bekker J, Wang L, et al. Developmental expression of LC3alpha and beta: absence of fibronectin or autophagy phenotype in LC3beta knockout mice. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:187-95 pubmed
    ..These results suggest novel compensatory mechanisms for loss of LC3beta, ensuring proper FN accumulation and autophagy during fetal and neonatal life. ..
  3. Fimia G, Stoykova A, Romagnoli A, Giunta L, Di Bartolomeo S, Nardacci R, et al. Ambra1 regulates autophagy and development of the nervous system. Nature. 2007;447:1121-5 pubmed
  4. Sanjuan M, Dillon C, Tait S, Moshiach S, Dorsey F, Connell S, et al. Toll-like receptor signalling in macrophages links the autophagy pathway to phagocytosis. Nature. 2007;450:1253-7 pubmed
  5. Ahuja S, Knudsen L, Chillappagari S, Henneke I, Ruppert C, Korfei M, et al. MAP1LC3B overexpression protects against Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type-1-induced defective autophagy in vitro. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;310:L519-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Key autophagy proteins, including LC3B lipidation and p62, were increased in HPS1/2 mice lungs...
  6. Lo S, Yuan S, Hsu C, Cheng Y, Chang Y, Hsueh H, et al. Lc3 over-expression improves survival and attenuates lung injury through increasing autophagosomal clearance in septic mice. Ann Surg. 2013;257:352-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagy in the septic lung represents a protective response. However, autophagy, by virtue of excessive autophagosome accumulation, may play a maladaptive role in the late stage of sepsis, leading to acute lung injury. ..
  7. Orosco L, Ross A, Cates S, Scott S, Wu D, Sohn J, et al. Loss of Wdfy3 in mice alters cerebral cortical neurogenesis reflecting aspects of the autism pathology. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4692 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Wdfy3 is essential for cerebral expansion and functional organization while its loss-of-function results in pathological changes characteristic of ASDs. ..
  8. Pampliega O, Orhon I, Patel B, Sridhar S, Díaz Carretero A, Beau I, et al. Functional interaction between autophagy and ciliogenesis. Nature. 2013;502:194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that basal autophagy regulates ciliary growth through the degradation of proteins required for intraflagellar transport. Compromised ability to activate the autophagic response may underlie some common ciliopathies. ..
  9. DiRenzo D, Hess D, Damsz B, Hallett J, Marshall B, Goswami C, et al. Induced Mist1 expression promotes remodeling of mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:469-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The exocrine pancreas of adult mice can be remodeled by re-expression of the transcription factor MIST1. MIST1 regulates acinar cell maturation and might be used to repair damaged pancreata in patients with pancreatic disorders. ..

More Information


  1. Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E. LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:2503-18 pubmed
    ..LC3 is an autophagosomal ortholog of yeast Atg8. A lipidated form of LC3, LC3-II, has been shown to be an autophagosomal marker in mammals, and has been used to ..
  2. Papanicolaou K, Kikuchi R, Ngoh G, Coughlan K, Dominguez I, Stanley W, et al. Mitofusins 1 and 2 are essential for postnatal metabolic remodeling in heart. Circ Res. 2012;111:1012-26 pubmed
    ..Our findings establish that Mfn-1 and Mfn-2 are essential in mediating mitochondrial remodeling during postnatal cardiac development, a time of dramatic transitions in the bioenergetics and growth of the heart. ..
  3. Lam H, Cloonan S, Bhashyam A, Haspel J, Singh A, Sathirapongsasuti J, et al. Histone deacetylase 6-mediated selective autophagy regulates COPD-associated cilia dysfunction. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:5212-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagy-impaired (Becn1+/- or Map1lc3B-/-) mice and MTECs resisted CS-induced cilia shortening...
  4. Zheng B, Tang T, Tang N, Kudlicka K, Ohtsubo K, Ma P, et al. Essential role of RGS-PX1/sorting nexin 13 in mouse development and regulation of endocytosis dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16776-81 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate an essential role for RGS-PX1/SNX13 in mouse development and provide previously undescribed insights into its cellular function in the regulation of endocytosis dynamics. ..
  5. Shao F, Tan T, Tan Y, Sun Y, Wu X, Xu Q. Andrographolide alleviates imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice via inducing autophagic proteolysis of MyD88. Biochem Pharmacol. 2016;115:94-103 pubmed publisher imiquimod-induced psoriasis by Andro was not observed in microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (MAP1LC3B) knockout mice...
  6. Xu M, Li X, Xiong J, Xia M, Gulbins E, Zhang Y, et al. Regulation of autophagic flux by dynein-mediated autophagosomes trafficking in mouse coronary arterial myocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1833:3228-3236 pubmed publisher
    ..of dynein activity dramatically enhanced 7-ketocholesterol (7-Ket)-induced expression of the autophagic marker LC3B and increased the cellular levels of p62, a selective substrate for autophagy...
  7. Perera S, Holt M, Mankoo B, Gautel M. Developmental regulation of MURF ubiquitin ligases and autophagy proteins nbr1, p62/SQSTM1 and LC3 during cardiac myofibril assembly and turnover. Dev Biol. 2011;351:46-61 pubmed publisher
  8. DeSelm C, Miller B, Zou W, Beatty W, van Meel E, Takahata Y, et al. Autophagy proteins regulate the secretory component of osteoclastic bone resorption. Dev Cell. 2011;21:966-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are in keeping with a putative link between autophagy genes and human skeletal homeostasis. ..
  9. de Iriarte Rodríguez R, Pulido S, Rodríguez de la Rosa L, Magariños M, Varela Nieto I. Age-regulated function of autophagy in the mouse inner ear. Hear Res. 2015;330:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression is maintained in adult mice and declines after the age of twelve months. LC3B labelling showed that autophagy was primarily associated with spiral ganglion neurons...
  10. Gandini M, Henríquez D, Grimaldo L, Sandoval A, Altier C, Zamponi G, et al. CaV2.2 channel cell surface expression is regulated by the light chain 1 (LC1) of the microtubule-associated protein B (MAP1B) via UBE2L3-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Pflugers Arch. 2014;466:2113-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results revealed a novel functional coupling between LC1 and the N-type channels. ..
  11. Laurence J, Elhadad S, Robison T, Terry H, Varshney R, Woolington S, et al. HIV protease inhibitor-induced cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis is mediated by platelet-derived TGF-β1 and can be suppressed by exogenous carbon monoxide. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187185 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-fibrotic effects of CO are linked to alterations in TGF-β1 signaling and autophagy, suggesting a proof-of-concept for novel interventions in HIV/antiretroviral therapy-mediated cardiovascular disease. ..
  12. Panneerdoss S, Viswanadhapalli S, Abdelfattah N, Onyeagucha B, Timilsina S, Mohammad T, et al. Cross-talk between miR-471-5p and autophagy component proteins regulates LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) of apoptotic germ cells. Nat Commun. 2017;8:598 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the authors show that Sertoli cells employ LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) by recruiting autophagy member proteins to clear apoptotic germ cells. ..
  13. Mariño G, Fernández A, Cabrera S, LUNDBERG Y, Cabanillas R, Rodriguez F, et al. Autophagy is essential for mouse sense of balance. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2331-44 pubmed publisher
  14. Itoh T, Kanno E, Uemura T, Waguri S, Fukuda M. OATL1, a novel autophagosome-resident Rab33B-GAP, regulates autophagosomal maturation. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:839-53 pubmed publisher
    Macroautophagy is a bulk degradation system conserved in all eukaryotic cells. A ubiquitin-like protein, Atg8, and its homologues are essential for autophagosome formation and act as a landmark for selective autophagy of aggregated ..
  15. Hu D, Yang X, Wu J, Wang G, Wang W, Qi Z, et al. [Preparation of an autophagy-targeted antituberculosis DNA vaccine encoding LpqH fused with LC3]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2014;30:581-4 pubmed
    ..Our study provides a new practical strategy for the development of improved vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ..
  16. Tanaka A, Jin Y, Lee S, Zhang M, Kim H, Stolz D, et al. Hyperoxia-induced LC3B interacts with the Fas apoptotic pathway in epithelial cell death. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;46:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the involvement of the autophagic marker microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B) in epithelial cell apoptosis after hyperoxia...
  17. Banks G, Haas M, Line S, Shepherd H, AlQatari M, Stewart S, et al. Behavioral and other phenotypes in a cytoplasmic Dynein light intermediate chain 1 mutant mouse. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5483-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the important role that dynein-controlled processes play in the correct development and function of the mammalian nervous system. ..
  18. Mehanna S, Suzuki C, Shibata M, Sunabori T, Imanaka T, Araki K, et al. Cathepsin D in pancreatic acinar cells is implicated in cathepsin B and L degradation, but not in autophagic activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:405-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that CD in pancreatic acinar cells is implicated in CB and CL degradation but not in autophagic activity. ..
  19. Nakahira K, Haspel J, Rathinam V, Lee S, Dolinay T, Lam H, et al. Autophagy proteins regulate innate immune responses by inhibiting the release of mitochondrial DNA mediated by the NALP3 inflammasome. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that depletion of the autophagic proteins LC3B and beclin 1 enhanced the activation of caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1? (IL-1?) and IL-18...
  20. Sandilands E, Serrels B, McEwan D, Morton J, Macagno J, McLeod K, et al. Autophagic targeting of Src promotes cancer cell survival following reduced FAK signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;14:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagic targeting of active Src is associated with a Src-LC3B complex, and is mediated by c-Cbl...
  21. Nemoto T, Tanida I, Tanida Miyake E, Minematsu Ikeguchi N, Yokota M, Ohsumi M, et al. The mouse APG10 homologue, an E2-like enzyme for Apg12p conjugation, facilitates MAP-LC3 modification. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:39517-26 pubmed
    ..The inability of mutant Apg10pC161S to form any intermediate with MAP-LC3 has ruled out the possibility that MAP-LC3 interacts with Apg10p as a substrate. ..
  22. McWilliams T, Prescott A, Allen G, Tamjar J, Munson M, Thomson C, et al. mito-QC illuminates mitophagy and mitochondrial architecture in vivo. J Cell Biol. 2016;214:333-45 pubmed publisher
    ..mito-QC is an experimentally advantageous tool of broad relevance to cell biology researchers within both discovery-based and translational research communities. ..
  23. Wang C, Liang C, Bian Z, Zhu Y, Guan J. FIP200 is required for maintenance and differentiation of postnatal neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal that FIP200-mediated autophagy contributes to the maintenance and functions of NSCs through regulation of oxidative state. ..
  24. Reginato A, de Fante T, Portovedo M, da Costa N, Payolla T, Miyamotto J, et al. Autophagy proteins are modulated in the liver and hypothalamus of the offspring of mice with diet-induced obesity. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;34:30-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the molecular mechanisms have not been explored, it is possible that changes in autophagy markers could be associated with metabolic disturbances of offspring. ..
  25. Sakurai S, Tomita T, Shimizu T, Ohto U. The crystal structure of mouse LC3B in complex with the FYCO1 LIR reveals the importance of the flanking region of the LIR motif. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2017;73:130-137 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish the structural basis for the recognition of FYCO1 by LC3, the crystal structure of mouse LC3B in complex with the FYCO1 LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif peptide was determined...
  26. Frost L, Lopes V, Bragin A, Reyes Reveles J, Brancato J, Cohen A, et al. The Contribution of Melanoregulin to Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 (LC3) Associated Phagocytosis in Retinal Pigment Epithelium. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;52:1135-1151 pubmed publisher
    ..We posit that MREG participates in coordinating the association of phagosomes with LC3 for content degradation with the loss of MREG leading to phagosome accumulation. ..
  27. He S, Limi S, McGreal R, Xie Q, Brennan L, Kantorow W, et al. Chromatin remodeling enzyme Snf2h regulates embryonic lens differentiation and denucleation. Development. 2016;143:1937-47 pubmed publisher
  28. Varga R, Khundadze M, Damme M, Nietzsche S, Hoffmann B, Stauber T, et al. In Vivo Evidence for Lysosome Depletion and Impaired Autophagic Clearance in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Type SPG11. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005454 pubmed publisher
  29. Gonzalez Billault C, Demandt E, Wandosell F, Torres M, Bonaldo P, Stoykova A, et al. Perinatal lethality of microtubule-associated protein 1B-deficient mice expressing alternative isoforms of the protein at low levels. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2000;16:408-21 pubmed
    ..Analyses of these mice indicate the presence of several neural defects and suggest the participation of MAP1B in neuronal migration. ..
  30. Yang R, Zhang C, Liu Y, Zhou H, Li Z. Autophagy prior to chondrocyte cell death during the degeneration of Meckel's cartilage. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012;295:734-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that autophagy is involved in hypertrophic chondrocytes during the degradation of Meckel's cartilage and occurs prior to chondrocyte cell death during this process. ..
  31. Taherbhoy A, Tait S, Kaiser S, Williams A, Deng A, Nourse A, et al. Atg8 transfer from Atg7 to Atg3: a distinctive E1-E2 architecture and mechanism in the autophagy pathway. Mol Cell. 2011;44:451-61 pubmed publisher
    ..that interacts with the noncanonical E2 enzyme, Atg3, to mediate conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) Atg8 during autophagy...
  32. Dou Z, Xu C, Donahue G, Shimi T, Pan J, Zhu J, et al. Autophagy mediates degradation of nuclear lamina. Nature. 2015;527:105-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The autophagy protein LC3/Atg8, which is involved in autophagy membrane trafficking and substrate delivery, is present in the nucleus and directly ..
  33. Ishihara T, Ban Ishihara R, Maeda M, Matsunaga Y, Ichimura A, Kyogoku S, et al. Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA nucleoids regulated by mitochondrial fission is essential for maintenance of homogeneously active mitochondria during neonatal heart development. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:211-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the dynamics of mtDNA nucleoids regulated by mitochondrial fission is required for neonatal cardiomyocyte development by promoting homogeneous distribution of active mitochondria throughout the cardiomyocytes. ..
  34. Acharya M, Sokolovska A, Tam J, Conway K, Stefani C, Raso F, et al. αv Integrins combine with LC3 and atg5 to regulate Toll-like receptor signalling in B cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10917 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies a previously unrecognized role for αv and the autophagy components LC3 and atg5 in regulating TLR signalling and B-cell immunity. ..
  35. Nicot A, Lo Verso F, Ratti F, Pilot Storck F, Streichenberger N, Sandri M, et al. Phosphorylation of NBR1 by GSK3 modulates protein aggregation. Autophagy. 2014;10:1036-53 pubmed publisher
    The autophagy receptor NBR1 (neighbor of BRCA1 gene 1) binds UB/ubiquitin and the autophagosome-conjugated MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) proteins, thereby ensuring ubiquitinated protein degradation...
  36. Tanida I, Tanida Miyake E, Nishitani T, Komatsu M, Yamazaki H, Ueno T, et al. Murine Apg12p has a substrate preference for murine Apg7p over three Apg8p homologs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;292:256-62 pubmed
    ..We also report here on the ubiquitous expression of human APG7 mRNA in human adult and fetal tissues and of rat Apg7p in adult tissues. ..
  37. Ross J, Webster R, Lechertier T, Reynolds L, Turmaine M, Bencze M, et al. Multiple roles of integrin-α3 at the neuromuscular junction. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:1772-1784 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate multiple roles of integrin-α3 at the NMJ, and suggest that alterations in its function could underlie defects that occur in neurodegeneration or ageing. ..
  38. Sebti S, Prébois C, Pérez Gracia E, Bauvy C, Desmots F, Pirot N, et al. BAT3 modulates p300-dependent acetylation of p53 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7) during autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:4115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that BAT3 tightly controls autophagy by modulating p300 intracellular localization, affecting the accessibility of p300 to its substrates, p53 and ATG7. ..
  39. Tasaki T, Kim S, Zakrzewska A, Lee B, Kang M, Yoo Y, et al. UBR box N-recognin-4 (UBR4), an N-recognin of the N-end rule pathway, and its role in yolk sac vascular development and autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:3800-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that UBR4 plays an important role in mammalian development, such as angiogenesis in the YS, in part through regulation of bulk degradation by lysosomal hydrolases...
  40. Gonzalez Billault C, Owen R, Gordon Weeks P, Avila J. Microtubule-associated protein 1B is involved in the initial stages of axonogenesis in peripheral nervous system cultured neurons. Brain Res. 2002;943:56-67 pubmed
    ..These results support the participation of MAP1B during the initial stages of axonogenesis. ..
  41. Patel K, Miyoshi H, Beatty W, Head R, Malvin N, Cadwell K, et al. Autophagy proteins control goblet cell function by potentiating reactive oxygen species production. EMBO J. 2013;32:3130-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a novel mechanism by which autophagy proteins can control secretion. ..
  42. Grigaravicius P, Kaminska E, Hübner C, McKinnon P, von Deimling A, Frappart P. Rint1 inactivation triggers genomic instability, ER stress and autophagy inhibition in the brain. Cell Death Differ. 2016;23:454-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our findings highlight the crucial roles of Rint1 in vivo in genomic stability maintenance, as well as in prevention of ER stress and autophagy. ..
  43. Nath S, Dancourt J, Shteyn V, Puente G, Fong W, Nag S, et al. Lipidation of the LC3/GABARAP family of autophagy proteins relies on a membrane-curvature-sensing domain in Atg3. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The need for extensive lipid-packing defects suggests that Atg3 is designed to work at highly curved membranes, perhaps including the limiting edge of the growing phagophore...
  44. Zhou J, Zhao Y, Zhou H, Wang Y, Wu Y, Li Z, et al. Autophagy plays an essential role in cigarette smoke-induced expression of MUC5AC in airway epithelium. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;310:L1042-52 pubmed publisher
  45. Chen Z, Lam H, Jin Y, Kim H, Cao J, Lee S, et al. Autophagy protein microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B) activates extrinsic apoptosis during cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18880-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the autophagic protein microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B) as a positive regulator of CS-induced lung epithelial cell death...
  46. Contreras A, Mebratu Y, Delgado M, Montaño G, Hu C, Ryter S, et al. Deacetylation of p53 induces autophagy by suppressing Bmf expression. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:427-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, autophagy was prominent in cultured bmf(-/-) but not in bmf(+/+) cells. Collectively, these observations show that deacetylation of p53 suppresses Bmf expression and facilitates autophagy. ..
  47. Lee S, Smith A, Guo L, Alastalo T, Li M, Sawada H, et al. Autophagic protein LC3B confers resistance against hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:649-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice deficient in microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B(-/-)), or early growth response-1 (Egr-1(-/-)), were evaluated for vascular morphology and hemodynamics...
  48. Liang X, Wei S, Lee S, Fung J, Zhang M, Tanaka A, et al. p62 sequestosome 1/light chain 3b complex confers cytoprotection on lung epithelial cells after hyperoxia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;48:489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..It interacts with ubiquitinated proteins and autophagic marker light chain 3b (LC3b), thus mediating the degradation of selective targets...
  49. Wang S, Li B, Qiao H, Lv X, Liang Q, Shi Z, et al. Autophagy-related gene Atg5 is essential for astrocyte differentiation in the developing mouse cortex. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:1053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that Atg5 regulates astrocyte differentiation, with potential implications for brain disorders with autophagy deficiency. ..
  50. Shin J, Méndez López I, Hong M, Wang Y, Tanji K, Wu W, et al. Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 is dispensable for embryonic myogenesis but required for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that early embryonic depletion of LAP1 does not impair myogenesis but that it is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. ..
  51. CHALAZONITIS A, Tang A, Shang Y, Pham T, Hsieh I, Setlik W, et al. Homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 regulates postnatal development of enteric dopaminergic neurons and glia via BMP signaling. J Neurosci. 2011;31:13746-57 pubmed publisher
  52. Khalil H, Tazi M, Caution K, Ahmed A, Kanneganti A, Assani K, et al. Aging is associated with hypermethylation of autophagy genes in macrophages. Epigenetics. 2016;11:381-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that promoter regions of Atg5 and LC3B are hypermethylated in macrophages from aged mice and this is accompanied by low gene expression...
  53. Hiyama M, Kusakabe K, Takeshita A, Sugi S, Kuniyoshi N, Imai H, et al. Nutrient starvation affects expression of LC3 family at the feto-maternal interface during murine placentation. J Vet Med Sci. 2015;77:305-11 pubmed publisher
    LC3 - the mammalian homolog of Atg8 - was found as autophagosome membrane binding protein in mammals and widely used as an autophagosomal marker. LC3A, B and C show different expression patterns in each tissue...
  54. McMillan E, Quadrilatero J. Autophagy is required and protects against apoptosis during myoblast differentiation. Biochem J. 2014;462:267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of autophagy in this process has not been examined. GFP-LC3B (light chain 3 beta) puncta, LC3B-II protein and LysoTracker fluorescence increased during C2C12 cell ..
  55. Rodrigues P, Limback D, McGinnis L, Plancha C, Albertini D. Multiple mechanisms of germ cell loss in the perinatal mouse ovary. Reproduction. 2009;137:709-20 pubmed publisher
    ..From these findings we suggest that multiple perinatal mechanisms establish the primordial follicle reserve in mice. ..
  56. Kasai M, Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E, Seki S, Ikeda T, et al. Autophagic compartments gain access to the MHC class II compartments in thymic epithelium. J Immunol. 2009;183:7278-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that the cytoplasmic self-Ags gain access to the H2-DM-positive compartments via the autophagic process in the thymus. ..
  57. Gurniak C, Chevessier F, Jokwitz M, Jönsson F, Perlas E, Richter H, et al. Severe protein aggregate myopathy in a knockout mouse model points to an essential role of cofilin2 in sarcomeric actin exchange and muscle maintenance. Eur J Cell Biol. 2014;93:252-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of smooth muscle ?-actin were increased and remained high in developing muscles, suggesting that cofilin2 plays a crucial role during the exchange of ?-actin isoforms during the early postnatal remodeling of the sarcomere. ..
  58. Maurer K, Reyes Robles T, Alonzo F, Durbin J, Torres V, Cadwell K. Autophagy mediates tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin. Cell Host Microbe. 2015;17:429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify an essential role for autophagy in tolerance to Staphylococcal disease and highlight how a single virulence factor encoded by a pathogen can determine whether a given host factor promotes tolerance or resistance. ..
  59. Reed M, Morris S, Owczarczyk A, Lukacs N. Deficiency of autophagy protein Map1-LC3b mediates IL-17-dependent lung pathology during respiratory viral infection via ER stress-associated IL-1. Mucosal Immunol. 2015;8:1118-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice deficient in the autophagy-associated protein Map1-LC3b (LC3b(-/-)) developed increased IL-17a-dependent lung pathology upon infection...
  60. Yang J, Zhu L, Yuan G, Chen Y, Zhang L, Zhang L, et al. Autophagy appears during the development of the mouse lower first molar. Histochem Cell Biol. 2013;139:109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings imply the developmental appearance of autophagy and its partial colocalization with apoptosis during odontogenesis. ..
  61. Lee S, Hwang K, Sun S, Xu Y, Kim N. Modulation of autophagy influences development and apoptosis in mouse embryos developing in vitro. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that autophagy influences developmental patterning and apoptosis, and may play a role in early mouse embryogenesis. ..