Gene Symbol: Lyz2
Description: lysozyme 2
Alias: AI326280, Lys, Lysm, Lyzf2, Lyzs, Lzm, Lzm-s1, Lzp, lysozyme C-2, 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase C, lysozyme C type M, lysozyme f2
Species: mouse
Products:     Lyz2

Top Publications

  1. Xavier M, Winter M, Spees A, Nguyen K, Atluri V, Silva T, et al. CD4+ T cell-derived IL-10 promotes Brucella abortus persistence via modulation of macrophage function. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003454 pubmed publisher
  2. Li P, Spann N, Kaikkonen M, Lu M, Oh D, Fox J, et al. NCoR repression of LXRs restricts macrophage biosynthesis of insulin-sensitizing omega 3 fatty acids. Cell. 2013;155:200-214 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic methods to harness this mechanism could lead to a new approach to insulin-sensitizing therapies. ..
  3. Okabe Y, Medzhitov R. Tissue-specific signals control reversible program of localization and functional polarization of macrophages. Cell. 2014;157:832-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We further found that GATA6 in macrophages regulates gut IgA production through peritoneal B-1 cells. These results provide insight into the regulation of tissue-resident macrophage functional specialization by tissue-derived signals...
  4. Rosas M, Davies L, Giles P, Liao C, Kharfan B, Stone T, et al. The transcription factor Gata6 links tissue macrophage phenotype and proliferative renewal. Science. 2014;344:645-648 pubmed publisher
    ..Our investigations reveal that the tissue macrophage phenotype is under discrete tissue-selective transcriptional control and that this is fundamentally linked to the regulation of their proliferation renewal. ..
  5. Wermeling F, Anthony R, Brombacher F, Ravetch J. Acute inflammation primes myeloid effector cells for anti-inflammatory STAT6 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13487-91 pubmed publisher
    ..High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin thus exploits an endogenous feedback loop, general to inflammation, that could be further targeted for therapeutic purposes. ..
  6. Jenkins S, Rückerl D, Thomas G, Hewitson J, Duncan S, Brombacher F, et al. IL-4 directly signals tissue-resident macrophages to proliferate beyond homeostatic levels controlled by CSF-1. J Exp Med. 2013;210:2477-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the IL-4 pathway of proliferation may have developed as an alternative to CSF-1 to increase resident MΦ numbers without coincident monocyte recruitment. ..
  7. Miao H, Ou J, Ma Y, Guo F, Yang Z, Wiggins M, et al. Macrophage CGI-58 deficiency activates ROS-inflammasome pathway to promote insulin resistance in mice. Cell Rep. 2014;7:223-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-ROS treatment also prevents exacerbation of inflammation and IR in HFD-fed MaKO mice. Our data thus establish CGI-58 as a suppressor of overnutrition-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. ..
  8. Eftychi C, Karagianni N, Alexiou M, Apostolaki M, Kollias G. Myeloid TAKI [corrected] acts as a negative regulator of the LPS response and mediates resistance to endotoxemia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31550 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight an antiinflammatory role for myeloid TAK1, which is essential for balanced innate immune responses and host survival during endotoxemia. ..
  9. Grivennikov S, Tumanov A, Liepinsh D, Kruglov A, Marakusha B, Shakhov A, et al. Distinct and nonredundant in vivo functions of TNF produced by t cells and macrophages/neutrophils: protective and deleterious effects. Immunity. 2005;22:93-104 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that T-cell-specific TNF ablation may provide a therapeutic advantage over systemic blockade. ..

More Information


  1. Sarraj B, Massberg S, Li Y, Kasorn A, Subramanian K, Loison F, et al. Myeloid-specific deletion of tumor suppressor PTEN augments neutrophil transendothelial migration during inflammation. J Immunol. 2009;182:7190-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that PTEN deletion in neutrophils enhances their invasivity and recruitment to inflamed sites more likely by raising the cell physical capability to cross the vascular and tissue barriers. ..
  2. Lewis K, Caton M, Bogunovic M, Greter M, Grajkowska L, Ng D, et al. Notch2 receptor signaling controls functional differentiation of dendritic cells in the spleen and intestine. Immunity. 2011;35:780-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Notch2 is a common differentiation signal for T cell-priming CD11b(+) DC subsets in the spleen and intestine. ..
  3. Odegaard J, Ricardo Gonzalez R, Goforth M, Morel C, Subramanian V, Mukundan L, et al. Macrophage-specific PPARgamma controls alternative activation and improves insulin resistance. Nature. 2007;447:1116-20 pubmed
  4. Huang G, Wang Y, Vogel P, Kanneganti T, Otsu K, Chi H. Signaling via the kinase p38? programs dendritic cells to drive TH17 differentiation and autoimmune inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:152-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify p38? signaling as a central pathway for the integration of instructive signals in DCs for T(H)17 differentiation and inflammation. ..
  5. Wang Y, Lebowitz D, Sun C, Thang H, Grynpas M, Glogauer M. Identifying the relative contributions of Rac1 and Rac2 to osteoclastogenesis. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:260-70 pubmed
    ..This model showed that Rac1 is the key Rac isoform responsible for regulating ROS generation and the actin cytoskeleton during the multiple stages of osteoclast differentiation. ..
  6. Goren I, Allmann N, Yogev N, Schürmann C, Linke A, Holdener M, et al. A transgenic mouse model of inducible macrophage depletion: effects of diphtheria toxin-driven lysozyme M-specific cell lineage ablation on wound inflammatory, angiogenic, and contractive processes. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:132-47 pubmed publisher
    ..promoter-driven, Cre-mediated excision of a transcriptional STOP cassette from the simian DT receptor gene in mice (lysM-Cre/DTR)...
  7. Kang T, Yang S, Tóth B, Kovalenko A, Wallach D. Caspase-8 blocks kinase RIPK3-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Immunity. 2013;38:27-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insight into potentially pathological inflammatory processes to which RIPK1- and RIPK3-mediated signaling contributes. ..
  8. Bonfield T, Hodges C, Cotton C, Drumm M. Absence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (Cftr) from myeloid-derived cells slows resolution of inflammation and infection. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;92:1111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that Cftr is involved directly in myeloid cell function and imply that these cells contribute to the pathophysiological phenotype of the CF lung. ..
  9. Choi S, Wiesner P, Almazan F, Kim J, Miller Y. Spleen tyrosine kinase regulates AP-1 dependent transcriptional response to minimally oxidized LDL. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32378 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Syk plays a key role in TLR4-mediated macrophage responses to host-generated ligands, like mmLDL, with subsequent activation of an AP-1 transcription program. ..
  10. Matsumura Y, Kobayashi T, Ichiyama K, Yoshida R, Hashimoto M, Takimoto T, et al. Selective expansion of foxp3-positive regulatory T cells and immunosuppression by suppressors of cytokine signaling 3-deficient dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:2170-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an important role of SOCS3 in determining on immunity or tolerance by DCs. ..
  11. Faust N, Varas F, Kelly L, Heck S, Graf T. Insertion of enhanced green fluorescent protein into the lysozyme gene creates mice with green fluorescent granulocytes and macrophages. Blood. 2000;96:719-26 pubmed
    ..This was achieved by knocking the enhanced GFP (EGFP) gene into the murine lysozyme M (lys) locus and using a targeting vector, which contains a neomycin resistant (neo) gene flanked by LoxP sites and "..
  12. Kim M, Granick J, Kwok C, Walker N, Borjesson D, Curry F, et al. Neutrophil survival and c-kit(+)-progenitor proliferation in Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin wounds promote resolution. Blood. 2011;117:3343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the abscess environment provides a niche capable of regulating PMN survival and local proliferation of bone marrow-derived c-kit(+)-progenitor cells...
  13. Fantin A, Vieira J, Gestri G, Denti L, Schwarz Q, Prykhozhij S, et al. Tissue macrophages act as cellular chaperones for vascular anastomosis downstream of VEGF-mediated endothelial tip cell induction. Blood. 2010;116:829-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that tissue macrophages are a target for antiangiogenic therapies, but that they could equally well be exploited to stimulate tissue vascularization in ischemic disease. ..
  14. Hu X, Chung A, Wu I, Foldi J, Chen J, Ji J, et al. Integrated regulation of Toll-like receptor responses by Notch and interferon-gamma pathways. Immunity. 2008;29:691-703 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify new immune functions for RBP-J, Hes, and Hey proteins and provide insights into mechanisms by which Notch, TLR, and IFN-gamma signals are integrated to modulate specific effector functions in macrophages. ..
  15. El Kasmi K, Qualls J, Pesce J, Smith A, Thompson R, Henao Tamayo M, et al. Toll-like receptor-induced arginase 1 in macrophages thwarts effective immunity against intracellular pathogens. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific elimination of Arg1 in macrophages favored host survival during T. gondii infection and decreased lung bacterial load during tuberculosis infection. ..
  16. Zurhove K, Nakajima C, Herz J, Bock H, May P. Gamma-secretase limits the inflammatory response through the processing of LRP1. Sci Signal. 2008;1:ra15 pubmed publisher
    ..Feedback inhibition of the inflammatory response through intramembranous processing of LRP1 thus defines a physiological role for gamma-secretase. ..
  17. Walmsley S, Print C, Farahi N, Peyssonnaux C, Johnson R, Cramer T, et al. Hypoxia-induced neutrophil survival is mediated by HIF-1alpha-dependent NF-kappaB activity. J Exp Med. 2005;201:105-15 pubmed
    ..In addition, we identify macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta as a novel hypoxia-induced neutrophil survival factor. ..
  18. Ishikawa T, Oshima M, Herschman H. Cox-2 deletion in myeloid and endothelial cells, but not in epithelial cells, exacerbates murine colitis. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that COX-2 expression in myeloid cells and endothelial cells, but not epithelial cells, is important for protection of epithelial cells in this murine colitis model. ..
  19. Penzo M, Molteni R, Suda T, Samaniego S, Raucci A, Habiel D, et al. Inhibitor of NF-kappa B kinases alpha and beta are both essential for high mobility group box 1-mediated chemotaxis [corrected]. J Immunol. 2010;184:4497-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, proinflammatory HMGB1 chemotactic responses mechanistically require the differential collaboration of both IKK-dependent NF-kappaB signaling pathways. ..
  20. Woodfin A, Voisin M, Beyrau M, Colom B, Caille D, Diapouli F, et al. The junctional adhesion molecule JAM-C regulates polarized transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vivo. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify JAM-C as a key regulator of polarized neutrophil TEM in vivo and suggest that reverse TEM of neutrophils can contribute to the dissemination of systemic inflammation. ..
  21. Sun C, Downey G, Zhu F, Koh A, Thang H, Glogauer M. Rac1 is the small GTPase responsible for regulating the neutrophil chemotaxis compass. Blood. 2004;104:3758-65 pubmed
  22. Schabbauer G, Matt U, Günzl P, Warszawska J, Furtner T, Hainzl E, et al. Myeloid PTEN promotes inflammation but impairs bactericidal activities during murine pneumococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2010;185:468-76 pubmed publisher
  23. Cervantes Barragan L, Kalinke U, Zust R, König M, Reizis B, Lopez Macias C, et al. Type I IFN-mediated protection of macrophages and dendritic cells secures control of murine coronavirus infection. J Immunol. 2009;182:1099-106 pubmed
    ..This genetic analysis revealed that IFNAR expression on LysM+ macrophages and CD11c+ dendritic cells was most important for the early containment of MHV within secondary ..
  24. Valledor A, Arpa L, Sánchez Tilló E, Comalada M, Casals C, Xaus J, et al. IFN-{gamma}-mediated inhibition of MAPK phosphatase expression results in prolonged MAPK activity in response to M-CSF and inhibition of proliferation. Blood. 2008;112:3274-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that subtle changes in the time course of activity of members of the MAPK family contribute to the antiproliferative effects of IFN-gamma in macrophages. ..
  25. Eash K, Greenbaum A, Gopalan P, Link D. CXCR2 and CXCR4 antagonistically regulate neutrophil trafficking from murine bone marrow. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that CXCR2 signaling is a second chemokine axis that interacts antagonistically with CXCR4 to regulate neutrophil release from the bone marrow. ..
  26. Kanters E, Pasparakis M, Gijbels M, Vergouwe M, Partouns Hendriks I, Fijneman R, et al. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in macrophages increases atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1176-85 pubmed
    ..Our data show that inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway in macrophages leads to more severe atherosclerosis in mice, possibly by affecting the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance that controls the development of atherosclerosis. ..
  27. Nishio M, Watanabe K, Sasaki J, Taya C, Takasuga S, Iizuka R, et al. Control of cell polarity and motility by the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 phosphatase SHIP1. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:36-44 pubmed
    ..By directing where PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) accumulates, SHIP1 governs the formation of the leading edge and polarization required for chemotaxis. ..
  28. Aliprantis A, Ueki Y, Sulyanto R, Park A, Sigrist K, Sharma S, et al. NFATc1 in mice represses osteoprotegerin during osteoclastogenesis and dissociates systemic osteopenia from inflammation in cherubism. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3775-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study demonstrates that NFATc1 is required for remodeling of the growing and adult skeleton and suggests that NFATc1 may be an effective therapeutic target for osteoporosis associated with inflammatory states...
  29. Baumgartl J, Baudler S, Scherner M, Babaev V, Makowski L, Suttles J, et al. Myeloid lineage cell-restricted insulin resistance protects apolipoproteinE-deficient mice against atherosclerosis. Cell Metab. 2006;3:247-56 pubmed
  30. Vujic Spasic M, Kiss J, Herrmann T, Galy B, Martinache S, Stolte J, et al. Hfe acts in hepatocytes to prevent hemochromatosis. Cell Metab. 2008;7:173-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates that local Hfe expression in hepatocytes serves to maintain physiological iron homeostasis, answering a long-standing question in medicine and explaining earlier clinical observations. ..
  31. Bonfield T, Thomassen M, Farver C, Abraham S, Koloze M, Zhang X, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma regulates the expression of alveolar macrophage macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Immunol. 2008;181:235-42 pubmed
    ..of PPARgamma in alveolar macrophage homeostasis, we generated myeloid-specific PPARgamma knockout mice using the Lys-Cre method to knock out the floxed PPARgamma gene...
  32. Subramanian K, Jia Y, Zhu D, Simms B, Jo H, Hattori H, et al. Tumor suppressor PTEN is a physiologic suppressor of chemoattractant-mediated neutrophil functions. Blood. 2007;109:4028-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, as a physiologic-negative regulator, PTEN should be a promising therapeutic target for modulating neutrophil functions in various infectious and inflammatory diseases. ..
  33. Wei W, Zeve D, Suh J, Wang X, Du Y, Zerwekh J, et al. Biphasic and dosage-dependent regulation of osteoclastogenesis by ?-catenin. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4706-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, these findings suggest that Wnt activation is a more effective treatment for skeletal fragility than previously recognized that confers dual anabolic and anti-catabolic benefits. ..
  34. McDonald B, Pittman K, Menezes G, Hirota S, Slaba I, Waterhouse C, et al. Intravascular danger signals guide neutrophils to sites of sterile inflammation. Science. 2010;330:362-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, dynamic in vivo imaging revealed a multistep hierarchy of directional cues that guide neutrophil localization to sites of sterile inflammation. ..
  35. Pestonjamasp K, Forster C, Sun C, Gardiner E, Bohl B, Weiner O, et al. Rac1 links leading edge and uropod events through Rho and myosin activation during chemotaxis. Blood. 2006;108:2814-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Rac plays both positive and negative roles in the organization of the Rhomyosin "backness" program, thereby promoting stable polarity in chemotaxing neutrophils. ..
  36. Rickard A, Morgan J, Tesch G, Funder J, Fuller P, Young M. Deletion of mineralocorticoid receptors from macrophages protects against deoxycorticosterone/salt-induced cardiac fibrosis and increased blood pressure. Hypertension. 2009;54:537-43 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors from monocytes/macrophages with the lysozyme M promoter used to drive Cre expression (MR(flox/flox)/LysM(Cre/-) mice)...
  37. Wallner B, Leitner N, Vielnascher R, Kernbauer E, Kolbe T, Karaghiosoff M, et al. Generation of mice with a conditional Stat1 null allele. Transgenic Res. 2012;21:217-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The conditional Stat1 null allele represents an important tool for identifying novel and cell-autonomous STAT1 functions in infection and cancer. ..
  38. Freitas do Rosário A, Lamb T, Spence P, Stephens R, Lang A, Roers A, et al. IL-27 promotes IL-10 production by effector Th1 CD4+ T cells: a critical mechanism for protection from severe immunopathology during malaria infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:1178-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, in this model of malaria, we demonstrate that the generation of protective IL10(+)IFN-γ(+) Th1 cells is dependent on IL-27 signaling and independent of IL-21. ..
  39. Usher M, Duan S, Ivaschenko C, Frieler R, Berger S, Schutz G, et al. Myeloid mineralocorticoid receptor controls macrophage polarization and cardiovascular hypertrophy and remodeling in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3350-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, myeloid MR is critical for blood pressure control and for hypertrophic and fibrotic responses in the mouse heart and aorta. ..
  40. Nieuwenhuizen N, Kirstein F, Jayakumar J, Emedi B, Hurdayal R, Horsnell W, et al. Allergic airway disease is unaffected by the absence of IL-4R?-dependent alternatively activated macrophages. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:743-750.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..The IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4R?) gene is genetically abrogated in macrophages in LysM(cre)IL-4R?(-/lox) mice, which therefore have impaired IL-4/IL-13 activation of AAMs through IL-4R types 1 and 2...
  41. Bogunovic M, Ginhoux F, Helft J, Shang L, Hashimoto D, Greter M, et al. Origin of the lamina propria dendritic cell network. Immunity. 2009;31:513-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results underline the diverse origin of the lamina propria DC network and identify mucosal DCs that arise from pre-DCs as key sentinels of the gut immune system. ..
  42. Prinz M, Schmidt H, Mildner A, Knobeloch K, Hanisch U, Raasch J, et al. Distinct and nonredundant in vivo functions of IFNAR on myeloid cells limit autoimmunity in the central nervous system. Immunity. 2008;28:675-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, absence of IFNAR on myeloid cells led to severe disease with an enhanced effector phase and increased lethality, indicating a distinct protective function of type I IFNs during autoimmune inflammation of the CNS. ..
  43. Jude C, Climer L, Xu D, Artinger E, Fisher J, Ernst P. Unique and independent roles for MLL in adult hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1:324-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that Mll plays selective and independent roles within the hematopoietic system, maintaining quiescence in HSCs and promoting proliferation in progenitors...
  44. Willemen H, Eijkelkamp N, Wang H, Dantzer R, Dorn G, Kelley K, et al. Microglial/macrophage GRK2 determines duration of peripheral IL-1beta-induced hyperalgesia: contribution of spinal cord CX3CR1, p38 and IL-1 signaling. Pain. 2010;150:550-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Next, we applied CRE-Lox technology to create mice with low GRK2 in microglia/macrophages/granulocytes (LysM-GRK2(f/+)), or sensory neurons or astrocytes...
  45. Pesce J, Ramalingam T, Mentink Kane M, Wilson M, El Kasmi K, Smith A, et al. Arginase-1-expressing macrophages suppress Th2 cytokine-driven inflammation and fibrosis. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000371 pubmed publisher
  46. Odegaard J, Ricardo Gonzalez R, Red Eagle A, Vats D, Morel C, Goforth M, et al. Alternative M2 activation of Kupffer cells by PPARdelta ameliorates obesity-induced insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2008;7:496-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest an unexpected beneficial role for alternatively activated Kupffer cells in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. ..
  47. Pils M, Pisano F, Fasnacht N, Heinrich J, Groebe L, Schippers A, et al. Monocytes/macrophages and/or neutrophils are the target of IL-10 in the LPS endotoxemia model. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, in an IL-10-regulated T-cell response to Trichuris muris infection, IL-10 acting on T cells or monocytes/macrophages/neutrophils is not critical for the control of the infection. ..
  48. Kang Y, Chen J, Otsuka M, Mols J, Ren S, Wang Y, et al. Macrophage deletion of p38alpha partially impairs lipopolysaccharide-induced cellular activation. J Immunol. 2008;180:5075-82 pubmed
    ..Our in vivo studies with two murine models showed that p38alpha is involved in sepsis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that p38alpha is an important player in inflammatory responses. ..
  49. Babaev V, Yancey P, Ryzhov S, Kon V, Breyer M, Magnuson M, et al. Conditional knockout of macrophage PPARgamma increases atherosclerosis in C57BL/6 and low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:1647-53 pubmed
  50. Otero K, Shinohara M, Zhao H, Cella M, Gilfillan S, Colucci A, et al. TREM2 and ?-catenin regulate bone homeostasis by controlling the rate of osteoclastogenesis. J Immunol. 2012;188:2612-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that TREM2 regulates the rate of osteoclastogenesis and provide a mechanism for the bone pathology in NHD. ..
  51. Schlitzer A, McGovern N, Teo P, Zelante T, Atarashi K, Low D, et al. IRF4 transcription factor-dependent CD11b+ dendritic cells in human and mouse control mucosal IL-17 cytokine responses. Immunity. 2013;38:970-83 pubmed publisher
  52. Kajino Sakamoto R, Inagaki M, Lippert E, Akira S, Robine S, Matsumoto K, et al. Enterocyte-derived TAK1 signaling prevents epithelium apoptosis and the development of ileitis and colitis. J Immunol. 2008;181:1143-52 pubmed
    ..We propose that aberration in TAK1 signaling might disrupt intestinal homeostasis and favor the development of inflammatory disease. ..
  53. Chaurasia B, Mauer J, Koch L, Goldau J, Kock A, Bruning J. Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 provides negative feedback inhibition to Toll-like receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation in macrophages. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4354-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments reveal a novel PDK-1-dependent negative feedback inhibition of TLR-induced NF-kappaB activation in macrophages in vivo. ..