Lyn

Summary

Gene Symbol: Lyn
Description: LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
Alias: AA407514, Hck-2, p53Lyn, p56Lyn, tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn, V-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene homolog, Yamaguchi sarcoma viral (v-yes-1) oncogene homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Lyn

Top Publications

  1. Nishizumi H, Taniuchi I, Yamanashi Y, Kitamura D, Ilic D, Mori S, et al. Impaired proliferation of peripheral B cells and indication of autoimmune disease in lyn-deficient mice. Immunity. 1995;3:549-60 pubmed
    The Src family protein-tyrosine kinase Lyn associates physically with the BCR and has been suggested to play an important role in BCR-mediated signaling...
  2. Hibbs M, Tarlinton D, Armes J, Grail D, Hodgson G, Maglitto R, et al. Multiple defects in the immune system of Lyn-deficient mice, culminating in autoimmune disease. Cell. 1995;83:301-11 pubmed
    Mice homozygous for a disruption at the Lyn locus display abnormalities associated with the B lymphocyte lineage and in mast cell function...
  3. Chan V, Lowell C, DeFranco A. Defective negative regulation of antigen receptor signaling in Lyn-deficient B lymphocytes. Curr Biol. 1998;8:545-53 pubmed
    To elucidate the role of the Src family kinase Lyn in B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, we and others previously generated lyn-/- mice and analyzed their B cell responses...
  4. Schmaier A, Zou Z, Kazlauskas A, Emert Sedlak L, Fong K, Neeves K, et al. Molecular priming of Lyn by GPVI enables an immune receptor to adopt a hemostatic role. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The GPVI PRD specifically binds the Src-family kinase Lyn and directly activates it, presumably through SH3 displacement...
  5. Saporito M, Ochman A, Lipinski C, Handler J, Reaume A. MLR-1023 is a potent and selective allosteric activator of Lyn kinase in vitro that improves glucose tolerance in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;342:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in an in vitro broad kinase screen MLR-1023 activated the nonreceptor-linked Src-related tyrosine kinase Lyn. MLR-1023 increased the V(max) of Lyn with an EC(50) of 63 nM...
  6. Yu C, Yen T, Lowell C, DeFranco A. Lupus-like kidney disease in mice deficient in the Src family tyrosine kinases Lyn and Fyn. Curr Biol. 2001;11:34-8 pubmed
    ..We [2] and others [3, 4] previously demonstrated that mice deficient in the Src family tyrosine kinase Lyn developed a mild lupus-like disease with high survival rates...
  7. Pereira S, Lowell C. The Lyn tyrosine kinase negatively regulates neutrophil integrin signaling. J Immunol. 2003;171:1319-27 pubmed
    The Src family kinase Lyn has been shown to play both stimulatory and inhibitory roles within several hemopoietic cell types. In this study, we investigated the role played by Lyn in neutrophil integrin signaling...
  8. Hibbs M, Dunn A. Lyn, a src-like tyrosine kinase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1997;29:397-400 pubmed
    b>Lyn is a member of the src family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases that is predominantly expressed in haematopoietic tissues...
  9. Andrews T, Whittle B, Field M, Balakishnan B, Zhang Y, Shao Y, et al. Massively parallel sequencing of the mouse exome to accurately identify rare, induced mutations: an immediate source for thousands of new mouse models. Open Biol. 2012;2:120061 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach transforms genetic screens in mice, establishes a general strategy for analysing rare DNA variants and opens up a large new source for experimental models of human disease. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Baran C, Tridandapani S, Helgason C, Humphries R, Krystal G, Marsh C. The inositol 5'-phosphatase SHIP-1 and the Src kinase Lyn negatively regulate macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced Akt activity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38628-36 pubmed
    ..In THP-1 cells, SHIP-1 bound Lyn, independent of the kinase activity of Lyn, following M-CSF activation...
  2. Tezuka T, Umemori H, Fusaki N, Yagi T, Takata M, Kurosaki T, et al. Physical and functional association of the cbl protooncogen product with an src-family protein tyrosine kinase, p53/56lyn, in the B cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling. J Exp Med. 1996;183:675-80 pubmed
    ..tyrosine kinases (PTKs), we used a yeast two-hybrid system with a probe corresponding to the regulatory region of p56lyn, a member of Src-family PTKs...
  3. Parravicini V, Gadina M, Kovarova M, Odom S, Gonzalez Espinosa C, Furumoto Y, et al. Fyn kinase initiates complementary signals required for IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:741-8 pubmed
    Fc epsilon RI activation of mast cells is thought to involve Lyn and Syk kinases proximal to the receptor and the signaling complex organized by the linker for activation of T cells (LAT)...
  4. Seo S, Buckler J, Erikson J. Novel roles for Lyn in B cell migration and lipopolysaccharide responsiveness revealed using anti-double-stranded DNA Ig transgenic mice. J Immunol. 2001;166:3710-6 pubmed
    b>Lyn-deficient mice produce Abs against dsDNA, yet exhibit exaggerated tolerance to the model Ag hen-egg lysozyme...
  5. Hunter S, Burton E, Wu S, Anderson S. Fyn associates with Cbl and phosphorylates tyrosine 731 in Cbl, a binding site for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:2097-106 pubmed
    ..GST) fusion proteins encoding the unique, Src homology domain 3 (SH3), and SH2 domains of Fyn, Hck, or Lyn. Fusion proteins encoding either the SH3 or SH2 domains of Fyn bound to Cbl as effectively as the fusion protein ..
  6. Smith K, Tarlinton D, Doody G, Hibbs M, Fearon D. Inhibition of the B cell by CD22: a requirement for Lyn. J Exp Med. 1998;187:807-11 pubmed
    Mice in which the Lyn, Cd22, or Shp-1 gene has been disrupted have hyperactive B cells and autoantibodies...
  7. Sohn H, Tolar P, Jin T, Pierce S. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells reveals dynamic membrane changes in the initiation of B cell signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8143-8 pubmed
    ..tyrosines in the cytoplasmic domains of the BCR by the inner plasma membrane leaflet-associated Src-family kinase Lyn. At present, little is known about the earliest events after BCR clustering that precede the BCR's phosphorylation ..
  8. Kawakami Y, Kitaura J, Satterthwaite A, Kato R, Asai K, Hartman S, et al. Redundant and opposing functions of two tyrosine kinases, Btk and Lyn, in mast cell activation. J Immunol. 2000;165:1210-9 pubmed
    ..on growth properties and FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction of primary cultured mast cells from Btk-, Lyn-, and Btk/Lyn-deficient mice. First, Lyn deficiency partially reversed the survival effect of Btk deficiency...
  9. Verhagen A, Wallace M, Goradia A, Jones S, Croom H, Metcalf D, et al. A kinase-dead allele of Lyn attenuates autoimmune disease normally associated with Lyn deficiency. J Immunol. 2009;182:2020-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Lyn kinase, a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases, functions as both a positive and negative regulator of B cell activation...
  10. Kannan S, Audet A, Huang H, Chen L, Wu M. Cholesterol-rich membrane rafts and Lyn are involved in phagocytosis during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:2396-408 pubmed
    ..pathway for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is initiated by cholesterol-rich membrane rafts and is dependent on Lyn, primarily an immune regulator with both positive and negative roles...
  11. Meng F, Lowell C. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation and signal transduction in the absence of Src-family kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn. J Exp Med. 1997;185:1661-70 pubmed
    ..amount of evidence suggests that protein tyrosine kinases especially the Src-family kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn, play important roles in LPS signaling...
  12. Beavitt S, Harder K, Kemp J, Jones J, Quilici C, Casagranda F, et al. Lyn-deficient mice develop severe, persistent asthma: Lyn is a critical negative regulator of Th2 immunity. J Immunol. 2005;175:1867-75 pubmed
    ..b>Lyn tyrosine kinase has been implicated as both a facilitator and inhibitor of signaling pathways that play a role in ..
  13. Fitzer Attas C, Lowry M, Crowley M, Finn A, Meng F, DeFranco A, et al. Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages lacking the Src family tyrosine kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn. J Exp Med. 2000;191:669-82 pubmed
    ..macrophages from mutant mice lacking the major Src family kinases expressed in these cells, Hck, Fgr, and Lyn. Many FcgammaR-induced functional responses and signaling events were diminished or delayed in these macrophages, ..
  14. Tsantikos E, Oracki S, Quilici C, Anderson G, Tarlinton D, Hibbs M. Autoimmune disease in Lyn-deficient mice is dependent on an inflammatory environment established by IL-6. J Immunol. 2010;184:1348-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Lyn-deficient mice develop Ab-mediated autoimmune disease resembling systemic lupus erythematosus where hyperactive B cells are major contributors to pathology...
  15. Falanga Y, Chaimowitz N, Charles N, Finkelman F, Pullen N, BARBOUR S, et al. Lyn but not Fyn kinase controls IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis. J Immunol. 2012;188:4360-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have investigated the contribution of Fyn and Lyn tyrosine kinases to FcγRIIb and FcγRIII signaling in the context of IgG-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis ..
  16. Xu Y, Harder K, Huntington N, Hibbs M, Tarlinton D. Lyn tyrosine kinase: accentuating the positive and the negative. Immunity. 2005;22:9-18 pubmed
    b>Lyn, one of several Src-family tyrosine kinases in immune cells, is noted for its ability to negatively regulate signaling pathways through phosphorylation of inhibitory receptors, enzymes, and adaptors...
  17. Harder K, Quilici C, Naik E, Inglese M, Kountouri N, Turner A, et al. Perturbed myelo/erythropoiesis in Lyn-deficient mice is similar to that in mice lacking the inhibitory phosphatases SHP-1 and SHIP-1. Blood. 2004;104:3901-10 pubmed
    The Lyn tyrosine kinase plays essential inhibitory signaling roles within hematopoietic cells by recruiting inhibitory phosphatases such as SH2-domain containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), SHP-2, and SH2-domain containing 5'-inositol ..
  18. Meng F, Lowell C. A beta 1 integrin signaling pathway involving Src-family kinases, Cbl and PI-3 kinase is required for macrophage spreading and migration. EMBO J. 1998;17:4391-403 pubmed
    ..Cbl) protein rapidly becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with the Src-family kinases Fgr and Lyn. In hck-/-fgr-/-lyn-/- triple mutant cells, which are defective in spreading on fibronectin-coated surfaces in ..
  19. Pereira S, Zhou M, Mocsai A, Lowell C. Resting murine neutrophils express functional alpha 4 integrins that signal through Src family kinases. J Immunol. 2001;166:4115-23 pubmed
    ..Neutrophils derived from hck(-/-)fgr(-/-)lyn(-/-) triple-knockout or hck(-/-)fgr(-/-) double-knockout mice failed to undergo respiratory burst when plated on ..
  20. Allman D, Lindsley R, Demuth W, Rudd K, Shinton S, Hardy R. Resolution of three nonproliferative immature splenic B cell subsets reveals multiple selection points during peripheral B cell maturation. J Immunol. 2001;167:6834-40 pubmed
    ..This contrasts markedly with lyn(-/-) mice, which exhibit depressed numbers but normal ratios of each immature peripheral B cell subset and severely ..
  21. Saijo K, Schmedt C, Su I, Karasuyama H, Lowell C, Reth M, et al. Essential role of Src-family protein tyrosine kinases in NF-kappaB activation during B cell development. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:274-9 pubmed
    ..Using mice deficient for the B cell-expressed Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs) Blk, Fyn and Lyn, we show an essential role of these kinases in pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR)- mediated NF-kappaB activation and B ..
  22. Xiao W, Hong H, Kawakami Y, Lowell C, Kawakami T. Regulation of myeloproliferation and M2 macrophage programming in mice by Lyn/Hck, SHIP, and Stat5. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:924-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have shown that, similar to mice deficient in the lipid phosphatase SHIP, loss of 2 Src family kinases, Lyn and Hck, profoundly affects HSC differentiation, producing hematopoietic progenitors with increased proliferation, ..
  23. Nishizumi H, Yamamoto T. Impaired tyrosine phosphorylation and Ca2+ mobilization, but not degranulation, in lyn-deficient bone marrow-derived mast cells. J Immunol. 1997;158:2350-5 pubmed
    ..Fc epsilon RI associates with two classes of the tyrosine kinases, the Src family kinases, such as Lyn, c-Yes, and c-Src, and the Syk kinase...
  24. Charles N, Watford W, Ramos H, Hellman L, Oettgen H, Gomez G, et al. Lyn kinase controls basophil GATA-3 transcription factor expression and induction of Th2 cell differentiation. Immunity. 2009;30:533-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Lyn kinase dampened basophil expression of the transcription factor GATA-3 and the initiation and extent of Th2 cell ..
  25. Wolf I, Jenkins B, Liu Y, Seiffert M, Custodio J, Young P, et al. Gab3, a new DOS/Gab family member, facilitates macrophage differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:231-44 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Gab3 is important for macrophage differentiation and that differentiation requires the early phosphorylation of Gab2 followed by induction and subsequent phosphorylation of Gab3. ..
  26. Chu C, Lowell C. The Lyn tyrosine kinase differentially regulates dendritic cell generation and maturation. J Immunol. 2005;175:2880-9 pubmed
    The Src family kinase Lyn plays both stimulatory and inhibitory roles in hemopoietic cells. In this report we provide evidence that Lyn is involved in dendritic cell (DC) generation and maturation...
  27. Mocsai A, Abram C, Jakus Z, Hu Y, Lanier L, Lowell C. Integrin signaling in neutrophils and macrophages uses adaptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:1326-33 pubmed
    ..Our data show that integrin signaling for the activation of cellular responses in neutrophils and macrophages proceeds by an immunoreceptor-like mechanism. ..
  28. Hernandez Hansen V, Smith A, Surviladze Z, Chigaev A, Mazel T, Kalesnikoff J, et al. Dysregulated FcepsilonRI signaling and altered Fyn and SHIP activities in Lyn-deficient mast cells. J Immunol. 2004;173:100-12 pubmed
    Studies in B cells from Lyn-deficient mice have identified Lyn as both a kinetic accelerator and negative regulator of signaling through the BCR...
  29. Cornall R, Cyster J, Hibbs M, Dunn A, Otipoby K, Clark E, et al. Polygenic autoimmune traits: Lyn, CD22, and SHP-1 are limiting elements of a biochemical pathway regulating BCR signaling and selection. Immunity. 1998;8:497-508 pubmed
    ..hyperactivity syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus characterizes mice lacking the src-family kinase Lyn. Lyn is not required to initiate B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling but is an essential inhibitory component...
  30. Quek L, Pasquet J, Hers I, Cornall R, Knight G, Barnes M, et al. Fyn and Lyn phosphorylate the Fc receptor gamma chain downstream of glycoprotein VI in murine platelets, and Lyn regulates a novel feedback pathway. Blood. 2000;96:4246-53 pubmed
    ..In the current study, the role of 2 Src family kinases, Fyn and Lyn, in GPVI signaling has been examined using murine platelets deficient in one or both kinases...
  31. Ho L, Uehara T, Chen C, Kubagawa H, Cooper M. Constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the inhibitory paired Ig-like receptor PIR-B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:15086-90 pubmed
    ..Splenocyte PIR-B molecules were constitutively associated with the SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase and Lyn protein tyrosine kinase. In Lyn-deficient mice, PIR-B tyrosine phosphorylation was greatly reduced...
  32. Nishizumi H, Horikawa K, Mlinaric Rascan I, Yamamoto T. A double-edged kinase Lyn: a positive and negative regulator for antigen receptor-mediated signals. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1343-8 pubmed
    B cells from young lyn-/- mice are hyperresponsive to anti-IgM-induced proliferation, suggesting involvement of Lyn in negative regulation of B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling...
  33. Lannutti B, Minear J, Blake N, Drachman J. Increased megakaryocytopoiesis in Lyn-deficient mice. Oncogene. 2006;25:3316-24 pubmed
    Previous studies in cell lines have shown Lyn kinase to be a negative regulator of thrombopoietin (TPO)-induced proliferation...
  34. Wang J, Koizumi T, Watanabe T. Altered antigen receptor signaling and impaired Fas-mediated apoptosis of B cells in Lyn-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1996;184:831-8 pubmed
    Mice deficient in the src related protein tyrosine kinase, Lyn, exhibit splenomegaly and accumulate lymphoblast-like and plasma cells in spleen as they age, resulting in elevated levels of serum IgM (10-20-fold of control) and ..
  35. Hirahashi J, Mekala D, Van Ziffle J, Xiao L, Saffaripour S, Wagner D, et al. Mac-1 signaling via Src-family and Syk kinases results in elastase-dependent thrombohemorrhagic vasculopathy. Immunity. 2006;25:271-83 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Mac-1 engagement of complement activates tyrosine kinases to promote elastase-dependent blood vessel injury in vivo. ..
  36. Crowley M, Costello P, Fitzer Attas C, Turner M, Meng F, Lowell C, et al. A critical role for Syk in signal transduction and phagocytosis mediated by Fcgamma receptors on macrophages. J Exp Med. 1997;186:1027-39 pubmed
    ..from mice deficient for the three members of the Src-family of kinases expressed in these cells, Hck, Fgr, and Lyn, exhibited poor Syk activation upon FcgammaR engagement, accompanied by a delay in FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis...
  37. Costello P, Turner M, Walters A, Cunningham C, Bauer P, Downward J, et al. Critical role for the tyrosine kinase Syk in signalling through the high affinity IgE receptor of mast cells. Oncogene. 1996;13:2595-605 pubmed
    ..strongly supports a model of Fc epsilon RI engagement leading to the sequential activation of the tyrosine kinases Lyn and then Syk...
  38. Shio M, Tiemi Shio M, Eisenbarth S, Savaria M, Vinet A, Bellemare M, et al. Malarial hemozoin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome through Lyn and Syk kinases. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000559 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate, using pharmacological and genetic intervention, that the tyrosine kinases Syk and Lyn play a critical role in activation of this inflammasome...
  39. Marchetti S, Gamas P, Belhacene N, Grosso S, Pradelli L, Colosetti P, et al. The caspase-cleaved form of LYN mediates a psoriasis-like inflammatory syndrome in mice. EMBO J. 2009;28:2449-60 pubmed publisher
    We showed previously that Lyn is a substrate for caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, involved in the regulation of apoptosis and inflammation...
  40. Janas M, Hodgkin P, Hibbs M, Tarlinton D. Genetic evidence for Lyn as a negative regulator of IL-4 signaling. J Immunol. 1999;163:4192-8 pubmed
    ..In this report we describe a critical role for the tyrosine kinase Lyn in setting IL-4 signaling thresholds in mouse B lymphocytes...
  41. Kurosaki T. Genetic analysis of B cell antigen receptor signaling. Annu Rev Immunol. 1999;17:555-92 pubmed
    ..experiments in cell lines and mice have revealed distinct functions for the intracellular protein tyrosine kinases (Lyn, Syk, Btk) in BCR signaling and B cell development...
  42. Subramanian A, Hegde S, Correll P, Paulson R. Mutation of the Lyn tyrosine kinase delays the progression of Friend virus induced erythroleukemia without affecting susceptibility. Leuk Res. 2006;30:1141-9 pubmed
    ..In particular, mutation of Src and Lyn can affect erythropoiesis...
  43. Gross A, Lyandres J, Panigrahi A, Prak E, DeFranco A. Developmental acquisition of the Lyn-CD22-SHP-1 inhibitory pathway promotes B cell tolerance. J Immunol. 2009;182:5382-92 pubmed publisher
    To better understand whether autoimmunity in Lyn-deficient mice arises from compromised central or peripheral B cell tolerance, we examined BCR signaling properties of wild-type and Lyn-deficient B cells at different stages of ..
  44. Silver K, Crockford T, Bouriez Jones T, Milling S, Lambe T, Cornall R. MyD88-dependent autoimmune disease in Lyn-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:2734-43 pubmed
    ..To address this, we have examined the role of TLR signaling in Lyn-deficient mice, which develop an autoimmune disease similar to SLE...
  45. Jakus Z, Simon E, Frommhold D, Sperandio M, Mócsai A. Critical role of phospholipase Cgamma2 in integrin and Fc receptor-mediated neutrophil functions and the effector phase of autoimmune arthritis. J Exp Med. 2009;206:577-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify PLCgamma2 as a critical player of integrin and Fc receptor-mediated neutrophil functions and the neutrophil-mediated effector phase of autoimmune arthritis. ..
  46. Ingley E, McCarthy D, Pore J, Sarna M, Adenan A, Wright M, et al. Lyn deficiency reduces GATA-1, EKLF and STAT5, and induces extramedullary stress erythropoiesis. Oncogene. 2005;24:336-43 pubmed
    In vitro studies have implicated the Lyn tyrosine kinase in erythropoietin signaling. In this study, we show that J2E erythroid cells lacking Lyn have impaired signaling and reduced levels of transcription factors STAT5a, EKLF and GATA-1...
  47. Gomez G, Gonzalez Espinosa C, Odom S, Baez G, Cid M, Ryan J, et al. Impaired FcepsilonRI-dependent gene expression and defective eicosanoid and cytokine production as a consequence of Fyn deficiency in mast cells. J Immunol. 2005;175:7602-10 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a major positive role for Fyn kinase in multiple mast cell inflammatory responses and demonstrate a selective negative regulatory role for certain cytokines. ..
  48. Chan V, Meng F, Soriano P, DeFranco A, Lowell C. Characterization of the B lymphocyte populations in Lyn-deficient mice and the role of Lyn in signal initiation and down-regulation. Immunity. 1997;7:69-81 pubmed
    b>Lyn-deficient mice were generated to analyze the role of Lyn in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling...
  49. Zhu Q, Xia L, Mills G, Lowell C, Touw I, Corey S. G-CSF induced reactive oxygen species involves Lyn-PI3-kinase-Akt and contributes to myeloid cell growth. Blood. 2006;107:1847-56 pubmed
    ..G-CSF stimulation showed a time- and dose-dependent increase in ROS production, correlating with activation of Lyn and Akt. Inhibition of Lyn, PI3-kinase, and Akt abrogated G-CSF-induced ROS production...
  50. Harder K, Parsons L, Armes J, Evans N, Kountouri N, Clark R, et al. Gain- and loss-of-function Lyn mutant mice define a critical inhibitory role for Lyn in the myeloid lineage. Immunity. 2001;15:603-15 pubmed
    To investigate the role of the Lyn kinase in establishing signaling thresholds in hematopoietic cells, a gain-of-function mutation analogous to the Src Y527F-activating mutation was introduced into the Lyn gene...
  51. Hibbs M, Harder K, Armes J, Kountouri N, Quilici C, Casagranda F, et al. Sustained activation of Lyn tyrosine kinase in vivo leads to autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2002;196:1593-604 pubmed
    Genetic ablation of the Lyn tyrosine kinase has revealed unique inhibitory roles in B lymphocyte signaling...
  52. Borneo J, Munugalavadla V, Sims E, Vemula S, Orschell C, Yoder M, et al. Src family kinase-mediated negative regulation of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization involves both intrinsic and microenvironmental factors. Exp Hematol. 2007;35:1026-37 pubmed
    ..These data suggest an involvement of both hematopoietic intrinsic and microenvironmental factors in Src kinase-mediated mobilization of stem cells and identify Src kinases as potential targets for modulating stem cell mobilization. ..
  53. Kennedy D, Kuchibhotla S, Westfall K, Silverstein R, Morton R, Febbraio M. A CD36-dependent pathway enhances macrophage and adipose tissue inflammation and impairs insulin signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;89:604-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that a CD36-dependent inflammatory paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages facilitates chronic inflammation and contributes to IR common in obesity and dyslipidaemia. ..