Gene Symbol: Ly6g
Description: lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G
Alias: Gr-1, Gr1, Ly-6G, lymphocyte antigen 6G, ly-6G.1
Species: mouse
Products:     Ly6g

Top Publications

  1. Ribechini E, Leenen P, Lutz M. Gr-1 antibody induces STAT signaling, macrophage marker expression and abrogation of myeloid-derived suppressor cell activity in BM cells. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3538-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, Gr-1 Ab induces signals leading to myelopoiesis and affects myeloid-derived suppressor cell activity, suggesting functional roles for Ly-6C/G molecules in macrophage differentiation and neutrophil apoptosis. ..
  2. Iwata Y, Furuichi K, Kitagawa K, Hara A, Okumura T, Kokubo S, et al. Involvement of CD11b+ GR-1 low cells in autoimmune disorder in MRL-Fas lpr mouse. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:411-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells regulate immunological responses via CCL2/CCR2 signaling. The regulation of immunosuppressive monocytes may provide novel therapeutic strategy for organ damage in autoimmune diseases. ..
  3. Dolcetti L, Peranzoni E, Ugel S, Marigo I, Fernandez Gomez A, Mesa C, et al. Hierarchy of immunosuppressive strength among myeloid-derived suppressor cell subsets is determined by GM-CSF. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:22-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These data unveil a hierarchy of immunoregulatory activity among MDSC subsets that is controlled by tumor-released GM-CSF. ..
  4. Moriggl R, Topham D, Teglund S, Sexl V, McKay C, Wang D, et al. Stat5 is required for IL-2-induced cell cycle progression of peripheral T cells. Immunity. 1999;10:249-59 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes are not seen in mice lacking Stat5a or Stat5b alone. The results demonstrate that the Stat5 proteins, redundantly, are essential mediators of IL-2 signaling in T cells. ..
  5. Egawa T, Albrecht B, Favier B, Sunshine M, Mirchandani K, O BRIEN W, et al. Requirement for CARMA1 in antigen receptor-induced NF-kappa B activation and lymphocyte proliferation. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1252-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these results show that CARMA1 has a central role in antigen receptor signaling that results in activation and proliferation of both B and T lymphocytes. ..
  6. Zhang J, Xiao Z, Qu C, Cui W, Wang X, Du J. CD8 T cells are involved in skeletal muscle regeneration through facilitating MCP-1 secretion and Gr1(high) macrophage infiltration. J Immunol. 2014;193:5149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with WT mice, CD8α deficiency limited the recruitment of Gr1(high) macrophages (MPs) into muscle, resulting in the reduction of satellite cell number...
  7. Ganesh V, Baru A, Hesse C, Friedrich C, Glage S, Gohmert M, et al. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection-induced CD11b+ Gr1+ cells ameliorate allergic airway inflammation. Infect Immun. 2014;82:1052-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed a significant increase in CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid cell populations in mice after infection with S. Typhimurium...
  8. Engel D, Maurer J, Tittel A, Weisheit C, Cavlar T, Schumak B, et al. CCR2 mediates homeostatic and inflammatory release of Gr1(high) monocytes from the bone marrow, but is dispensable for bladder infiltration in bacterial urinary tract infection. J Immunol. 2008;181:5579-86 pubmed
    ..CCR2 is thought to recruit monocytes to sites of infection. Two subpopulations of murine blood monocytes differing in Gr1 and CCR2 expression have been described...
  9. Hu C, Du W, Zhang X, Wong F, Wen L. The role of Gr1+ cells after anti-CD20 treatment in type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 2012;188:294-301 pubmed publisher
    Studies suggest that Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells have immunoregulatory function, and these cells may play an important role in autoimmune diseases...

More Information


  1. Wojtasiak M, Pickett D, Tate M, Londrigan S, Bedoui S, Brooks A, et al. Depletion of Gr-1+, but not Ly6G+, immune cells exacerbates virus replication and disease in an intranasal model of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, mAb 1A8 (anti-Ly6G) bound specifically to Ly6G(high) neutrophils...
  2. Liu Y, Sun L, Wei J, Li D, Yuan Y, Yan B, et al. Tumor cell-released TLR4 ligands stimulate Gr-1+CD11b+F4/80+ cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:2773-82 pubmed publisher
  3. Schiechl G, Bauer B, Fuss I, Lang S, Moser C, Ruemmele P, et al. Tumor development in murine ulcerative colitis depends on MyD88 signaling of colonic F4/80+CD11b(high)Gr1(low) macrophages. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1692-708 pubmed publisher
    ..In this model, the induction of tumors using azoxymethane was accompanied by the coappearance of F4/80+CD11b(high)Gr1(low) M2 macrophages, cells that undergo polarization by IL-13 and are absent in tumors that lack high level IL-13 ..
  4. Abbitt K, Cotter M, Ridger V, Crossman D, Hellewell P, Norman K. Antibody ligation of murine Ly-6G induces neutropenia, blood flow cessation, and death via complement-dependent and independent mechanisms. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this suggests that the responses are, in part, mediated by nonspecific properties of antibody ligation, neutrophil depletion requires an additional mechanism possibly specific to the natural function of Ly-6G. ..
  5. Turnquist H, Zhao Z, Rosborough B, Liu Q, Castellaneta A, Isse K, et al. IL-33 expands suppressive CD11b+ Gr-1(int) and regulatory T cells, including ST2L+ Foxp3+ cells, and mediates regulatory T cell-dependent promotion of cardiac allograft survival. J Immunol. 2011;187:4598-610 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, in addition to supporting Th2 responses, IL-33 facilitates regulatory cells, particularly functional CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs that underlie IL-33-mediated cardiac allograft survival. ..
  6. Miyazaki S, Ishikawa F, Shimizu K, Ubagai T, Edelstein P, Yamaguchi K. Gr-1high polymorphonuclear leukocytes and NK cells act via IL-15 to clear intracellular Haemophilus influenzae in experimental murine peritonitis and pneumonia. J Immunol. 2007;179:5407-14 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Gr-1(high) PMNs produce more IL-15 than Gr-1(low) PMNs, and that IL-15-activated NK cells protect against early infection by H. influenzae. ..
  7. Kina T, Ikuta K, Takayama E, Wada K, Majumdar A, Weissman I, et al. The monoclonal antibody TER-119 recognizes a molecule associated with glycophorin A and specifically marks the late stages of murine erythroid lineage. Br J Haematol. 2000;109:280-7 pubmed
    ..Further molecular and cellular analyses indicated that the TER-119 antigen is a molecule associated with cell-surface glycophorin A but not with glycophorin A itself. ..
  8. McDermott A, Higdon K, Muraglia R, Erb Downward J, Falkowski N, McDonald R, et al. The role of Gr-1(+) cells and tumour necrosis factor-α signalling during Clostridium difficile colitis in mice. Immunology. 2015;144:704-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies raise the possibility that TNF-α may play a role in restraining inflammation and protecting the epithelium during C. difficile infection. ..
  9. Bucher K, Schmitt F, Autenrieth S, Dillmann I, Nürnberg B, Schenke Layland K, et al. Fluorescent Ly6G antibodies determine macrophage phagocytosis of neutrophils and alter the retrieval of neutrophils in mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2015;98:365-72 pubmed publisher
    Fluorescently labeled Ly6G antibodies enable the tracking of neutrophils in mice, whereas purified anti-Ly6G rapidly depletes neutrophils from the circulation. The mechanisms underlying neutrophil depletion are still under debate...
  10. Higashiyama H, Ozawa A, Sumitomo H, Uemura M, Fujino K, Igarashi H, et al. Embryonic cholecystitis and defective gallbladder contraction in the Sox17-haploinsufficient mouse model of biliary atresia. Development. 2017;144:1906-1917 pubmed publisher
  11. Chhabra A, Lechner A, Ueno M, Acharya A, Van Handel B, Wang Y, et al. Trophoblasts regulate the placental hematopoietic niche through PDGF-B signaling. Dev Cell. 2012;22:651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide genetic evidence of a signaling pathway that is required to restrict erythroid differentiation to specific anatomical niches during development. ..
  12. Li Z, Pang Y, Gara S, Achyut B, Heger C, Goldsmith P, et al. Gr-1+CD11b+ cells are responsible for tumor promoting effect of TGF-β in breast cancer progression. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:2584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the efficacy of TGF-β neutralization depends on the presence of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells, and these cells could be good biomarkers for TGF-β-targeted therapy. ..
  13. Zhang R, Ito S, Nishio N, Cheng Z, Suzuki H, Isobe K. Up-regulation of Gr1+CD11b+ population in spleen of dextran sulfate sodium administered mice works to repair colitis. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011;10:39-46 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly we found a great increase of Gr1+CD11b+ cells in spleen and bone marrow of DSS-administered mice...
  14. Bickert T, Marshall R, Zhang Z, Ludewig P, Binder M, Klinke A, et al. Acceleration of collateral development by carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 expression on CD11b/?Gr-1? myeloid cells--brief report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2566-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a proarteriogenic role for CEACAM1(+) myeloid cells is unknown. Here, we investigated the contribution of CEACAM1(+) myeloid cells on collateral formation...
  15. O Connell R, Chaudhuri A, Rao D, Gibson W, Balazs A, Baltimore D. MicroRNAs enriched in hematopoietic stem cells differentially regulate long-term hematopoietic output. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies an evolutionarily conserved subset of miRNAs that is expressed in HSCs and functions to modulate hematopoietic output. ..
  16. O Dea K, Wilson M, Dokpesi J, Wakabayashi K, Tatton L, Van Rooijen N, et al. Mobilization and margination of bone marrow Gr-1high monocytes during subclinical endotoxemia predisposes the lungs toward acute injury. J Immunol. 2009;182:1155-66 pubmed
  17. Lai L, Alaverdi N, Maltais L, Morse H. Mouse cell surface antigens: nomenclature and immunophenotyping. J Immunol. 1998;160:3861-8 pubmed
    ..Several novel markers mentioned may prove useful in mouse immunology research. ..
  18. Jung Y, Zindl C, Lai J, Weaver C, Chaplin D. MMP induced by Gr-1+ cells are crucial for recruitment of Th cells into the airways. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2281-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that antigen challenge via the airway activates Gr-1(+) cells and consequently MMP to facilitate the recruitment of Th cells in the airway inflammatory response. ..
  19. Stewart T, Greeneltch K, Reid J, Liewehr D, Steinberg S, Liu K, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-8 modulates the development of tumour-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:3939-50 pubmed publisher
  20. Medina Echeverz J, Haile L, Zhao F, Gamrekelashvili J, Ma C, Métais J, et al. IFN-γ regulates survival and function of tumor-induced CD11b+ Gr-1high myeloid derived suppressor cells by modulating the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl2a1. Eur J Immunol. 2014;44:2457-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that IFN-γ/ STAT1-dependent regulation of Bcl2a1 regulates survival and thereby suppressor function of granulocytic MDSCs. ..
  21. Wu F, Dang D, Guo J, Li H, Yang K, Zhao D, et al. [Myeloid-derived Gr-1? CD11b? suppressor cells are involved in immunoregulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2014;30:789-92, 797 pubmed
    ..EAE induces an expansion and aggregation of Gr-1? CD11b? MDSCs in spleens and spinal cords. These cells suppress T cell proliferation in vitro and are involved in the immunoregulation of EAE. ..
  22. Kataru R, Jung K, Jang C, Yang H, Schwendener R, Baik J, et al. Critical role of CD11b+ macrophages and VEGF in inflammatory lymphangiogenesis, antigen clearance, and inflammation resolution. Blood. 2009;113:5650-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that VEGF-C, -D, and -A derived from the CD11b+/Gr-1+ macrophages and local inflamed tissues play a critical role in promoting antigen clearance and inflammation resolution. ..
  23. Chen Y, jian Y, Liu M, Zhong L, Zhang F, Yang W, et al. Gr-1⁺CD11b⁺ immature myeloid cells (IMC) promote resistance of pro-inflammatory T cells to suppression by regulatory T cells in atherosclerotic Apo E- deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108620 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings might provide new insights to explore potential targets for immune therapeutic intervention in atherosclerosis. ..
  24. Matsuzaki J, Tsuji T, Chamoto K, Takeshima T, Sendo F, Nishimura T. Successful elimination of memory-type CD8+ T cell subsets by the administration of anti-Gr-1 monoclonal antibody in vivo. Cell Immunol. 2003;224:98-105 pubmed
    ..Thus, we initially demonstrated that anti-Gr-1 mAb might become a good tool to investigate a precise role for memory-type CD8(+) T cells in vivo. ..
  25. Fujisawa T, Wang K, Niu X, Egginton S, Ahmad S, Hewett P, et al. Angiopoietin-1 promotes atherosclerosis by increasing the proportion of circulating Gr1+ monocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2017;113:81-89 pubmed publisher
    ..FACS analysis showed that Ang-1 selectively increased inflammatory Gr1+?monocytes in the circulation, while the cell-surface expression of CD11b, which mediates monocyte ..
  26. Boase N, Rychkov G, Townley S, Dinudom A, Candi E, Voss A, et al. Respiratory distress and perinatal lethality in Nedd4-2-deficient mice. Nat Commun. 2011;2:287 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide critical in vivo evidence that Nedd4-2 is essential for correct regulation of ENaC expression, fetal and postnatal lung function and animal survival. ..
  27. Shi C, Hohl T, Leiner I, Equinda M, Fan X, Pamer E. Ly6G+ neutrophils are dispensable for defense against systemic Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2011;187:5293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, inflammatory monocytes are essential for bacterial clearance during the innate and adaptive phases of the immune response to L. monocytogenes infection. ..
  28. Foks A, van Puijvelde G, Wolbert J, Kröner M, Frodermann V, van der Heijden T, et al. CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in LDLr deficient mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;111:252-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that MDSCs develop during atherosclerosis and reduce atherosclerosis via suppression of pro-inflammatory immune responses. ..
  29. Hu X, Luo Y, Zhou Y, Zhao D, Wu W, Han Z, et al. [Mesenchymal stem cells promote mouse breast tumor progression by inducing the suppressive function of myeloid-derived CD11b? Gr1? cells]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2014;30:785-8 pubmed
    ..stem cells (MSCs) in tumor progression by inducing immuno-suppressive function of myeloid-derived CD11b? Gr1? cells (BM-CD11b? Gr1? cells)...
  30. Yang L, Debusk L, Fukuda K, Fingleton B, Green Jarvis B, Shyr Y, et al. Expansion of myeloid immune suppressor Gr+CD11b+ cells in tumor-bearing host directly promotes tumor angiogenesis. Cancer Cell. 2004;6:409-21 pubmed
    ..Our data provide evidence that Gr+CD11b+ cells of immune origin induced by tumors directly contribute to tumor growth and vascularization by producing MMP9 and differentiating into ECs. ..
  31. Zhan X, Fang Y, Hu S, Wu Y, Yang K, Liao C, et al. IFN-γ differentially regulates subsets of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells in chronic inflammation. Mol Immunol. 2015;66:451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Phenotypical, morphological and functional analysis indicated that the CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) Ly6G(high) Ly6C(low) subset was neutrophil-like myeloid-derived inducer cells (N-MDICs), which promoted T cell ..
  32. Landoni V, Martire Greco D, Rodriguez Rodrigues N, Chiarella P, Schierloh P, Isturiz M, et al. Immature myeloid Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells from lipopolysaccharide-immunosuppressed mice acquire inhibitory activity in the bone marrow and migrate to lymph nodes to exert their suppressive function. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016;130:259-71 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of MDSC generation and/or regulation of factors able to induce their inhibitory function may provide new and more effective tools for the treatment of sepsis-associated immunosuppression. ..
  33. Cheng L, Wang J, Li X, Xing Q, Du P, Su L, et al. Interleukin-6 induces Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to suppress CD8+ T cell-mediated liver injury in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17631 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that IL-6 induced Gr-1+CD11b+ MDSCs in the liver to inhibit T cell-mediated liver injury. The findings have defined a novel mechanism of IL-6 in protecting liver from CD8+ T cell-mediated injury. ..
  34. Yang X, Ai W, Asfaha S, Bhagat G, Friedman R, Jin G, et al. Histamine deficiency promotes inflammation-associated carcinogenesis through reduced myeloid maturation and accumulation of CD11b+Ly6G+ immature myeloid cells. Nat Med. 2011;17:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..mice in which EGFP expression is controlled by the Hdc promoter, we show that Hdc is expressed primarily in CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs) that are recruited early on in chemical carcinogenesis...
  35. Enioutina E, Bareyan D, Daynes R. A role for immature myeloid cells in immune senescence. J Immunol. 2011;186:697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells are characterized by the presence of Gr1 and CD11b markers on their surfaces...
  36. García P, Clarke M, Vegiopoulos A, Berlanga O, Camelo A, Lorvellec M, et al. Reduced c-Myb activity compromises HSCs and leads to a myeloproliferation with a novel stem cell basis. EMBO J. 2009;28:1492-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, cells positive for Kit and expressing low to medium levels of CD11b acquire self-renewing stem cell properties and are responsible for the perpetuation of the myeloproliferative phenotype. ..
  37. Li T, Ramirez K, Palacios R. Distinct patterns of Fas cell surface expression during development of T- or B-lymphocyte lineages in normal, scid, and mutant mice lacking or overexpressing p53, bcl-2, or rag-2 genes. Cell Growth Differ. 1996;7:107-14 pubmed
  38. Rupec R, Jundt F, Rebholz B, Eckelt B, Weindl G, Herzinger T, et al. Stroma-mediated dysregulation of myelopoiesis in mice lacking I kappa B alpha. Immunity. 2005;22:479-91 pubmed
    ..In summary, we show that cell-fate decisions leading to a premalignant hematopoietic disorder can be initiated by nonhematopoietic cells with inactive I kappa B alpha. ..
  39. Fleming T, O hUigin C, Malek T. Characterization of two novel Ly-6 genes. Protein sequence and potential structural similarity to alpha-bungarotoxin and other neurotoxins. J Immunol. 1993;150:5379-90 pubmed
    ..From this relationship, we propose a neurotoxin-like structure for Ly-6 and Ly-6-related proteins, such as CD59. ..
  40. Ge S, Hertel B, Susnik N, Rong S, Dittrich A, Schmitt R, et al. Interleukin 17 receptor A modulates monocyte subsets and macrophage generation in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e85461 pubmed publisher
    ..Monocytes are divided into two subpopulations by expression of the Ly6C/Gr1 surface marker in mice. We here investigated the role of Il17ra in monocyte homeostasis and macrophage generation...
  41. Yi H, Guo C, Yu X, Zuo D, Wang X. Mouse CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells can promote Th17 cell differentiation and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2012;189:4295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These new findings provide unique insights into the pleiotropic functions of MDSCs and may help explain the failure of immunosuppressive MDSCs to control Th17/IL-17-dependent autoimmune disorders...
  42. Makarenkova V, Bansal V, Matta B, Perez L, Ochoa J. CD11b+/Gr-1+ myeloid suppressor cells cause T cell dysfunction after traumatic stress. J Immunol. 2006;176:2085-94 pubmed
    ..Understanding the mechanism of immune suppression by these cells has important clinical implications in the treatment of immune dysfunction after trauma or surgery. ..
  43. Hutas G, Bajnok E, Gal I, Finnegan A, Glant T, Mikecz K. CD44-specific antibody treatment and CD44 deficiency exert distinct effects on leukocyte recruitment in experimental arthritis. Blood. 2008;112:4999-5006 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the robust anti-inflammatory effect of CD44-specific antibodies in arthritis is primarily the result of their ability to trigger granulocyte depletion. ..
  44. Zhang W, Liang S, Wu J, Horuzsko A. Human inhibitory receptor immunoglobulin-like transcript 2 amplifies CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells that promote long-term survival of allografts. Transplantation. 2008;86:1125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that induction of MDSCs using ILT2 inhibitory receptor/HLA-G ligand may be an attractive strategy for preventing rejection of immunogenic organs or tissues in clinical transplantation. ..
  45. Park H, Staehling Hampton K, Appleby M, Brunkow M, Habib T, Zhang Y, et al. A point mutation in the murine Hem1 gene reveals an essential role for Hematopoietic protein 1 in lymphopoiesis and innate immunity. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2899-913 pubmed publisher
  46. Stewart T, Liewehr D, Steinberg S, Greeneltch K, Abrams S. Modulating the expression of IFN regulatory factor 8 alters the protumorigenic behavior of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:117-28 pubmed publisher
  47. Mao D, Wu X, Deppong C, Friend L, Dolecki G, Nelson D, et al. Negligible role of antibodies and C5 in pregnancy loss associated exclusively with C3-dependent mechanisms through complement alternative pathway. Immunity. 2003;19:813-22 pubmed
    ..These findings provide significant insight into the role of the innate immune system in human pregnancy failure, a frequent clinical outcome. ..
  48. Wang J, Bair A, King S, Shnayder R, Huang Y, Shieh C, et al. Ly6G ligation blocks recruitment of neutrophils via a ?2-integrin-dependent mechanism. Blood. 2012;120:1489-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Ly6G is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein of unknown function that is commonly targeted to induce experimental neutrophil depletion in mice...
  49. Bultman S, Gebuhr T, Magnuson T. A Brg1 mutation that uncouples ATPase activity from chromatin remodeling reveals an essential role for SWI/SNF-related complexes in beta-globin expression and erythroid development. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2849-61 pubmed
    ..Not only does this mutation establish a role for Brg1 during organogenesis, it also demonstrates that ATPase activity can be uncoupled from chromatin remodeling. ..