Gene Symbol: Lrat
Description: lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (phosphatidylcholine-retinol-O-acyltransferase)
Alias: 1300010A18Rik, AI449251, lecithin retinol acyltransferase, phosphatidylcholine--retinol O-acyltransferase
Species: mouse
Products:     Lrat

Top Publications

  1. Maeda A, Maeda T, Golczak M, Chou S, Desai A, Hoppel C, et al. Involvement of all-trans-retinal in acute light-induced retinopathy of mice. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings further understanding of the mechanisms involved in light-induced retinal degeneration...
  2. Batten M, Imanishi Y, Maeda T, Tu D, Moise A, Bronson D, et al. Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase is essential for accumulation of all-trans-retinyl esters in the eye and in the liver. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:10422-32 pubmed
    Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), an enzyme present mainly in the retinal pigmented epithelial cells and liver, converts all-trans-retinol into all-trans-retinyl esters...
  3. Batten M, Imanishi Y, Tu D, Doan T, Zhu L, Pang J, et al. Pharmacological and rAAV gene therapy rescue of visual functions in a blind mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis. PLoS Med. 2005;2:e333 pubmed
    ..One cause of LCA is loss of the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), which is required for regeneration of the visual photopigment in the retina...
  4. Imanishi Y, Sun W, Maeda T, Maeda A, Palczewski K. Retinyl ester homeostasis in the adipose differentiation-related protein-deficient retina. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25091-102 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that Adfp plays a unique role in vision by maintaining proper storage and trafficking of retinoids within the eye. ..
  5. Billings S, Pierzchalski K, Butler Tjaden N, Pang X, Trainor P, KANE M, et al. The retinaldehyde reductase DHRS3 is essential for preventing the formation of excess retinoic acid during embryonic development. FASEB J. 2013;27:4877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the reduction of retinaldehyde by DHRS3 is critical for preventing formation of excess ATRA during embryonic development...
  6. Touma S, Perner S, Rubin M, Nanus D, Gudas L. Retinoid metabolism and ALDH1A2 (RALDH2) expression are altered in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:1127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..transcripts for genes involved in retinoid signaling and metabolism, including ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, CYP26A1, LRAT, and RARbeta(2), in prostate tissue from TRAMP positive (+) and age-matched littermate control mice ranging from 18 ..
  7. Zolfaghari R, Ross A. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase from mouse and rat liver. CDNA cloning and liver-specific regulation by dietary vitamin a and retinoic acid. J Lipid Res. 2000;41:2024-34 pubmed
    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), present in microsomes, catalyzes the transfer of the sn-1 fatty acid of phosphatidylcholine to retinol bound to a cellular retinol-binding protein...
  8. Kim Y, Wassef L, Chung S, Jiang H, Wyss A, Blaner W, et al. ?-Carotene and its cleavage enzyme ?-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (CMOI) affect retinoid metabolism in developing tissues. FASEB J. 2011;25:1641-52 pubmed publisher
    ..on retinoid metabolism by influencing retinyl ester formation via modulation of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) activity, at least in developing tissues...
  9. Cassani B, Villablanca E, Quintana F, Love P, Lacy Hulbert A, Blaner W, et al. Gut-tropic T cells that express integrin ?4?7 and CCR9 are required for induction of oral immune tolerance in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:2109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapies designed to block gut-homing receptors might, under some conditions, interfere with normal tolerogenic mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa. ..

More Information


  1. Maeda A, Okano K, Park P, Lem J, Crouch R, Maeda T, et al. Palmitoylation stabilizes unliganded rod opsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..When Palm(-/-) mice were crossed with Lrat(-/-) mice lacking lecithin:retinol acyl transferase to eliminate retinoid binding to opsin and thereby rendering ..
  2. Kostic C, Arsenijevic Y. Animal modelling for inherited central vision loss. J Pathol. 2016;238:300-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The models reported herein permit the exploration of common mechanisms that exist between different species and the identification and highlighting of pathways that may be specific to primates, including humans. ..
  3. Kaylor J, Radu R, Bischoff N, Makshanoff J, Hu J, Lloyd M, et al. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase type-1 synthesizes retinyl esters in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0125921 pubmed publisher
    ..The major retinyl-ester synthase in RPE cells is lecithin:retinol acyl-transferase (LRAT)...
  4. Pruková D, Ileninova Z, Antosova B, Kaspárek P, Gregor M, Sedlacek R. Transgenic reporter mice with promoter region of murine LRAT specifically marks lens and meiosis spermatocytes. Physiol Res. 2015;64:247-54 pubmed
    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is the major enzyme responsible for retinol esterification in the mammalian body...
  5. Zolfaghari R, Ross A. An essential set of basic DNA response elements is required for receptor-dependent transcription of the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (Lrat) gene. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;489:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is essential for vitamin A storage. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated transcriptional regulation of the Lrat gene in vivo by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and other retinoids. Analysis of a 2...
  6. Berry D, Jacobs H, Marwarha G, Gely Pernot A, O Byrne S, DeSantis D, et al. The STRA6 receptor is essential for retinol-binding protein-induced insulin resistance but not for maintaining vitamin A homeostasis in tissues other than the eye. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:24528-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus one biological function of STRA6 in tissues other than the eye appears to be the coupling of circulating holo-RBP levels to cell signaling, in turn regulating key processes such as insulin response. ..
  7. Golczak M, Imanishi Y, Kuksa V, Maeda T, Kubota R, Palczewski K. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase is responsible for amidation of retinylamine, a potent inhibitor of the retinoid cycle. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42263-73 pubmed
    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) catalyzes the transfer of an acyl group from the sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine to all-trans-retinol (vitamin A) and plays an essential role in the regeneration of visual chromophore as well ..
  8. Chen F, Marquez H, Kim Y, Qian J, Shao F, Fine A, et al. Prenatal retinoid deficiency leads to airway hyperresponsiveness in adult mice. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:801-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a role for endogenous RA signaling in restricting SM differentiation and preventing precocious and excessive SM differentiation when airways are forming. ..
  9. Zhang N, Kolesnikov A, Jastrzebska B, Mustafi D, Sawada O, Maeda T, et al. Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa E150K opsin mice exhibit photoreceptor disorganization. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:121-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Ablation of the chromophore by crossing KK mice with mice lacking the critical visual cycle protein LRAT slowed retinal degeneration, whereas blocking phototransduction by crossing KK mice with GNAT1-deficient mice ..
  10. Lobo G, Hessel S, Eichinger A, Noy N, Moise A, Wyss A, et al. ISX is a retinoic acid-sensitive gatekeeper that controls intestinal beta,beta-carotene absorption and vitamin A production. FASEB J. 2010;24:1656-66 pubmed publisher
  11. Zhang H, Fan J, Li S, Karan S, Rohrer B, Palczewski K, et al. Trafficking of membrane-associated proteins to cone photoreceptor outer segments requires the chromophore 11-cis-retinal. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4008-14 pubmed publisher
    Lecithin retinol acyl transferase (LRAT) and retinal pigment epithelium protein 65 (RPE65) are key enzymes of the retinoid cycle...
  12. Shmarakov I, Jiang H, Yang K, Goldberg I, Blaner W. Hepatic retinoid stores are required for normal liver regeneration. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:893-908 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand this, we compared responses of wild-type and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (Lrat)-deficient mice, which totally lack hepatic retinoid stores, to PHE...
  13. Tu D, Owens L, Anderson L, Golczak M, Doyle S, McCall M, et al. Inner retinal photoreception independent of the visual retinoid cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10426-10431 pubmed publisher
    Mice lacking the visual cycle enzymes RPE65 or lecithin-retinol acyl transferase (Lrat) have pupillary light responses (PLR) that are less sensitive than those of mice with outer retinal degeneration (rd/rd or rdta)...
  14. Wassef L, Spiegler E, Quadro L. Embryonic phenotype, ?-carotene and retinoid metabolism upon maternal supplementation of ?-carotene in a mouse model of severe vitamin A deficiency. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;539:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e. Lrat-/-Rbp-/- dams maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet during gestation...
  15. Golczak M, Maeda A, Bereta G, Maeda T, Kiser P, Hunzelmann S, et al. Metabolic basis of visual cycle inhibition by retinoid and nonretinoid compounds in the vertebrate retina. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence for a crucial role of lecithin: retinol acyltransferase activity in mediating tissue specific absorption and long lasting therapeutic effects of retinoid-based visual cycle inhibitors. ..
  16. Shirakami Y, Gottesman M, Blaner W. Diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is suppressed in lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-deficient mice primarily through retinoid actions immediately after carcinogen administration. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..DEN) to induce hepatic tumorigenesis in matched wild-type (WT) and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) knockout (KO) mice, which lack stored retinoid and HSC lipid droplets...
  17. Acin Perez R, Hoyos B, Zhao F, Vinogradov V, Fischman D, Harris R, et al. Control of oxidative phosphorylation by vitamin A illuminates a fundamental role in mitochondrial energy homoeostasis. FASEB J. 2010;24:627-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide a mechanistic explanation to the nearly 100-yr-old question of why vitamin A deficiency causes so many pathologies that are independent of retinoic acid action. ..
  18. Gao S, Maeda T, Okano K, Palczewski K. A microparticle/hydrogel combination drug-delivery system for sustained release of retinoids. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6314-23 pubmed
  19. Vernet N, Dennefeld C, Klopfenstein M, Ruiz A, Bok D, Ghyselinck N, et al. Retinoid X receptor beta (RXRB) expression in Sertoli cells controls cholesterol homeostasis and spermiation. Reproduction. 2008;136:619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..a feature of vitamin A deficiency that can be readily induced in mice lacking the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (Lrat(-/-) mutants)...
  20. Kim Y, Wassef L, Hamberger L, Piantedosi R, Palczewski K, Blaner W, et al. Retinyl ester formation by lecithin: retinol acyltransferase is a key regulator of retinoid homeostasis in mouse embryogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5611-21 pubmed
    ..We investigated the role of retinyl ester formation catalyzed by lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) in regulating retinoid homeostasis during embryogenesis...
  21. Ohana R, Weiman Kelman B, Raviv S, Tamm E, Pasmanik Chor M, Rinon A, et al. MicroRNAs are essential for differentiation of the retinal pigmented epithelium and maturation of adjacent photoreceptors. Development. 2015;142:2487-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals the combined regulatory activity of miRNAs that is required for RPE differentiation and for the development of the adjacent neuroretina. ..
  22. Liu L, Gudas L. Disruption of the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase gene makes mice more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40226-34 pubmed
    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) catalyzes the esterification of retinol (vitamin A) in the liver and in some extrahepatic tissues, including the lung...
  23. Liu H, Tang J, Du Y, Lee C, Golczak M, Muthusamy A, et al. Retinylamine Benefits Early Diabetic Retinopathy in Mice. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:21568-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT)-deficient mice and P23H mutant mice were similarly studied...
  24. Zhang T, Cao L, Kumar S, Enemchukwu N, Zhang N, Lambert A, et al. Dimerization of visual pigments in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:9093-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We addressed this question in vivo with a unique mouse line (S-opsin(+)Lrat(-/-)) expressing, transgenically, short-wavelength-sensitive cone opsin (S-opsin) in rods and also lacking ..
  25. Tang X, Su D, Albert M, Scognamiglio T, Gudas L. Overexpression of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase in the epithelial basal layer makes mice more sensitive to oral cavity carcinogenesis induced by a carcinogen. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009;8:1212-3 pubmed
    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is an enzyme that converts retinol (vitamin A) to retinyl esters. Its expression is often reduced in human cancers, including oral cavity cancers...
  26. Amengual J, Widjaja Adhi M, Rodriguez Santiago S, Hessel S, Golczak M, Palczewski K, et al. Two carotenoid oxygenases contribute to mammalian provitamin A metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:34081-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study provides evidence that mammals employ both carotenoid oxygenases to synthesize retinoids from provitamin A carotenoids. ..
  27. Zhang T, Enemchukwu N, Jones A, Wang S, Dennis E, Watt C, et al. Genetic deletion of S-opsin prevents rapid cone degeneration in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:1755-63 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in RPE65 or lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) disrupt 11-cis-retinal synthesis and cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe hereditary blindness occurring in early childhood...
  28. Jin M, Yuan Q, Li S, Travis G. Role of LRAT on the retinoid isomerase activity and membrane association of Rpe65. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20915-24 pubmed
    ..It has been suggested that Rpe65 is S-palmitoylated by lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT) on Cys(231), Cys(329), and Cys(330), and that this palmitoylation is required for isomerase activity and the ..
  29. Collin G, Hubmacher D, Charette J, Hicks W, Stone L, Yu M, et al. Disruption of murine Adamtsl4 results in zonular fiber detachment from the lens and in retinal pigment epithelium dedifferentiation. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6958-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the Adamtsl4(tvrm267) model provides a valuable tool to further elucidate the molecular basis of zonule formation, the pathophysiology of EL and ADAMTSL4 function in the maintenance of the RPE. ..
  30. Asson Batres M, Ryzhov S, Tikhomirov O, Duarte C, Congdon C, Lessard C, et al. Effects of vitamin A deficiency in the postnatal mouse heart: role of hepatic retinoid stores. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;310:H1773-89 pubmed publisher
  31. Alapatt P, Guo F, Komanetsky S, Wang S, Cai J, Sargsyan A, et al. Liver retinol transporter and receptor for serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:1250-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, expression of RBPR2 in liver and fat suggests a possible role in mediating established metabolic actions of RBP4 in those tissues. ..
  32. Zhang T, Zhang N, Baehr W, Fu Y. Cone opsin determines the time course of cone photoreceptor degeneration in Leber congenital amaurosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8879-84 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in RPE65 or lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) disrupt 11-cis-retinal recycling and cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), the most severe retinal dystrophy in early childhood...
  33. O Byrne S, Kako Y, Deckelbaum R, Hansen I, Palczewski K, Goldberg I, et al. Multiple pathways ensure retinoid delivery to milk: studies in genetically modified mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E862-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Milk retinyl esters were markedly altered in mice lacking the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (Lrat(-/-)), indicating that this enzyme is normally responsible for the majority of retinyl esters incorporated into ..
  34. Wassef L, Shete V, Hong A, Spiegler E, Quadro L. ?-Carotene supplementation decreases placental transcription of LDL receptor-related protein 1 in wild-type mice and stimulates placental ?-carotene uptake in marginally vitamin A-deficient mice. J Nutr. 2012;142:1456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We used wild-type (WT) and Lrat(-/-)Rbp(-/-) (L(-/-)R(-/-)) mice, the latter being a model of marginal vitamin A deficiency...
  35. Liu L, Tang X, Gudas L. Homeostasis of retinol in lecithin: retinol acyltransferase gene knockout mice fed a high retinol diet. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75:2316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..retinoid levels and gene expression in various tissues after wild-type (Wt) and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT-/-) knockout mice were fed a high retinol diet (250 IU/g)...
  36. Golczak M, Palczewski K. An acyl-covalent enzyme intermediate of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), the main enzyme responsible for retinyl ester formation, catalyzes the transfer of an acyl group from the sn-1 ..
  37. Wongsiriroj N, Piantedosi R, Palczewski K, Goldberg I, Johnston T, Li E, et al. The molecular basis of retinoid absorption: a genetic dissection. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:13510-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT)-deficient mice indicate that LRAT is responsible for the preponderance of retinyl ester synthesis in the body, ..
  38. Maeda A, Palczewska G, Golczak M, Kohno H, Dong Z, Maeda T, et al. Two-photon microscopy reveals early rod photoreceptor cell damage in light-exposed mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1428-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that for light-induced retinopathies in mice, rod photoreceptors are the primary site of toxic retinoid accumulation and degeneration, followed by secondary changes in the RPE. ..
  39. Amengual J, Golczak M, Palczewski K, von Lintig J. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase is critical for cellular uptake of vitamin A from serum retinol-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24216-27 pubmed publisher
    ..A from holo-RBP depends on functional coupling of STRA6 with intracellular lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). Thus, vitamin A uptake from recombinant holo-RBP exhibited by wild type mice was impaired in Lrat(-/-) mice...
  40. O Byrne S, Wongsiriroj N, Libien J, Vogel S, Goldberg I, Baehr W, et al. Retinoid absorption and storage is impaired in mice lacking lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35647-57 pubmed
    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is believed to be the predominant if not the sole enzyme in the body responsible for the physiologic esterification of retinol...
  41. Wongsiriroj N, Jiang H, Piantedosi R, Yang K, Kluwe J, Schwabe R, et al. Genetic dissection of retinoid esterification and accumulation in the liver and adipose tissue. J Lipid Res. 2014;55:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike the liver, where lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is responsible for all RE synthesis, this is not true for adipose tissue where Lrat-deficient mice display ..
  42. Sakami S, Maeda T, Bereta G, Okano K, Golczak M, Sumaroka A, et al. Probing mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in a new mouse model of the common form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa due to P23H opsin mutations. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10551-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that most synthesized P23H protein is degraded, and its retinal cytotoxicity is enhanced by lack of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore during rod outer segment development. ..
  43. Ruiz A, Ghyselinck N, Mata N, Nusinowitz S, Lloyd M, Dennefeld C, et al. Somatic ablation of the Lrat gene in the mouse retinal pigment epithelium drastically reduces its retinoid storage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5377-87 pubmed
    To generate a mouse model in which the Lrat gene is selectively disrupted in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)...
  44. Zhang T, Baehr W, Fu Y. Chemical chaperone TUDCA preserves cone photoreceptors in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3349-56 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in either retinoid isomerase (RPE65) or lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) lead to Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA)...
  45. Moise A, Golczak M, Imanishi Y, Palczewski K. Topology and membrane association of lecithin: retinol acyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2081-90 pubmed
    ..Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), the main enzyme responsible for retinyl ester formation, acts by transferring an acyl group from the sn-1 ..
  46. Palczewska G, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Sun W, Chen Y, Williams D, et al. Noninvasive multiphoton fluorescence microscopy resolves retinol and retinal condensation products in mouse eyes. Nat Med. 2010;16:1444-9 pubmed publisher
  47. Fu Y, Zhang T. Pathophysilogical mechanism and treatment strategies for Leber congenital amaurosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;801:791-6 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in retinoid isomerase, RPE65, or lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) disrupt 11-cis-retinal recycling and cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), the most severe retinal dystrophy in early childhood...
  48. Maeda T, Cideciyan A, Maeda A, Golczak M, Aleman T, Jacobson S, et al. Loss of cone photoreceptors caused by chromophore depletion is partially prevented by the artificial chromophore pro-drug, 9-cis-retinyl acetate. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2277-87 pubmed publisher
    Inactivating mutations in the retinoid isomerase (RPE65) or lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) genes cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe visual impairment in humans...
  49. Li H, Palczewski K, Baehr W, Clagett Dame M. Vitamin A deficiency results in meiotic failure and accumulation of undifferentiated spermatogonia in prepubertal mouse testis. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:336-41 pubmed publisher
    ..gene, Stra8, and caused meiotic failure in prepubertal male mice lacking lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (Lrat), encoding for the major enzyme in liver responsible for the formation of retinyl esters...
  50. Maeda T, Dong Z, Jin H, Sawada O, Gao S, Utkhede D, et al. QLT091001, a 9-cis-retinal analog, is well-tolerated by retinas of mice with impaired visual cycles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:455-66 pubmed publisher
  51. Amann P, Czaja K, Bazhin A, Rühl R, Eichmüller S, Merk H, et al. LRAT overexpression diminishes intracellular levels of biologically active retinoids and reduces retinoid antitumor efficacy in the murine melanoma B16F10 cell line. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2015;28:205-12 pubmed
    ..One of the key retinoid metabolizing enzymes is lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which catalyzes the transformation of ATRol into inactive retinyl esters...
  52. Clugston R, Jiang H, Lee M, Berk P, Goldberg I, Huang L, et al. Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1831:1276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. ..
  53. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Golczak M, Moise A, Palczewski K. Aberrant metabolites in mouse models of congenital blinding diseases: formation and storage of retinyl esters. Biochemistry. 2006;45:4210-9 pubmed
    ..The data presented here support the idea that 13-cis-retinyl esters are formed through an aberrant enzymatic isomerization process. ..
  54. Bereta G, Wang B, Kiser P, Baehr W, Jang G, Palczewski K. A functional kinase homology domain is essential for the activity of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase 1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..However, evidence is presented that autophosphorylation does not regulate GC1 activity, in contrast to phosphorylation of other members of this cyclase family. ..
  55. Maeda T, Lee M, Palczewska G, Marsili S, Tesar P, Palczewski K, et al. Retinal pigmented epithelial cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells possess functional visual cycle enzymes in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:34484-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, transplantation of mpRPE into blind Lrat(-/-) and Rpe65(-/-) mice resulted in the recovery of visual function, including increased electrographic signaling ..
  56. Dixon J, Kim Y, Brinker A, Quadro L. Loss of ?-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase in developing mouse tissues alters esterification of retinol, cholesterol and diacylglycerols. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1841:34-43 pubmed publisher
  57. Kim Y, Zuccaro M, Costabile B, Rodas R, Quadro L. Tissue- and sex-specific effects of β-carotene 15,15' oxygenase (BCO1) on retinoid and lipid metabolism in adult and developing mice. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2015;572:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..lecithin-dependent and acyl CoA-dependent retinol esterification, mediated by lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and acyl CoA:retinol acyltransferase (ARAT), respectively...
  58. Fan J, Rohrer B, Frederick J, Baehr W, Crouch R. Rpe65-/- and Lrat-/- mice: comparable models of leber congenital amaurosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:2384-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, the Lrat-/- mouse does not produce 11-cis retinal...