Gene Symbol: Lox
Description: lysyl oxidase
Alias: AI893619, TSC-160, rrg, protein-lysine 6-oxidase, ras excision protein, ras recision
Species: mouse
Products:     Lox

Top Publications

  1. Dimaculangan D, Chawla A, Boak A, Kagan H, Lazar M. Retinoic acid prevents downregulation of ras recision gene/lysyl oxidase early in adipocyte differentiation. Differentiation. 1994;58:47-52 pubmed
    ..Molecular cloning of the cDNA revealed it to be identical to the ras recision gene (rrg), for lysyl oxidase...
  2. Maruhashi T, Kii I, Saito M, Kudo A. Interaction between periostin and BMP-1 promotes proteolytic activation of lysyl oxidase. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13294-303 pubmed publisher
    Intra- and intermolecular covalent cross-linking between collagen fibrils, catalyzed by lysyl oxidase (LOX), determines the mechanical properties of connective tissues; however, mechanisms that regulate the collagen cross-linking ..
  3. Yang Z, Xiaohua W, Lei J, Ruoyun T, Mingxia X, Weichun H, et al. Uric acid increases fibronectin synthesis through upregulation of lysyl oxidase expression in rat renal tubular epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F336-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the saline injection group, the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and fibronectin in kidneys was increased significantly in hyperuricemic groups...
  4. Erler J, Bennewith K, Cox T, Lang G, Bird D, Koong A, et al. Hypoxia-induced lysyl oxidase is a critical mediator of bone marrow cell recruitment to form the premetastatic niche. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is critical for premetastatic niche formation...
  5. Horiguchi M, Inoue T, Ohbayashi T, Hirai M, Noda K, Marmorstein L, et al. Fibulin-4 conducts proper elastogenesis via interaction with cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19029-34 pubmed publisher
    ..fibers in arteries, and a specific role of FBLN4 in recruiting the elastin-cross-linking enzyme, lysyl oxidase (LOX)...
  6. Maki J, Rasanen J, Tikkanen H, Sormunen R, Mäkikallio K, Kivirikko K, et al. Inactivation of the lysyl oxidase gene Lox leads to aortic aneurysms, cardiovascular dysfunction, and perinatal death in mice. Circulation. 2002;106:2503-9 pubmed
    ..We studied the role of the first described isoenzyme Lox by inactivating its gene in mice. Murine Lox gene was disrupted by routine methods...
  7. Wu M, Min C, Wang X, Yu Z, Kirsch K, Trackman P, et al. Repression of BCL2 by the tumor suppressor activity of the lysyl oxidase propeptide inhibits transformed phenotype of lung and pancreatic cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6278-85 pubmed
    The gene encoding lysyl oxidase (LOX) was identified as the ras recision gene (rrg), with the ability to revert Ras-mediated transformation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts...
  8. Starcher B, Madaras J, Tepper A. Lysyl oxidase deficiency in lung and fibroblasts from mice with hereditary emphysema. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1977;78:706-12 pubmed
  9. Maki J, Sormunen R, Lippo S, Kaarteenaho Wiik R, Soininen R, Myllyharju J. Lysyl oxidase is essential for normal development and function of the respiratory system and for the integrity of elastic and collagen fibers in various tissues. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:927-36 pubmed
    Lysyl oxidases, a family comprising LOX and four LOX-like enzymes, catalyze crosslinking of elastin and collagens...

More Information


  1. Fogelgren B, Polgar N, Szauter K, Ujfaludi Z, Laczkó R, Fong K, et al. Cellular fibronectin binds to lysyl oxidase with high affinity and is critical for its proteolytic activation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24690-7 pubmed
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-containing amine oxidase known to catalyze the covalent cross-linking of fibrillar collagens and elastin at peptidyl lysine residues...
  2. Palamakumbura A, Sommer P, Trackman P. Autocrine growth factor regulation of lysyl oxidase expression in transformed fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30781-7 pubmed
    ..This finding may be of therapeutic significance and, in addition, provides a new experimental approach to investigate the mechanism of the tumor suppressor activity of lysyl oxidase. ..
  3. Liu S, Ikenaga N, Peng Z, Sverdlov D, Greenstein A, Smith V, et al. Lysyl oxidase activity contributes to collagen stabilization during liver fibrosis progression and limits spontaneous fibrosis reversal in mice. FASEB J. 2016;30:1599-609 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the functional contribution of lysyl oxidase (LOX) to collagen stabilization and hepatic fibrosis progression/reversalin vivousing chronic administration of ..
  4. Eliades A, Papadantonakis N, Bhupatiraju A, Burridge K, Johnston Cox H, Migliaccio A, et al. Control of megakaryocyte expansion and bone marrow fibrosis by lysyl oxidase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:27630-8 pubmed publisher
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a matrix cross-linking protein, is known to be selectively expressed and to enhance a fibrotic phenotype...
  5. Atsawasuwan P, Mochida Y, Katafuchi M, Kaku M, Fong K, Csiszar K, et al. Lysyl oxidase binds transforming growth factor-beta and regulates its signaling via amine oxidase activity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:34229-40 pubmed publisher
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX), an amine oxidase critical for the initiation of collagen and elastin cross-linking, has recently been shown to regulate cellular activities possibly by modulating the functions of growth factors...
  6. Prashar P, Yadav P, Samarjeet F, Bandyopadhyay A. Microarray meta-analysis identifies evolutionarily conserved BMP signaling targets in developing long bones. Dev Biol. 2014;389:192-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these Lox, Klf10 and Gpr97 are likely to be direct transcriptional targets of BMP signaling pathway...
  7. Chen H, Lin Y, Chen Y, Chen W. Stress urinary incontinence following vaginal trauma involves remodeling of urethral connective tissue in female mice. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;163:224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in leak point pressure (LPP), morphology, lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and the metabolism of urethral connective tissue were assessed...
  8. Gao Y, Xiao Q, Ma H, Li L, Liu J, Feng Y, et al. LKB1 inhibits lung cancer progression through lysyl oxidase and extracellular matrix remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18892-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that lysyl oxidase (LOX), negatively regulated by LKB1 through mTOR-HIF-1α signaling axis, mediates lung cancer progression...
  9. Kenyon K, Contente S, Trackman P, Tang J, Kagan H, Friedman R. Lysyl oxidase and rrg messenger RNA. Science. 1991;253:802 pubmed
  10. Krzyzosiak W, Shindo Okada N, Teshima H, Nakajima K, Nishimura S. Isolation of genes specifically expressed in flat revertant cells derived from activated ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells by treatment with azatyrosine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4879-83 pubmed
    ..Two clones thus isolated were found to be almost identical to the ras recision gene (rrg), which was identified as a tumor-suppressor gene by Contente et al. [Contente, S., Kenyon, K...
  11. Shibanuma M, Mashimo J, Mita A, Kuroki T, Nose K. Cloning from a mouse osteoblastic cell line of a set of transforming-growth-factor-beta 1-regulated genes, one of which seems to encode a follistatin-related polypeptide. Eur J Biochem. 1993;217:13-9 pubmed
    ..From partial nucleotide sequences, TSC-160 was found to be identical to rrg (ras-recision gene, lysyl oxidase), and TSC-115 had 80% similarity with tropomyosin cDNA, whereas other genes ..
  12. Chen J, Tsai P, Tai H, Tsai R, Chang Y, Wang M, et al. Increased aortic stiffness and attenuated lysyl oxidase activity in obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:839-46 pubmed publisher
    ..ob/ob aorta exhibited decreases of lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity and cross-linked elastin, and increases of elastin fragmentation and elastolytic activity...
  13. Huang H, Chen S, Zhang W, Wang S, Liu Y, Li X, et al. Induction of EMT-like response by BMP4 via up-regulation of lysyl oxidase is required for adipocyte lineage commitment. Stem Cell Res. 2013;10:278-87 pubmed publisher
    ..complete commitment of C3H10T1/2 pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage and knockdown of lysyl oxidase (Lox) disrupts this commitment process...
  14. Beerlage C, Greb J, Kretschmer D, Assaggaf M, Trackman P, Hansmann M, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-regulated lysyl oxidase is involved in Staphylococcus aureus abscess formation. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2562-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Four hours after infection, the expression of 190 genes, 24 of which were regulated via HIF-1, was influenced. LOX (encoding lysyl oxidase) was one of the upregulated genes with a potential impact on the course of S...
  15. Zibadi S, Vazquez R, Moore D, Larson D, Watson R. Myocardial lysyl oxidase regulation of cardiac remodeling in a murine model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H976-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is one of the cardiac ECM-modifying enzymes that catalyze the formation of collagen cross-linking...
  16. Zimnicka A, Tang H, Guo Q, Kuhr F, Oh M, Wan J, et al. Upregulated copper transporters in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90544 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoxia also significantly increased expression and activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a Cu-dependent enzyme that causes crosslinks of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix...
  17. Kalamajski S, Bihan D, Bonna A, Rubin K, Farndale R. Fibromodulin Interacts with Collagen Cross-linking Sites and Activates Lysyl Oxidase. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7951-60 pubmed publisher
  18. Palamakumbura A, Jeay S, Guo Y, Pischon N, Sommer P, Sonenshein G, et al. The propeptide domain of lysyl oxidase induces phenotypic reversion of ras-transformed cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40593-600 pubmed
    ..Thus, the lysyl oxidase propeptide, which is released during extracellular proteolytic processing of pro-lysyl oxidase, functions to inhibit ras-dependent cell transformation. ..
  19. Feenstra J, Kanaya K, Pira C, Hoffman S, Eppey R, Oberg K. Detection of genes regulated by Lmx1b during limb dorsalization. Dev Growth Differ. 2012;54:451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides the most comprehensive characterization of genes regulated by Lmx1b during limb development to-date and provides targets for further investigation. ..
  20. Macauley S, Tarnuzzer R, Schultz G, Chegini N, Oxford G, Humphreys Beher M. Extracellular-matrix gene expression during mouse submandibular gland development. Arch Oral Biol. 1997;42:443-54 pubmed
  21. Gacheru S, McGee C, Uriu Hare J, Kosonen T, Packman S, Tinker D, et al. Expression and accumulation of lysyl oxidase, elastin, and type I procollagen in human Menkes and mottled mouse fibroblasts. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;301:325-9 pubmed
    ..Based on the present studies in cell culture, the production of essential enzymes and matrix proteins, such as lysyl oxidase and elastin, appear to be altered at the level of transcription or mRNA turnover. ..
  22. Lossie A, Buckwalter M, Camper S. Lysyl oxidase (Lox) maps between Grl-1 and Adrb-2 on mouse chromosome 18. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:177-8 pubmed
  23. Van Bergen T, Spangler R, Marshall D, Hollanders K, Van de Veire S, Vandewalle E, et al. The Role of LOX and LOXL2 in the Pathogenesis of an Experimental Model of Choroidal Neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:5280-9 pubmed publisher
    We investigated whether lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) play a role in an experimental model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV)...
  24. Contente S, Yeh T, Friedman R. Tumor suppressive effect of lysyl oxidase proenzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:1272-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of both free 18-kDa propeptide and mature lysyl oxidase within non-transformed cells suggests that cellular reversion after restoration of lysyl oxidase gene expression is mediated by the 50-kDa proenzyme within cells. ..
  25. Jaffe M, Sesti C, Washington I, Du L, Dronadula N, Chin M, et al. Transforming growth factor-? signaling in myogenic cells regulates vascular morphogenesis, differentiation, and matrix synthesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:e1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-? signaling in SMCs controls differentiation, matrix synthesis, and vascular morphogenesis. Effects of TGF-? on SMC gene expression appear to differ depending on the location of SMCs in the aorta. ..
  26. Lee V, Halabi C, Hoffman E, Carmichael N, Leshchiner I, Lian C, et al. Loss of function mutation in LOX causes thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:8759-64 pubmed publisher
    ..whole-genome sequencing in two first cousins with TAAD, we identified a missense mutation in the lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene (c.893T > G encoding p.Met298Arg) that cosegregated with disease in the family...
  27. Jourdan Le Saux C, Gleyzal C, Garnier J, Peraldi M, Sommer P, Grimaud J. Lysyl oxidase cDNA of myofibroblast from mouse fibrotic liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;199:587-92 pubmed
    ..5kb mRNA. Its sequence was essentially similar to the NIH-3T3 fibroblasts LO-ras recision gene (rrg4) cDNA, with the same exon/intron structure, but with some differences at the sites of initiation of ..
  28. Griner J, Rogers C, Zhu M, Du M. Lysyl oxidase propeptide promotes adipogenesis through inhibition of FGF-2 signaling. Adipocyte. 2017;6:12-19 pubmed publisher
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of lysine residues in collagen and elastin, key components of connective tissue...
  29. Sánchez Morgan N, Kirsch K, Trackman P, Sonenshein G. The lysyl oxidase propeptide interacts with the receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa and inhibits ?-catenin transcriptional activity in lung cancer cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3286-97 pubmed publisher
    The propeptide region of the lysyl oxidase proenzyme (LOX-PP) has been shown to inhibit Ras signaling in NIH 3T3 and lung cancer cells with activated RAS, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood...
  30. Lucero H, Maki J, Kagan H. Activation of cellular chemotactic responses to chemokines coupled with oxidation of plasma membrane proteins by lysyl oxidase. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2011;118:1091-9 pubmed publisher
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a potent chemokine inducing the migration of varied cell types...
  31. Atsawasuwan P, Mochida Y, Katafuchi M, Tokutomi K, Mocanu V, Parker C, et al. A novel proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase. Connect Tissue Res. 2011;52:479-86 pubmed publisher
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an amine oxidase that is critical for the stability of connective tissues...
  32. Chang Y, Svinarich D, Yang T, Krawetz S. The mouse lysyl oxidase gene (Lox) resides on chromosome 18. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1993;63:47-9 pubmed
    ..Southern analysis of a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids was utilized to assign the lysyl oxidase gene (Lox) to mouse Chromosome 18.
  33. Choudhary B, Zhou J, Li P, Thomas S, Kaartinen V, Sucov H. Absence of TGFbeta signaling in embryonic vascular smooth muscle leads to reduced lysyl oxidase expression, impaired elastogenesis, and aneurysm. Genesis. 2009;47:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In mutant tissue, lysyl oxidase expression was substantially reduced, which may contribute to the observed pathology. ..
  34. Thaler R, Agsten M, Spitzer S, Paschalis E, Karlic H, Klaushofer K, et al. Homocysteine suppresses the expression of the collagen cross-linker lysyl oxidase involving IL-6, Fli1, and epigenetic DNA methylation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:5578-88 pubmed publisher
    ..of a stable bone matrix directly through the inhibition of the collagen cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase (Lox) and, as we have shown recently, by repressing its mRNA expression...
  35. Colwell A, Krummel T, Longaker M, Lorenz H. Early-gestation fetal scarless wounds have less lysyl oxidase expression. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;118:1125-9; discussion 1130-1 pubmed
    ..01 for each). Lysyl oxidase has greater expression in E19 late-gestation wounds that heal with scar compared with E17 early-gestation scarless wounds. This suggests a role for lysyl oxidase in scar formation. ..
  36. Jeay S, Pianetti S, Kagan H, Sonenshein G. Lysyl oxidase inhibits ras-mediated transformation by preventing activation of NF-kappa B. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2251-63 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results strongly argue that the anti-oncogenic effects of LO on ras-mediated transformation are due to its ability to inhibit signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-kappa B. ..
  37. Mock B, Contente S, Kenyon K, Friedman R, Kozak C. The gene for lysyl oxidase maps to mouse chromosome 18. Genomics. 1992;14:822-3 pubmed
  38. Lemay A, Haston C. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis susceptibility genes in AcB/BcA recombinant congenic mice. Physiol Genomics. 2005;23:54-61 pubmed
    ..4%) of which were also differentially expressed. Genomic approaches were combined to produce a set of candidate genes that may influence susceptibility to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in the A/J:B6 mouse model...
  39. Mammoto T, Mammoto A, Jiang A, Jiang E, Hashmi B, Ingber D. Mesenchymal condensation-dependent accumulation of collagen VI stabilizes organ-specific cell fates during embryonic tooth formation. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:713-23 pubmed publisher
  40. Cox T, Rumney R, Schoof E, Perryman L, Høye A, Agrawal A, et al. The hypoxic cancer secretome induces pre-metastatic bone lesions through lysyl oxidase. Nature. 2015;522:106-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Global quantitative analysis of the hypoxic secretome identified lysyl oxidase (LOX) as significantly associated with bone-tropism and relapse...
  41. Lucero H, Ravid K, Grimsby J, Rich C, DiCamillo S, Maki J, et al. Lysyl oxidase oxidizes cell membrane proteins and enhances the chemotactic response of vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24103-17 pubmed publisher
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a potent chemokine inducing the migration of varied cell types...
  42. Chen G, Sudhahar V, Youn S, Das A, Cho J, Kamiya T, et al. Copper Transport Protein Antioxidant-1 Promotes Inflammatory Neovascularization via Chaperone and Transcription Factor Function. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14780 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a novel linkage between Atox1 and NADPH oxidase involved in inflammatory neovascularization and suggest Atox1 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of ischemic disease. ..
  43. Contente S, Kenyon K, Rimoldi D, Friedman R. Expression of gene rrg is associated with reversion of NIH 3T3 transformed by LTR-c-H-ras. Science. 1990;249:796-8 pubmed
    A partial complementary DNA was isolated for a gene (rrg) that is normally expressed in mouse NIH 3T3 cells, but is down-regulated after cellular transformation by long terminal repeat (LTR)-activated c-H-ras (LTR-c-H-ras)...
  44. Cheng T, Liu Q, Zhang R, Zhang Y, Chen J, Yu R, et al. Lysyl oxidase promotes bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis through modulating inflammation. J Mol Cell Biol. 2014;6:506-15 pubmed publisher
    Enzymes involved in collagen biosynthesis, including lysyl oxidase (LOX), have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
  45. Martínez Revelles S, García Redondo A, Avendaño M, Varona S, Palao T, Orriols M, et al. Lysyl Oxidase Induces Vascular Oxidative Stress and Contributes to Arterial Stiffness and Abnormal Elastin Structure in Hypertension: Role of p38MAPK. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017;27:379-397 pubmed publisher
    ..Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an elastin crosslinking enzyme that produces H2O2 as a by-product...
  46. Descamps O, Riondel J, Ducros V, Roussel A. Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and incidence of age-associated lymphoma in OF1 mice: effect of alternate-day fasting. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005;126:1185-91 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that alternate fasting could exert a beneficial antioxidant effect and a modulation of the oxidative stress associated with aging. ..
  47. Khosravi R, Sodek K, Faibish M, Trackman P. Collagen advanced glycation inhibits its Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2)-mediated induction of lysyl oxidase in osteoblasts. Bone. 2014;58:33-41 pubmed publisher
  48. Harlow C, Wu X, van Deemter M, Gardiner F, Poland C, Green R, et al. Targeting lysyl oxidase reduces peritoneal fibrosis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183013 pubmed publisher
    ..Lysyl oxidase (Lox) is a key enzyme required for crosslinking and deposition of insoluble collagen, so we investigated whether ..
  49. Azhar M, Brown K, Gard C, Chen H, Rajan S, Elliott D, et al. Transforming growth factor Beta2 is required for valve remodeling during heart development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2127-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data indicate that TGF?2 promotes valve remodeling and differentiation by inducing matrix organization and suppressing cushion mesenchyme differentiation into cartilage cell lineage during heart development. ..
  50. Tzen C, Huang Y, Wang M. Cloning of genes expressed in cell quiescence: a new function of the ras-recision/lysyl oxidase gene. Chin J Physiol. 2007;50:57-62 pubmed
    ..Using the method of differential display, we cloned ras-recision gene (rrg), also known as lysyl oxidase gene (lox), from BALB/c 3T3T cells, which were rendered quiescent by serum deprivation...
  51. Kutchuk L, Laitala A, Soueid Bomgarten S, Shentzer P, Rosendahl A, Eilot S, et al. Muscle composition is regulated by a Lox-TGFβ feedback loop. Development. 2015;142:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We find in mice that deletion of lysyl oxidase (Lox), an extracellular enzyme regulating collagen maturation and organization, uncouples the balance between the amount ..
  52. Sánchez Morgan N, Kirsch K, Trackman P, Sonenshein G. UXT Is a LOX-PP Interacting Protein That Modulates Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in Breast Cancer Cells. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:2347-2356 pubmed publisher
    The lysyl oxidase proenzyme propeptide region (LOX-PP) is a tumor suppressor protein whose mechanism of action is not completely understood...
  53. González Santamaría J, Villalba M, Busnadiego O, López Olañeta M, Sandoval P, Snabel J, et al. Matrix cross-linking lysyl oxidases are induced in response to myocardial infarction and promote cardiac dysfunction. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;109:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of enzymes are responsible for the formation of collagen cross-links...
  54. Staiculescu M, Kim J, Mecham R, Wagenseil J. Mechanical behavior and matrisome gene expression in the aneurysm-prone thoracic aorta of newborn lysyl oxidase knockout mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H446-H456 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in lysyl oxidase (LOX) are associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD)...
  55. Mizobe Y, Oikawa D, Tsuyama S, Akimoto Y, Hamasu K, Onitsuka E, et al. mRNA expression of lysyl oxidase and matrix metalloproteinase-12 in mouse skin. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:3067-70 pubmed
    ..The desmosine crosslinking structure constructed of lysyl oxidase (LOX) in elastic fibers contributes to elasticity, while elastic fibers are primarily degraded by one of the matrix ..
  56. Sharma Bhandari A, Park S, Kim J, Oh J, Kim Y. Lysyl oxidase modulates the osteoblast differentiation of primary mouse calvaria cells. Int J Mol Med. 2015;36:1664-70 pubmed publisher
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular amine oxidase that mediates the formation of collagen fibers...
  57. Bu S, Hunt T, Smith B. Dried plum polyphenols attenuate the detrimental effects of TNF-alpha on osteoblast function coincident with up-regulation of Runx2, Osterix and IGF-I. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20:35-44 pubmed publisher
  58. Brown J, Lind R, Burzesi A, Kuo C. Elastogenic protein expression of a highly elastic murine spinal ligament: the ligamentum flavum. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38475 pubmed publisher
  59. Hayashi K, Fong K, Mercier F, Boyd C, Csiszar K, Hayashi M. Comparative immunocytochemical localization of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and the lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) proteins: changes in the expression of LOXL during development and growth of mouse tissues. J Mol Histol. 2004;35:845-55 pubmed
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) are extracellular enzymes that deaminate peptidyl lysyl residues involved in the cross-linking of fibrillar collagens and elastin...
  60. Contente S, Csiszar K, Kenyon K, Friedman R. Structure of the mouse lysyl oxidase gene. Genomics. 1993;16:395-400 pubmed
  61. Kim D, Mecham R, Trackman P, Roy S. Downregulation of Lysyl Oxidase Protects Retinal Endothelial Cells From High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:2725-2731 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of reducing high glucose (HG)-induced lysyl oxidase (LOX) overexpression and increased activity on retinal endothelial cell apoptosis...
  62. Wiel C, Augert A, Vincent D, Gitenay D, Vindrieux D, Le Calve B, et al. Lysyl oxidase activity regulates oncogenic stress response and tumorigenesis. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e855 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, in human epithelial cell the constitutive expression of the LOX or LOXL2 protein favored OIS escape, whereas inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was found to stabilize OIS...
  63. Majora M, Wittkampf T, Schuermann B, Schneider M, Franke S, Grether Beck S, et al. Functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA deletions in human skin fibroblasts: increased contractile strength in collagen lattices is due to oxidative stress-induced lysyl oxidase activity. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1019-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression and Western blot analysis revealed significant upregulation of lysyl oxidase (LOX) in KSS fibroblasts...
  64. LI P, He Q, Cao T, Yong G, Szauter K, Fong K, et al. Up-regulation and altered distribution of lysyl oxidase in the central nervous system of mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;120:115-22 pubmed
    ..Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is one of the genes that are known to be up-regulated in ALS patients...
  65. Tsuda T, Pan T, Evangelisti L, Chu M. Prominent expression of lysyl oxidase during mouse embryonic cardiovascular development. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2003;270:93-6 pubmed
    By mRNA differential display in mouse hearts, lysyl oxidase (Lox), a key enzyme catalyzing cross-links in elastin and collagens, was found to be up-regulated between embryonic days 11 (E11) and 13 (E13)...
  66. Hornstra I, Birge S, Starcher B, Bailey A, Mecham R, Shapiro S. Lysyl oxidase is required for vascular and diaphragmatic development in mice. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14387-93 pubmed
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an enzyme responsible for the cross-linking of collagen and elastin both in vitro and in vivo...
  67. Zhang Y, Ghazwani M, Li J, Sun M, Stolz D, He F, et al. MiR-29b inhibits collagen maturation in hepatic stellate cells through down-regulating the expression of HSP47 and lysyl oxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;446:940-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) are known to be essential for ECM maturation...
  68. Simon D, Niklason L, Humphrey J. Tissue Transglutaminase, Not Lysyl Oxidase, Dominates Early Calcium-Dependent Remodeling of Fibroblast-Populated Collagen Lattices. Cells Tissues Organs. 2014;200:104-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results promise to influence future tissue engineering studies as well as computational simulations aimed at understanding matrix remodeling in complex in vivo situations. ..
  69. Tao G, Levay A, Peacock J, Huk D, Both S, Purcell N, et al. Collagen XIV is important for growth and structural integrity of the myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:626-38 pubmed publisher
  70. Thomassin L, Werneck C, Broekelmann T, Gleyzal C, Hornstra I, Mecham R, et al. The Pro-regions of lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like 1 are required for deposition onto elastic fibers. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42848-55 pubmed
    These studies were undertaken to determine how lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase like-1 (LOXL) enzymes are targeted to their substrates in the extracellular matrix...
  71. Busk M, Toustrup K, Sørensen B, Alsner J, Horsman M, Jakobsen S, et al. In vivo identification and specificity assessment of mRNA markers of hypoxia in human and mouse tumors. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:63 pubmed publisher
    ..FAZA retention with patterns of gene expression in individual tissue fragments revealed that CA9, GLUT1 and LOX mRNA levels were equally and strongly correlated to hypoxic extent in FaDudd...
  72. Onoda M, Yoshimura K, Aoki H, Ikeda Y, Morikage N, Furutani A, et al. Lysyl oxidase resolves inflammation by reducing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in abdominal aortic aneurysm. Atherosclerosis. 2010;208:366-9 pubmed publisher
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an enzyme critical for the stability of extracellular matrix and also known to have diverse biological functions. Little is known, however, about the role of LOX in regulating inflammation...
  73. Orriols M, Guadall A, Galán M, Martí Pàmies I, Varona S, Rodríguez Calvo R, et al. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) in vascular remodelling. Insight from a new animal model. Thromb Haemost. 2014;112:812-24 pubmed publisher
    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme that seems to play a critical role in vascular remodelling. However, the lack of viable LOX-deficient animal models has been an obstacle to deep in LOX biology...
  74. Hunt C, Parsian A, Kozak C. Genetic mapping of mouse heat shock protein genes Hsc4a to chromosome 11 and Hsc74 to chromosome 18 and two Hsc74 pseudogenes to chromosomes X and 8. Genomics. 1999;56:358-60 pubmed
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    Lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LOXL3), a human disease gene candidate, is a member of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family and is indispensable for mouse palatogenesis and vertebral column development...
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    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes cross-linking of elastin and collagen, which is essential for the structural integrity and function of bone tissue...
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    ..Recently, lysyl oxidase (LOX), the enzyme that mediates collagen cross-linking, has been shown to induce human osteoclasts in the absence of ..
  79. Rowe D, McGoodwin E, Martin G, Grahn D. Decreased lysyl oxidase activity in the aneurysm-prone, mottled mouse. J Biol Chem. 1977;252:939-42 pubmed
    ..An inhibitor of lysyl oxidase is present in equal amounts in affected and control skins and does not account for diminished activity found in affected animals. ..