Limk1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Limk1
Description: LIM-domain containing, protein kinase
Alias: KIZ-1, LIMK-1, Limk, LIM domain kinase 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Limk1

Top Publications

  1. Acevedo K, Moussi N, Li R, Soo P, Bernard O. LIM kinase 2 is widely expressed in all tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006;54:487-501 pubmed
    The LIM kinase family includes two proteins: LIMK1 and LIMK2. These proteins have identical genomic structure and overall amino acid identity of 50%...
  2. Meng Y, Zhang Y, Tregoubov V, Janus C, Cruz L, Jackson M, et al. Abnormal spine morphology and enhanced LTP in LIMK-1 knockout mice. Neuron. 2002;35:121-33 pubmed
    ..In addition, abnormal expression of LIMK-1 is associated with Williams syndrome, a mental disorder with profound deficits in visuospatial cognition...
  3. Lee Hoeflich S, Causing C, Podkowa M, Zhao X, Wrana J, Attisano L. Activation of LIMK1 by binding to the BMP receptor, BMPRII, regulates BMP-dependent dendritogenesis. EMBO J. 2004;23:4792-801 pubmed
    ..Here we show that LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1), a key downstream effector of Rho GTPases, colocalizes with the BMP receptor, BMPRII, in the tips of neurites and ..
  4. Yoshioka K, Foletta V, Bernard O, Itoh K. A role for LIM kinase in cancer invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7247-52 pubmed
    In this study, we show that LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1), a critical regulator of actin dynamics, plays a regulatory role in tumor cell invasion...
  5. Acevedo K, Li R, Soo P, Suryadinata R, Sarcevic B, Valova V, et al. The phosphorylation of p25/TPPP by LIM kinase 1 inhibits its ability to assemble microtubules. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:4091-106 pubmed
    LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) is a key regulator of actin dynamics as it phosphorylates and inactivates cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor. LIMK1 activity is also required for microtubule disassembly in endothelial cells...
  6. Ding Y, Milosavljevic T, Alahari S. Nischarin inhibits LIM kinase to regulate cofilin phosphorylation and cell invasion. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3742-56 pubmed publisher
    Nischarin is a novel protein that regulates cell migration by inhibiting p21-activated kinase (PAK). LIM kinase (LIMK) is a downstream effector of PAK, and it is known to play an important role in cell invasion...
  7. Mao X, Jones T, Williamson J, Gutowski N, Proschel C, Noble M, et al. Assignment of the human and mouse LIM-kinase genes (LIMK1; Limk1) to chromosome bands 7q11.23 and 5G1, respectively, by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1996;74:190-1 pubmed
  8. Collinson J, Lindström N, Neves C, Wallace K, Meharg C, Charles R, et al. The developmental and genetic basis of 'clubfoot' in the peroneal muscular atrophy mutant mouse. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    ..The pma mutation was mapped and a candidate gene encoding LIM-domain kinase 1 (Limk1) identified, which is upregulated in mutant lateral LMC motor neurons...
  9. Kawano T, Zhu M, Troiano N, Horowitz M, Bian J, Gundberg C, et al. LIM kinase 1 deficient mice have reduced bone mass. Bone. 2013;52:70-82 pubmed publisher
    ..It also plays a role in differentiation and in modulating specialized cellular functions. LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) participates in cytoskeletal remodeling by phosphorylating and inactivating the actin-severing protein, cofilin...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Vaillend C, Poirier R, Laroche S. Genes, plasticity and mental retardation. Behav Brain Res. 2008;192:88-105 pubmed publisher
  2. Estevez B, Stojanovic Terpo A, Delaney M, O Brien K, Berndt M, Ruan C, et al. LIM kinase-1 selectively promotes glycoprotein Ib-IX-mediated TXA2 synthesis, platelet activation, and thrombosis. Blood. 2013;121:4586-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that LIMK1(-/-) mice have defective arterial thrombosis in vivo but do not differ from wild-type mice with respect to ..
  3. Xiong Y, Zhang L, Kebebew E. MiR-20a is upregulated in anaplastic thyroid cancer and targets LIMK1. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96103 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and invasion (p<0.05) in multiple thyroid cancer cell lines. We found that LIMK1 was a target of miR-20a in thyroid cancer cell lines and direct knockdown of LIMK1 recapitulated the effect of miR-..
  4. Ybot Gonzalez P, Savery D, Gerrelli D, Signore M, Mitchell C, Faux C, et al. Convergent extension, planar-cell-polarity signalling and initiation of mouse neural tube closure. Development. 2007;134:789-99 pubmed
    ..These findings identify a cell-autonomous defect of convergent extension, requiring PCP signalling via RhoA-Rho kinase, during the development of severe neural tube defects in the mouse. ..
  5. Chai X, Forster E, Zhao S, Bock H, Frotscher M. Reelin stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton of neuronal processes by inducing n-cofilin phosphorylation at serine3. J Neurosci. 2009;29:288-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings suggest that Reelin-induced stabilization of neuronal processes anchors them to the marginal zone which appears to be required for the directional migration process. ..
  6. Zhou Z, Hu J, Passafaro M, Xie W, Jia Z. GluA2 (GluR2) regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression through N-cadherin-dependent and cofilin-mediated actin reorganization. J Neurosci. 2011;31:819-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide compelling evidence that the extracellular domain of GluA2 regulates long-lasting synaptic plasticity through a signaling mechanism that is distinct from those used by the other domains of the receptor subunit. ..
  7. Himmelbauer H, Wedemeyer N, Haaf T, Wanker E, Schalkwyk L, Lehrach H. IRS-PCR-based genetic mapping of the huntingtin interacting protein gene (HIP1) on mouse chromosome 5. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:26-31 pubmed
  8. Martindale D, Wilson M, Wang D, Burke R, Chen X, Duronio V, et al. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the Williams syndrome region (LIMK1-RFC2) of human chromosome 7q11.23. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:890-8 pubmed
    ..Within this region we have completely characterized 200 kb containing the genes LIMK1, WBSCR1, and RFC2...
  9. Rak R, Haklai R, Elad Tzfadia G, Wolfson H, Carmeli S, Kloog Y. Novel LIMK2 Inhibitor Blocks Panc-1 Tumor Growth in a mouse xenograft model. Oncoscience. 2014;1:39-48 pubmed
    ..The LIMK family consists of two homologues, LIMK1 and LIMK2, which differ from one another in expression profile, intercellular localization, and function...
  10. Romarowski A, Battistone M, La Spina F, Puga Molina L, Luque G, Vitale A, et al. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of LIMK1 and Cofilin is essential for mouse sperm acrosomal exocytosis. Dev Biol. 2015;405:237-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of the signaling pathways of cAMP/PKA, RhoA/C and Rac1 is essential for LIMK1 activation by phosphorylation on Threonine 508...
  11. Arastoo M, Hacker C, Popovics P, Lucocq J, Stewart A. Phospholipase C-η2 interacts with nuclear and cytoplasmic LIMK-1 during retinoic acid-stimulated neurite growth. Histochem Cell Biol. 2016;145:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..and also in growing neurites), a proximity ligand assay revealed that PLCη2 specifically interacts with LIMK-1 in Neuro2A cells...
  12. Tassabehji M. Williams-Beuren syndrome: a challenge for genotype-phenotype correlations. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12 Spec No 2:R229-37 pubmed
  13. Göttle P, Sabo J, Heinen A, Venables G, Torres K, Tzekova N, et al. Oligodendroglial maturation is dependent on intracellular protein shuttling. J Neurosci. 2015;35:906-19 pubmed publisher
    ..suggests that the inhibitory role of p57kip2 depends on specific interactions with binding proteins such as LIMK-1, CDK2, Mash1, and Hes5 either by controlling their site of action or their activity...
  14. Rosario M, Schuster S, Jüttner R, Parthasarathy S, Tarabykin V, Birchmeier W. Neocortical dendritic complexity is controlled during development by NOMA-GAP-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 and activation of cofilin. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1743-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings define a novel cell-intrinsic mechanism to regulate dendritic branching and thus neuronal complexity in the cerebral cortex. ..
  15. Barone E, Mosser S, Fraering P. Inactivation of brain Cofilin-1 by age, Alzheimer's disease and γ-secretase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:2500-9 pubmed
    ..activity we evaluated changes occurring with regard to Cofilin1 and its up-stream regulators Lim kinase-1 (LIMK1) and Slingshot phosphatase-1 (SSH1) in (i) human AD brain, (ii) 1-, 4-, and 10-months old APP/PS1 mice, (iii) ..
  16. Cai S, Chen R, Li X, Cai Y, Ye Z, Li S, et al. Downregulation of microRNA-23a suppresses prostate cancer metastasis by targeting the PAK6-LIMK1 signaling pathway. Oncotarget. 2015;6:3904-17 pubmed
    ..Expression of miR-23a inhibited phosphorylation of LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin, in turn suppressing formation of stress fibers and actin filaments, which was required for cell ..
  17. Tursun B, Schlüter A, Peters M, Viehweger B, Ostendorff H, Soosairajah J, et al. The ubiquitin ligase Rnf6 regulates local LIM kinase 1 levels in axonal growth cones. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2307-19 pubmed
    LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) controls important cellular functions such as morphogenesis, cell motility, tumor cell metastasis, development of neuronal projections, and growth cone actin dynamics...
  18. Sumi T, Matsumoto K, Nakamura T. [LIM-kinases in actin cytoskeletal regulation and their physiological role]. Seikagaku. 2002;74:402-7 pubmed
  19. Phan K, Hazen V, Frendo M, Jia Z, Butler S. The bone morphogenetic protein roof plate chemorepellent regulates the rate of commissural axonal growth. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15430-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that BMPs activate the cofilin regulator Lim domain kinase 1 (Limk1) to control the rate of commissural axon extension in the dorsal spinal cord...
  20. Jiang X, Wassif C, Backlund P, Song L, Holtzclaw L, Li Z, et al. Activation of Rho GTPases in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: pathophysiological and clinical implications. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of cofilin-1 is regulated by Rho GTPases through Rho-Rock-Limk-Cofilin-1 and Rac/Cdc42-Pak-Limk-Cofilin-1 pathways...
  21. Deng G, Liu S, Sun X, Sun W, Zhao Q, Liao W, et al. A conserved region in the 3' untranslated region of the human LIMK1 gene is critical for proper expression of LIMK1 at the post-transcriptional level. Neurosci Bull. 2013;29:348-54 pubmed publisher
    LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1), a cytosolic serine/threonine kinase, regulates actin filament dynamics and reorganization and is involved in neuronal development and brain function...
  22. Petrilli A, Copik A, Posadas M, Chang L, Welling D, Giovannini M, et al. LIM domain kinases as potential therapeutic targets for neurofibromatosis type 2. Oncogene. 2014;33:3571-82 pubmed publisher
    ..LIM domain kinases (LIMK1 and 2) are substrate for Cdc42/Rac-PAK and modulate actin dynamics by phosphorylating cofilin at serine-3...
  23. Gong S, Gong T, Shum L. Identification of markers of the midface. J Dent Res. 2005;84:69-72 pubmed
    ..With the identification of these genes, and possibly others, functional analyses can be conducted to improve our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways by which the midface forms. ..
  24. Durkin M, Keck Waggoner C, Popescu N, Thorgeirsson S. Integration of a c-myc transgene results in disruption of the mouse Gtf2ird1 gene, the homologue of the human GTF2IRD1 gene hemizygously deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome. Genomics. 2001;73:20-7 pubmed
    ..Loss of the 5' end of the Gtf2ird1 gene resulted in greatly reduced expression of Gtf2ird1 mRNA in mice homozygous for the transgene. ..
  25. Koike S, Keino Masu K, Ohto T, Sugiyama F, Takahashi S, Masu M. Autotaxin/lysophospholipase D-mediated lysophosphatidic acid signaling is required to form distinctive large lysosomes in the visceral endoderm cells of the mouse yolk sac. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33561-70 pubmed publisher
  26. Schultz M, Tecedor L, Stein C, STAMNES M, Davidson B. CLN3 deficient cells display defects in the ARF1-Cdc42 pathway and actin-dependent events. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96647 pubmed publisher
    ..elevated in endothelial cells from CLN3 deficient mouse brain, and correlates with enhanced PAK-1 phosphorylation, LIMK membrane recruitment, and altered actin-driven events...
  27. Lee I, Leung T, Tan I. Adaptor protein LRAP25 mediates myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase (MRCK) regulation of LIMK1 protein in lamellipodial F-actin dynamics. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:26989-7003 pubmed publisher
    ..we report the identification of another adaptor protein LRAP25 that mediates MRCK association with LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1)...
  28. Gorovoy M, Han J, Pan H, Welch E, Neamu R, Jia Z, et al. LIM kinase 1 promotes endothelial barrier disruption and neutrophil infiltration in mouse lungs. Circ Res. 2009;105:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We reasoned that LIMK1, which participates in the regulation of endothelial cell contractility and is activated by RhoA/Rho kinase ..
  29. Bach I, Rodriguez Esteban C, Carriere C, Bhushan A, Krones A, Rose D, et al. RLIM inhibits functional activity of LIM homeodomain transcription factors via recruitment of the histone deacetylase complex. Nat Genet. 1999;22:394-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Rlim is a novel corepressor that recruits histone deacetylase-containing complexes to the LIM domain. ..
  30. Dai S, Sarmiere P, Wiggan O, Bamburg J, Zhou D. Efficient Salmonella entry requires activity cycles of host ADF and cofilin. Cell Microbiol. 2004;6:459-71 pubmed
    ..We propose that ADF and cofilin actin-dynamizing activities and their activity cycling via phosphorylation are required for efficient Salmonella internalization. ..
  31. Liu A, Zhou Z, Dang R, Zhu Y, Qi J, He G, et al. Neuroligin 1 regulates spines and synaptic plasticity via LIMK1/cofilin-mediated actin reorganization. J Cell Biol. 2016;212:449-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a novel postsynaptic mechanism by which NLG1 regulates synapse development and function. ..
  32. Firulli B, McConville D, Byers J, Vincentz J, Barnes R, Firulli A. Analysis of a Hand1 hypomorphic allele reveals a critical threshold for embryonic viability. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2748-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data define a critical threshold of Hand1 expression that is necessary for embryonic survival. ..
  33. Li D, Hallett M, Zhu W, Rubart M, Liu Y, Yang Z, et al. Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) is required for heart morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:303-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical analyses indicate that Daam1 does not regulate cytoskeletal organization through RhoA, Rac1 or Cdc42. Our study highlights a crucial role for Daam1 in regulating the actin cytoskeleton and tissue morphogenesis. ..
  34. Kashima R, Roy S, Ascano M, Martinez Cerdeno V, Ariza Torres J, Kim S, et al. Augmented noncanonical BMP type II receptor signaling mediates the synaptic abnormality of fragile X syndrome. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra58 pubmed publisher
    ..of FMRP increased BMPR2 abundance, especially that of the full-length isoform that bound and activated LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1), a component of the noncanonical BMP signal transduction pathway that stimulates actin ..
  35. Riley P, Anson Cartwright L, Cross J. The Hand1 bHLH transcription factor is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 1998;18:271-5 pubmed
    ..Their heart tubes showed abnormal looping and ventricular myocardial differentiation. Therefore, Hand1 is essential for differentiation of both trophoblast and cardiomyocytes, which are embryologically distinct cell lineages. ..
  36. Larabee S, Coia H, Jones S, Cheung E, Gallicano G. miRNA-17 members that target Bmpr2 influence signaling mechanisms important for embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro and gastrulation in embryos. Stem Cells Dev. 2015;24:354-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This suppression influences fate decisions of cells by affecting genes downstream of BMPR2 as well as mesoderm invasion through regulation of actin dynamics. ..
  37. Spencer J, Waters E, Milner T, McEwen B. Estrous cycle regulates activation of hippocampal Akt, LIM kinase, and neurotrophin receptors in C57BL/6 mice. Neuroscience. 2008;155:1106-19 pubmed publisher
    ..may be mediated through nongenomic steroid signaling such as estradiol activation of the Akt and LIM kinase (LIMK) pathways, in addition to genomic signaling involving estradiol upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ..
  38. Bernard O, Burkitt V, Webb G, Bottema C, Nicholl J, Sutherland G, et al. Structure and chromosomal localization of the genomic locus encoding the Kiz1 LIM-kinase gene. Genomics. 1996;35:593-6 pubmed
    We have cloned and characterized the mouse gene encoding Kiz1/Limk1, a new member of the zinc-finger LIM family that also has a kinase domain...
  39. Lindström N, Neves C, McIntosh R, Miedzybrodzka Z, Vargesson N, Collinson J. Tissue specific characterisation of Lim-kinase 1 expression during mouse embryogenesis. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>LIMK1/LIMK2 knockouts disrupt spinal cord morphogenesis and synapse formation but other tissues and developmental ..
  40. Gupta S, Yadav R, Pavuluri R, Morley B, Stairs D, Dravid S. Essential role of GluD1 in dendritic spine development and GluN2B to GluN2A NMDAR subunit switch in the cortex and hippocampus reveals ability of GluN2B inhibition in correcting hyperconnectivity. Neuropharmacology. 2015;93:274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition abnormalities in the LIMK1-cofilin signaling, which regulates spine dynamics, and a lower ratio of GluN2A/GluN2B expression was observed in ..
  41. Meng Y, Takahashi H, Meng J, Zhang Y, Lu G, Asrar S, et al. Regulation of ADF/cofilin phosphorylation and synaptic function by LIM-kinase. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47:746-54 pubmed
    To investigate the role of the LIM-kinase (LIMK) family in the regulation of ADF/cofilin phosphorylation and synaptic function in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), we conducted biochemical and electrophysiological analysis using ..
  42. Sutton V, Pan Y, Craigen W. Regional localization of the mouse argininosuccinate lyase gene to chromosome 5. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:871 pubmed
  43. Kapur R, Shi J, Ghosh J, Munugalavadla V, Sims E, Martin H, et al. ROCK1 via LIM kinase regulates growth, maturation and actin based functions in mast cells. Oncotarget. 2016;7:16936-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, loss of either Limk1 or Limk2 also demonstrated altered BMMC maturation and growth; combined deletion of both Limk1 and Limk2 resulted ..
  44. Xie J, Li X, Zhang W, Chai X, Huang Y, Li K, et al. Aberrant expression of LIMK1 impairs neuronal migration during neocortex development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2017;147:471-479 pubmed publisher
    ..b>LIMK1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates actin dynamics by regulating actin depolymerization factor/..
  45. Mokalled M, Johnson A, Kim Y, Oh J, Olson E. Myocardin-related transcription factors regulate the Cdk5/Pctaire1 kinase cascade to control neurite outgrowth, neuronal migration and brain development. Development. 2010;137:2365-74 pubmed publisher
  46. Foletta V, Moussi N, Sarmiere P, Bamburg J, Bernard O. LIM kinase 1, a key regulator of actin dynamics, is widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues. Exp Cell Res. 2004;294:392-405 pubmed
    The expression of endogenous LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) protein was investigated in embryonic and adult mice using a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb), which recognizes specifically the PDZ domain of LIMK1 and not LIMK2...
  47. Soosairajah J, Maiti S, Wiggan O, Sarmiere P, Moussi N, Sarcevic B, et al. Interplay between components of a novel LIM kinase-slingshot phosphatase complex regulates cofilin. EMBO J. 2005;24:473-86 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that a multi-protein complex consisting of SSH-1L, LIMK1, actin, and the scaffolding protein, 14-3-3zeta, is involved, along with the kinase, PAK4, in the regulation of ..
  48. Gallo R, Khan M, Shi J, Kapur R, Wei L, Bailey J, et al. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by Rho kinase controls antigen presentation by CD1d. J Immunol. 2012;189:1689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our overall results reveal a model whereby CD1d-mediated Ag presentation is negatively regulated by ROCK via its effects on the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  49. Havekes R, Park A, Tudor J, Luczak V, Hansen R, Ferri S, et al. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling...
  50. Gao Z, Harumi T, Garbers D. Chromosome localization of the mouse zonadhesin gene and the human zonadhesin gene (ZAN). Genomics. 1997;41:119-22 pubmed
    ..The gene for zonadhesin maps to chromosome 5 in the mouse (Zan) and to chromosome 7 in the human (ZAN) in a position near the gene for the egg extracellular matrix protein ZP3. ..
  51. Proschel C, Blouin M, Gutowski N, Ludwig R, Noble M. Limk1 is predominantly expressed in neural tissues and phosphorylates serine, threonine and tyrosine residues in vitro. Oncogene. 1995;11:1271-81 pubmed
    We have isolated the murine Limk1 gene, which is a single copy gene located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 5...
  52. Birkenfeld J, Betz H, Roth D. Identification of cofilin and LIM-domain-containing protein kinase 1 as novel interaction partners of 14-3-3 zeta. Biochem J. 2003;369:45-54 pubmed
    ..factor cofilin and its regulatory kinase, LIM (Lin-11/Isl-1/Mec-3)-domain-containing protein kinase 1 (LIMK1)...
  53. Pritchard C, Hayes L, Wojnowski L, Zimmer A, Marais R, Norman J. B-Raf acts via the ROCKII/LIMK/cofilin pathway to maintain actin stress fibers in fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5937-52 pubmed
    ..restored by the expression of human B-Raf and catalytically active MEK and by the overexpression of LIM kinase (LIMK)...
  54. Cheng A, Robertson E. The murine LIM-kinase gene (limk) encodes a novel serine threonine kinase expressed predominantly in trophoblast giant cells and the developing nervous system. Mech Dev. 1995;52:187-97 pubmed
    ..Here we have characterized limk, a novel protein kinase with serine threonine substrate specificity which also contains two LIM domains...
  55. Cuberos H, Vallée B, Vourc H P, Tastet J, Andres C, Bénédetti H. Roles of LIM kinases in central nervous system function and dysfunction. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:3795-806 pubmed publisher
    LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) and LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2) regulate actin dynamics by phosphorylating cofilin...
  56. Estevez B, Kim K, Delaney M, Stojanovic Terpo A, Shen B, Ruan C, et al. Signaling-mediated cooperativity between glycoprotein Ib-IX and protease-activated receptors in thrombin-induced platelet activation. Blood. 2016;127:626-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This mutually dependent cooperativity requires a GPIb-IX-specific 14-3-3-Rac1-LIMK1 signaling pathway, and activation of this pathway also requires PAR signaling...
  57. Li H, Roy M, Kuscuoglu U, Spencer C, Halm B, Harrison K, et al. Induced chromosome deletions cause hypersociability and other features of Williams-Beuren syndrome in mice. EMBO Mol Med. 2009;1:50-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Proximal deletion (PD) mice lack Gtf2i to Limk1, distal deletion (DD) mice lack Limk1 to Fkbp6, and the double heterozygotes (D/P) model the complete human ..
  58. Toyo oka K, Wachi T, Hunt R, Baraban S, Taya S, Ramshaw H, et al. 14-3-3ε and ζ regulate neurogenesis and differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells in the developing brain. J Neurosci. 2014;34:12168-81 pubmed publisher
    ..via direct interactions with phosphorylated δ-catenin to promote F-actin formation through a catenin/Rho GTPase/Limk1/cofilin signaling pathway...
  59. Rice D, Hansen G, Liu F, Crist M, Newhouse M, Potter D, et al. Keratinocyte migration in the developing eyelid requires LIMK2. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47168 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that LIMK2 activity is required for keratinocyte migration in the developing eyelid. ..
  60. Nekrasova T, Minden A. Role for p21-activated kinase PAK4 in development of the mammalian heart. Transgenic Res. 2012;21:797-811 pubmed publisher
    ..Pak4?/? embryos and cardiomyocytes in which PAK4 was depleted exhibited low levels of LIMK1, a protein that plays key roles in cytoskeletal organization...
  61. Nadella K, Saji M, Jacob N, Pavel E, Ringel M, Kirschner L. Regulation of actin function by protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of Limk1. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:599-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies of cofilin have shown that it is phosphorylated primarily by the LIM domain kinases Limk1 and Limk2, which are under the control of the Rho GTPases and their downstream effectors...
  62. Bernard O, Ganiatsas S, Kannourakis G, Dringen R. Kiz-1, a protein with LIM zinc finger and kinase domains, is expressed mainly in neurons. Cell Growth Differ. 1994;5:1159-71 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Kiz-1 may play distinct roles in dividing cells and in differentiated neurons. ..
  63. Wang Y, Perez Jurado L, Francke U. A mouse single-copy gene, Gtf2i, the homolog of human GTF2I, that is duplicated in the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion region. Genomics. 1998;48:163-70 pubmed
    ..Gtf2i transcript is detectable in ES cells by RT-PCR and on Northern blots of tissues from 7-dpc embryos. A ubiquitous expression pattern is seen by Northern and tissue in situ hybridization studies of 14-dpc embryos. ..
  64. Kashima R, Redmond P, Ghatpande P, Roy S, Kornberg T, Hanke T, et al. Hyperactive locomotion in a Drosophila model is a functional readout for the synaptic abnormalities underlying fragile X syndrome. Sci Signal. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that the activation of LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) downstream of augmented synthesis of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 2 receptor (BMPR2) promotes aberrant ..