Gene Symbol: Lhx2
Description: LIM homeobox protein 2
Alias: LH2A, Lh-2, Lim2, apterous, LIM/homeobox protein Lhx2, LIM homeo box protein 2, homeobox protein LH-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Lhx2

Top Publications

  1. Xu Y, Baldassare M, Fisher P, Rathbun G, Oltz E, Yancopoulos G, et al. LH-2: a LIM/homeodomain gene expressed in developing lymphocytes and neural cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:227-31 pubmed
    ..LH-2 protein is related to that of other LIM/homeodomain proteins, most strikingly with that of the Drosophila apterous protein. Expression of LH-2 was found in B- and T-lymphoid cell lines...
  2. Abellan A, Menuet A, Dehay C, Medina L, Retaux S. Differential expression of LIM-homeodomain factors in Cajal-Retzius cells of primates, rodents, and birds. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:1788-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We have investigated the expression of the LIM-hd members Lhx1/Lhx2/Lhx5/Lhx6/Lhx9 in the reelin-expressing cells, the pallium, and the regions of origin of CR cells including the ..
  3. Retaux S, Rogard M, Bach I, Failli V, Besson M. Lhx9: a novel LIM-homeodomain gene expressed in the developing forebrain. J Neurosci. 1999;19:783-93 pubmed
    ..Lhx9 cDNA encodes a protein that is most closely related to Drosophila apterous and rodent Lhx2 proteins...
  4. Monuki E, Porter F, Walsh C. Patterning of the dorsal telencephalon and cerebral cortex by a roof plate-Lhx2 pathway. Neuron. 2001;32:591-604 pubmed
    ..Here we show that cortical patterning involves regulation of the Lhx2 homeobox gene by the roof plate...
  5. Hirota J, Mombaerts P. The LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx2 is required for complete development of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8751-5 pubmed
    ..Here, using the yeast one-hybrid system and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we report that Lhx2, a LIM-homeodomain protein, binds to the homeodomain site in the mouse M71 OR promoter region...
  6. Richter K, Pinto do Ó P, Hägglund A, Wahlin A, Carlsson L. Lhx2 expression in hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells in vivo causes a chronic myeloproliferative disorder and altered globin expression. Haematologica. 2003;88:1336-47 pubmed
    ..This translocation has also been suggested to cause mis-expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in hematopoietic cells...
  7. Seibt J, Schuurmans C, Gradwhol G, Dehay C, Vanderhaeghen P, Guillemot F, et al. Neurogenin2 specifies the connectivity of thalamic neurons by controlling axon responsiveness to intermediate target cues. Neuron. 2003;39:439-52 pubmed
    ..Our results thus demonstrate that in parallel to their well-documented proneural function, bHLH transcription factors also contribute to the specification of neuronal connectivity in the mammalian brain. ..
  8. Bermingham N, Hassan B, Wang V, Fernandez M, Banfi S, Bellen H, et al. Proprioceptor pathway development is dependent on Math1. Neuron. 2001;30:411-22 pubmed
    ..We also identify three downstream genes of Math1 (Lh2A, Lh2B, and Barhl1) and establish that Math1 governs the development of multiple components of the proprioceptive ..
  9. Bertuzzi S, Porter F, Pitts A, Kumar M, Agulnick A, Wassif C, et al. Characterization of Lhx9, a novel LIM/homeobox gene expressed by the pioneer neurons in the mouse cerebral cortex. Mech Dev. 1999;81:193-8 pubmed
    In order to explain the phenotype observed in Lhx2 mutant embryos, we previously proposed that an Lhx2 related gene might exist. We now have cloned a new LIM/homeobox gene called Lhx9...

More Information


  1. Roberson M, Schoderbek W, Tremml G, Maurer R. Activation of the glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit promoter by a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:2985-93 pubmed
    ..The finding that a LIM-homeodomain protein can stimulate expression of one of the earliest markers of pituitary differentiation raises the possibility that this factor plays a role in cell lineage determination in the pituitary. ..
  2. Dahl L, Richter K, Hägglund A, Carlsson L. Lhx2 expression promotes self-renewal of a distinct multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell in embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2025 pubmed publisher
    ..The LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 is a candidate regulator of fetal hematopoiesis since it is expressed in the fetal liver and Lhx2(-/-) mice die in ..
  3. Butler S, Dodd J. A role for BMP heterodimers in roof plate-mediated repulsion of commissural axons. Neuron. 2003;38:389-401 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that a GDF7:BMP7 heterodimer functions as a roof plate-derived repellent that establishes the initial ventral trajectory of commissural axons. ..
  4. Sessa A, Mao C, Hadjantonakis A, Klein W, Broccoli V. Tbr2 directs conversion of radial glia into basal precursors and guides neuronal amplification by indirect neurogenesis in the developing neocortex. Neuron. 2008;60:56-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings identify Tbr2 as a critical factor for the specification of IPCs during corticogenesis. ..
  5. Chizhikov V, Lindgren A, Mishima Y, Roberts R, Aldinger K, Miesegaes G, et al. Lmx1a regulates fates and location of cells originating from the cerebellar rhombic lip and telencephalic cortical hem. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Lmx1a activity is critical for proper production of cells originating from both the cerebellar rhombic lip and the telencephalic cortical hem. ..
  6. Xu X, Mannik J, Kudryavtseva E, Lin K, Flanagan L, Spencer J, et al. Co-factors of LIM domains (Clims/Ldb/Nli) regulate corneal homeostasis and maintenance of hair follicle stem cells. Dev Biol. 2007;312:484-500 pubmed
    ..In addition, Clim2 interacts with Lhx2 in vivo, suggesting that Clim2 is an essential co-factor for the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx2, which was previously ..
  7. Nakagawa Y, O Leary D. Combinatorial expression patterns of LIM-homeodomain and other regulatory genes parcellate developing thalamus. J Neurosci. 2001;21:2711-25 pubmed
    ..We have defined a set of regulatory genes, which include five LIM-homeodomain transcription factors (Isl1, Lhx1, Lhx2, Lhx5, and Lhx9) and three other genes (Gbx2, Ngn2, and Pax6), that are differentially expressed in dTh and vTh of ..
  8. Cheng X, Hsu C, Currle D, Hu J, Barkovich A, Monuki E. Central roles of the roof plate in telencephalic development and holoprosencephaly. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7640-9 pubmed
    ..These findings establish selective roles for roof plate-dependent Bmp signaling in dorsal telencephalic patterning and HPE and define novel candidate genes for the human disorder. ..
  9. Rincon Limas D, Lu C, Canal I, Calleja M, Rodriguez Esteban C, Izpisua Belmonte J, et al. Conservation of the expression and function of apterous orthologs in Drosophila and mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2165-70 pubmed
    The Drosophila apterous (ap) gene encodes a protein of the LIM-homeodomain family...
  10. Wawersik S, Purcell P, Rauchman M, Dudley A, Robertson E, Maas R. BMP7 acts in murine lens placode development. Dev Biol. 1999;207:176-88 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Bmp7 is a critical component of the genetic mechanism(s) controlling lens placode formation. ..
  11. Kolterud A, Alenius M, Carlsson L, Bohm S. The Lim homeobox gene Lhx2 is required for olfactory sensory neuron identity. Development. 2004;131:5319-26 pubmed
    ..We show that progenitors and neurons express the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 and that neurons in Lhx2-null mutant embryos do not diversify into subpopulations expressing different OR genes and ..
  12. Porter F, Drago J, Xu Y, Cheema S, Wassif C, Huang S, et al. Lhx2, a LIM homeobox gene, is required for eye, forebrain, and definitive erythrocyte development. Development. 1997;124:2935-44 pubmed
    We investigated the function of Lhx2, a LIM homeobox gene expressed in developing B-cells, forebrain and neural retina, by analyzing embryos deficient in functional Lhx2 protein...
  13. Bendall A, Rincon Limas D, Botas J, Abate Shen C. Protein complex formation between Msx1 and Lhx2 homeoproteins is incompatible with DNA binding activity. Differentiation. 1998;63:151-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Lhx2, a LIM-type homeoprotein, is a protein partner for Msx1 in vitro and in cellular extracts...
  14. Rhee H, Polak L, Fuchs E. Lhx2 maintains stem cell character in hair follicles. Science. 2006;312:1946-9 pubmed
    ..We identified Lhx2 as a transcription factor positioned downstream of signals necessary to specify hair follicle stem cells, but ..
  15. Mangale V, Hirokawa K, Satyaki P, Gokulchandran N, Chikbire S, Subramanian L, et al. Lhx2 selector activity specifies cortical identity and suppresses hippocampal organizer fate. Science. 2008;319:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using mouse genetic mosaics and timed inactivations, we demonstrated that Lhx2 acts as a classic selector gene and essential intrinsic determinant of cortical identity...
  16. Chou S, O Leary D. Role for Lhx2 in corticogenesis through regulation of progenitor differentiation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013;56:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..giving rise to neocortex are located in the ventricular zone of the dorsal telencephalon and highly express Lhx2, a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor...
  17. Vyas A, Saha B, Lai E, Tole S. Paleocortex is specified in mice in which dorsal telencephalic patterning is severely disrupted. J Comp Neurol. 2003;466:545-53 pubmed
    ..In the Lhx2-/- telencephalon, where the cortex is greatly shrunken such that medial and dorsal cortical tissue is undetectable, ..
  18. Glenn D, Maurer R. MRG1 binds to the LIM domain of Lhx2 and may function as a coactivator to stimulate glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:36159-67 pubmed
    ..designated the pituitary glycoprotein basal element, which interacts with the LIM homeodomain transcription factor, Lhx2. In the present studies we have explored the function of the LIM domain of Lhx2 in stimulating alpha-subunit ..
  19. Cau E, Casarosa S, Guillemot F. Mash1 and Ngn1 control distinct steps of determination and differentiation in the olfactory sensory neuron lineage. Development. 2002;129:1871-80 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate the versatility of neural bHLH genes which adopt either a determination or a differentiation function, depending primarily on the timing of their expression in neural progenitors. ..
  20. Törnqvist G, Sandberg A, Hägglund A, Carlsson L. Cyclic expression of lhx2 regulates hair formation. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000904 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcriptional regulation of this process is not well understood. We show that the transcription factor Lhx2 is expressed in cells of the outer root sheath and a subpopulation of matrix cells during both morphogenesis and ..
  21. Zhao Y, Sheng H, Amini R, Grinberg A, Lee E, Huang S, et al. Control of hippocampal morphogenesis and neuronal differentiation by the LIM homeobox gene Lhx5. Science. 1999;284:1155-8 pubmed
    ..Lhx5 is therefore essential for the regulation of precursor cell proliferation and the control of neuronal differentiation and migration during hippocampal development. ..
  22. Lee K, Mendelsohn M, Jessell T. Neuronal patterning by BMPs: a requirement for GDF7 in the generation of a discrete class of commissural interneurons in the mouse spinal cord. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3394-407 pubmed
    ..More generally, these results suggest that BMP signaling may have a prominent role in the assignment of neuronal identity within the mammalian CNS. ..
  23. Bach I, Carriere C, Ostendorff H, Andersen B, Rosenfeld M. A family of LIM domain-associated cofactors confer transcriptional synergism between LIM and Otx homeodomain proteins. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1370-80 pubmed
    ..Our results link LIM homeodomain proteins and members of the Otx class of transcription factors in gene activation events during embryogenesis via the actions of specific cofactors. ..
  24. Pinto do Ó P, Richter K, Carlsson L. Hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells immortalized by Lhx2 generate functional hematopoietic cells in vivo. Blood. 2002;99:3939-46 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells differentiated in vitro generates immortalized ..
  25. Subramanian L, Sarkar A, Shetty A, Muralidharan B, Padmanabhan H, Piper M, et al. Transcription factor Lhx2 is necessary and sufficient to suppress astrogliogenesis and promote neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factor Lhx2 regulates this transition in the developing hippocampus...
  26. Richter K, Wirta V, Dahl L, Bruce S, Lundeberg J, Carlsson L, et al. Global gene expression analyses of hematopoietic stem cell-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:75 pubmed
    Expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in murine hematopoietic cells allows for the generation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like cell lines...
  27. Hebert J, Hayhurst M, Marks M, Kulessa H, Hogan B, McConnell S. BMP ligands act redundantly to pattern the dorsal telencephalic midline. Genesis. 2003;35:214-9 pubmed
  28. Tétreault N, Champagne M, Bernier G. The LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 is required to specify the retina field and synergistically cooperates with Pax6 for Six6 trans-activation. Dev Biol. 2009;327:541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Lhx2 and Pax6 transcription factors operate in a concerted manner during retinal development to promote transcriptional ..
  29. Schuurmans C, Armant O, Nieto M, Stenman J, Britz O, Klenin N, et al. Sequential phases of cortical specification involve Neurogenin-dependent and -independent pathways. EMBO J. 2004;23:2892-902 pubmed
    ..Our study thus reveals an unanticipated heterogeneity in the genetic mechanisms specifying the identity of neocortical projection neurons. ..
  30. Bulchand S, Grove E, Porter F, Tole S. LIM-homeodomain gene Lhx2 regulates the formation of the cortical hem. Mech Dev. 2001;100:165-75 pubmed
    ..Mice in which Lhx2 is disrupted were reported to have reduced telencephalic development, and the hippocampal primordium appeared to be ..
  31. Casarosa S, Fode C, Guillemot F. Mash1 regulates neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon. Development. 1999;126:525-34 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Mash1 is an important regulator of neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon, where it is required both to specify neuronal precursors and to control the timing of their production. ..
  32. Wandzioch E, Kolterud A, Jacobsson M, Friedman S, Carlsson L. Lhx2-/- mice develop liver fibrosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16549-54 pubmed
    ..Because the LIM homeobox gene Lhx2 is expressed in HSCs and liver development in Lhx2(-/-) mice is disrupted, we analyzed liver development in Lhx2(-/-..
  33. Hamasaki T, Leingartner A, Ringstedt T, O Leary D. EMX2 regulates sizes and positioning of the primary sensory and motor areas in neocortex by direct specification of cortical progenitors. Neuron. 2004;43:359-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude that EMX2 levels in cortical progenitors disproportionately specify sizes and positions of primary cortical areas. ..
  34. Kolterud A, Wandzioch E, Carlsson L. Lhx2 is expressed in the septum transversum mesenchyme that becomes an integral part of the liver and the formation of these cells is independent of functional Lhx2. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:521-8 pubmed
    ..Targeted disruption of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 has revealed that it is important for the expansion of the liver during embryonic development, whereas it appears ..
  35. Chou S, Perez Garcia C, Kroll T, O Leary D. Lhx2 specifies regional fate in Emx1 lineage of telencephalic progenitors generating cerebral cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1381-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 in mice, expressed in graded levels by progenitors, determines their regional identity and fate decisions to ..
  36. Marcos Mondejar P, Peregrin S, Li J, Carlsson L, Tole S, Lopez Bendito G. The lhx2 transcription factor controls thalamocortical axonal guidance by specific regulation of robo1 and robo2 receptors. J Neurosci. 2012;32:4372-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the Lhx2 transcription factor is dynamically regulated in distinct pools of thalamic neurons during the development of ..
  37. Doan L, Javier A, Furr N, Nguyen K, Cho K, Monuki E. A Bmp reporter with ultrasensitive characteristics reveals that high Bmp signaling is not required for cortical hem fate. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44009 pubmed publisher
    ..In the early dorsal telencephalon, BRE-gal expression negatively correlated with the cortical selector gene Lhx2, indicating a BRE-gal expression border that coincides with the cortex-hem boundary...
  38. Kodaka Y, Tanaka K, Kitajima K, Tanegashima K, Matsuda R, Hara T. LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation in part via transcriptional activation of Msx1 and Msx2. Exp Cell Res. 2015;331:309-19 pubmed publisher
    LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 is known to be an important regulator of neuronal development, homeostasis of hair follicle stem cells, and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells; however, its function in skeletal muscle ..
  39. Davis S, Castinetti F, Carvalho L, Ellsworth B, Potok M, Lyons R, et al. Molecular mechanisms of pituitary organogenesis: In search of novel regulatory genes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;323:4-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified numerous transcription factors that are members of gene families with roles in syndromic or non-syndromic pituitary hormone deficiency. This collection is a rich source for future basic and clinical studies. ..
  40. Gordon P, Yun S, Clark A, Monuki E, Murtaugh L, Levine E. Lhx2 balances progenitor maintenance with neurogenic output and promotes competence state progression in the developing retina. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12197-207 pubmed publisher
    The LIM-Homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 is an essential organizer of early eye development and is subsequently expressed in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs)...
  41. Gard C, Gonzalez Curto G, Frarma Y, Chollet E, Duval N, Auzié V, et al. Pax3- and Pax7-mediated Dbx1 regulation orchestrates the patterning of intermediate spinal interneurons. Dev Biol. 2017;432:24-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data supports the model whereby cell fate choices in the neural tube do not rely on binary decisions but rather on inhibition of multiple alternative fates. ..
  42. Lee K, Dietrich P, Jessell T. Genetic ablation reveals that the roof plate is essential for dorsal interneuron specification. Nature. 2000;403:734-40 pubmed
    ..These results reveal that the roof plate is essential for specifying multiple classes of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system. ..
  43. Youssef K, Lapouge G, Bouvrée K, Rorive S, Brohée S, Appelstein O, et al. Adult interfollicular tumour-initiating cells are reprogrammed into an embryonic hair follicle progenitor-like fate during basal cell carcinoma initiation. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:1282-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of ?-catenin in adult SmoM2-expressing cells prevents EHFP reprogramming and tumour initiation. Finally, human basal cell carcinomas also express genes of the Wnt signalling and EHFP signatures...
  44. Ben Arie N, McCall A, Berkman S, Eichele G, Bellen H, Zoghbi H. Evolutionary conservation of sequence and expression of the bHLH protein Atonal suggests a conserved role in neurogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:1207-16 pubmed
    ..The evolutionary conservation of this gene and its mRNA expression patterns during embryogenesis suggests that it plays a key role in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system...
  45. Ashique A, Choe Y, Karlen M, May S, Phamluong K, Solloway M, et al. The Rfx4 transcription factor modulates Shh signaling by regional control of ciliogenesis. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that Rfx4 is a regionally specific transcriptional regulator of ciliogenesis and thus is also a regionally specific modulator of Shh signaling during development of the central nervous system. ..
  46. Cederquist G, Azim E, Shnider S, Padmanabhan H, Macklis J. Lmo4 establishes rostral motor cortex projection neuron subtype diversity. J Neurosci. 2013;33:6321-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results identify Lmo4 as a central developmental control over the diversity of motor cortex projection neuron subpopulations, establishing their area-specific identity and specialized connectivity. ..
  47. Balasubramanian R, Bui A, Ding Q, Gan L. Expression of LIM-homeodomain transcription factors in the developing and mature mouse retina. Gene Expr Patterns. 2014;14:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a detailed expression study of LIM-HD transcription factors LHX9 and LHX2, LHX3 and LHX4, and LHX6 in the developing and mature mouse retina using immunohistochemistry and in situ ..
  48. Remedios R, Huilgol D, Saha B, Hari P, Bhatnagar L, Kowalczyk T, et al. A stream of cells migrating from the caudal telencephalon reveals a link between the amygdala and neocortex. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1141-50 pubmed
    ..The CAS and the neocortex share mechanisms for specification (transcription factors Tbr1, Lhx2 and Emx1/2) and migration (reelin and Cdk5)...
  49. de Juan Romero C, Bruder C, Tomasello U, Sanz Anquela J, Borrell V. Discrete domains of gene expression in germinal layers distinguish the development of gyrencephaly. EMBO J. 2015;34:1859-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Protomaps of gene expression within germinal layers may contribute to define cortical folds or functional areas, but our findings demonstrate that they distinguish the development of gyrencephalic cortices. ..
  50. Wang C, Hsing H, Zhuang Z, Wen M, Chang W, Briz C, et al. Lhx2 Expression in Postmitotic Cortical Neurons Initiates Assembly of the Thalamocortical Somatosensory Circuit. Cell Rep. 2017;18:849-856 pubmed publisher
    ..When Lhx2 is selectively deleted in postmitotic cortical neurons using conditional knockout (cKO) mice, L4 neurons in the ..
  51. Shum A, Tang L, Copp A, Roelink H. Lack of motor neuron differentiation is an intrinsic property of the mouse secondary neural tube. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results support that the lack of motor neuron differentiation is an intrinsic property of the mouse secondary neural tube. ..
  52. Chou S, Hermesz E, Hatta T, Feltner D, El Hodiri H, Jamrich M, et al. Conserved regulatory elements establish the dynamic expression of Rpx/HesxI in early vertebrate development. Dev Biol. 2006;292:533-45 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we have found that a conserved enhancer in the 3' regulatory sequences of Rpx is not only required, but is also sufficient for the expression of Rpx transgenes in the developing Rathke's pouch. ..
  53. Cai Y, Xu Z, Nagarajan L, Brandt S. Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins regulate the abundance and function of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LHX2 in pituitary cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;373:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Through use of electrophoretic mobility shift, antibody supershift, and ChIP analyses, we show that an Lhx2-Ldb1-Ssbp3 complex binds a specific element in the Lhx2 target gene Cga (encoding the alpha subunit of glycoprotein ..
  54. Qian Y, Shirasawa S, Chen C, Cheng L, Ma Q. Proper development of relay somatic sensory neurons and D2/D4 interneurons requires homeobox genes Rnx/Tlx-3 and Tlx-1. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1220-33 pubmed
    ..Together, our studies demonstrate a central role for Rnx and Tlx-1 in the development of two major classes of relay sensory neurons, somatic and visceral. ..
  55. Maier E, Von Hofsten J, Nord H, Fernandes M, Paek H, Hebert J, et al. Opposing Fgf and Bmp activities regulate the specification of olfactory sensory and respiratory epithelial cell fates. Development. 2010;137:1601-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we present a conserved mechanism in amniotes in which Bmp and Fgf signals act in an opposing manner to regulate the respiratory versus sensory epithelial cell fate decision...
  56. Horsley V, Aliprantis A, Polak L, Glimcher L, Fuchs E. NFATc1 balances quiescence and proliferation of skin stem cells. Cell. 2008;132:299-310 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may explain why patients receiving cyclosporine A for immunosuppressive therapy display excessive hair growth, and unveil a functional role for calcium-NFATc1-CDK4 circuitry in governing stem cell quiescence. ..
  57. Zhang J, Taylor R, La Torre A, Wilken M, Cox K, Reh T, et al. Ezh2 maintains retinal progenitor proliferation, transcriptional integrity, and the timing of late differentiation. Dev Biol. 2015;403:128-38 pubmed publisher
  58. Iulianella A, Sharma M, Vanden Heuvel G, Trainor P. Cux2 functions downstream of Notch signaling to regulate dorsal interneuron formation in the spinal cord. Development. 2009;136:2329-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with the requirement for Cux2 in cell cycle progression, our work highlights the mechanistic complexity in balancing neural progenitor maintenance and differentiation during spinal cord neurogenesis...
  59. Thorel F, Nepote V, Avril I, Kohno K, Desgraz R, Chera S, et al. Conversion of adult pancreatic alpha-cells to beta-cells after extreme beta-cell loss. Nature. 2010;464:1149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Such inter-endocrine spontaneous adult cell conversion could be harnessed towards methods of producing beta-cells for diabetes therapies, either in differentiation settings in vitro or in induced regeneration. ..
  60. Zhao Y, Mailloux C, Hermesz E, Palkóvits M, Westphal H. A role of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in the regulation of pituitary development. Dev Biol. 2010;337:313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 is extensively expressed in the developing ventral diencephalon, including the infundibulum and the posterior lobe ..
  61. Berghard A, Hägglund A, Bohm S, Carlsson L. Lhx2-dependent specification of olfactory sensory neurons is required for successful integration of olfactory, vomeronasal, and GnRH neurons. FASEB J. 2012;26:3464-72 pubmed publisher
    Inactivation of the LIM-homeodomain 2 gene (Lhx2) results in a severe defect in specification of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)...
  62. Lu C, Rincon Limas D, Botas J. Conserved overlapping and reciprocal expression of msh/Msx1 and apterous/Lhx2 in Drosophila and mice. Mech Dev. 2000;99:177-81 pubmed
    ..describe and compare the expression patterns of the murine genes Lhx2 and Msx1 and their Drosophila orthologues apterous (ap) and muscle-segment homeobox (msh)...
  63. Salvatierra J, Lee D, Zibetti C, Duran Moreno M, Yoo S, Newman E, et al. The LIM homeodomain factor Lhx2 is required for hypothalamic tanycyte specification and differentiation. J Neurosci. 2014;34:16809-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We observe that LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1, Mec-3)-homeodomain gene Lhx2 is selectively expressed in hypothalamic progenitor cells and tanycytes...
  64. Muroyama Y, Fujihara M, Ikeya M, Kondoh H, Takada S. Wnt signaling plays an essential role in neuronal specification of the dorsal spinal cord. Genes Dev. 2002;16:548-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, Wnt signaling plays a critical role in the specification of cell types for dorsal interneurons. ..
  65. Hazen V, Andrews M, Umans L, Crenshaw E, Zwijsen A, Butler S. BMP receptor-activated Smads confer diverse functions during the development of the dorsal spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2012;367:216-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the R-Smads, like the I-Smads, have discrete roles mediating BMP-dependent cellular processes during spinal interneuron development...
  66. Bulchand S, Subramanian L, Tole S. Dynamic spatiotemporal expression of LIM genes and cofactors in the embryonic and postnatal cerebral cortex. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:460-9 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have shown that LIM-HD gene Lhx2 is required for the formation of a crucial boundary in the dorsal telencephalon (Bulchand et al...
  67. Smagulova F, Manuylov N, Leach L, Tevosian S. GATA4/FOG2 transcriptional complex regulates Lhx9 gene expression in murine heart development. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:67 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the Lhx9 gene represents the first direct target of the GATA4/FOG2 repressor complex in cardiac development. ..
  68. Zhang H, Pasolli H, Fuchs E. Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator functions in balancing growth and differentiation in skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2270-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identify Cyr61 as a target of YAP in MKs and demonstrate a requirement for TEA domain (TEAD) transcriptional factors to comediate YAP functions in MKs. ..
  69. Chizhikov V, Lindgren A, Currle D, Rose M, Monuki E, Millen K. The roof plate regulates cerebellar cell-type specification and proliferation. Development. 2006;133:2793-804 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to the isthmus, the roof plate represents an important signaling center controlling multiple aspects of cerebellar patterning. ..