Gene Symbol: Lgals9
Description: lectin, galactose binding, soluble 9
Alias: AA407335, AI194909, AI265545, LGALS35, Lgals5, gal-9, galectin-9, galectin-9, lectin, galactose binding, soluble 5
Species: mouse
Products:     Lgals9

Top Publications

  1. Gao H, Schwartz R. C/EBPzeta (CHOP/Gadd153) is a negative regulator of LPS-induced IL-6 expression in B cells. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:390-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that C/EBPzeta functions as negative regulator of IL-6 expression in B cells and that it contributes to the transitory expression of IL-6 that is observed after LPS treatment. ..
  2. Jayaraman P, Sada Ovalle I, Beladi S, Anderson A, Dardalhon V, Hotta C, et al. Tim3 binding to galectin-9 stimulates antimicrobial immunity. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2343-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the T(H)1 cell surface molecule Tim3 has evolved to inhibit growth of intracellular pathogens via its ligand Gal9, which in turn inhibits expansion of effector T(H)1 cells to prevent further tissue inflammation. ..
  3. Zhou Q, Munger M, Veenstra R, Weigel B, Hirashima M, Munn D, et al. Coexpression of Tim-3 and PD-1 identifies a CD8+ T-cell exhaustion phenotype in mice with disseminated acute myelogenous leukemia. Blood. 2011;117:4501-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, combined PD-1/PDL1 and Tim-3/galectin-9 blockade may be beneficial in preventing CD8(+) T-cell exhaustion in patients with hematologic malignancies such as advanced AML. ..
  4. Reddy P, Sehrawat S, Suryawanshi A, Rajasagi N, Mulik S, Hirashima M, et al. Influence of galectin-9/Tim-3 interaction on herpes simplex virus-1 latency. J Immunol. 2011;187:5745-55 pubmed publisher
    ..interaction between T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3)-expressing CD8(+) T cells and galectin 9 (Gal-9) that could influence HSV-1 latency and reactivation...
  5. Nagahara K, Arikawa T, Oomizu S, Kontani K, Nobumoto A, Tateno H, et al. Galectin-9 increases Tim-3+ dendritic cells and CD8+ T cells and enhances antitumor immunity via galectin-9-Tim-3 interactions. J Immunol. 2008;181:7660-9 pubmed
    ..Such DC activity was significantly abrogated by Tim-3-Ig, suggesting that Gal-9 potentiates CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity via Gal-9-Tim-3 interactions between DCs and CD8(+) T cells. ..
  6. Niki T, Tsutsui S, Hirose S, Aradono S, Sugimoto Y, Takeshita K, et al. Galectin-9 is a high affinity IgE-binding lectin with anti-allergic effect by blocking IgE-antigen complex formation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32344-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings shed light on a novel function of Gal-9 in mast cells and suggest a beneficial utility of Gal-9 for the treatment of allergic disorders including asthma. ..
  7. Nagae M, Nishi N, Murata T, Usui T, Nakamura T, Wakatsuki S, et al. Crystal structure of the galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain from Mus musculus reveals the basic mechanism of carbohydrate recognition. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35884-93 pubmed
    ..Finally, surface plasmon resonance assay showed that the galectin-9 NCRD forms a homophilic dimer not only in the crystal but also in solution. ..
  8. Gieseke F, Kruchen A, Tzaribachev N, Bentzien F, Dominici M, Müller I. Proinflammatory stimuli induce galectin-9 in human mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we found that unlike constitutively expressed galectin-1, galectin-9 is induced by several proinflammatory stimuli and released by MSCs. Thus, galectin-9 contributes to the inducible immunomodulatory functions of MSCs. ..
  9. Sehrawat S, Reddy P, Rajasagi N, Suryawanshi A, Hirashima M, Rouse B. Galectin-9/TIM-3 interaction regulates virus-specific primary and memory CD8 T cell response. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000882 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that manipulating galectin signals, as can be achieved using appropriate sugars, may represent a convenient and inexpensive approach to enhance acute and memory responses to a virus infection...

More Information


  1. Wada J, Kanwar Y. Identification and characterization of galectin-9, a novel beta-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6078-86 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that galectin-9 is a new member of the galectin gene family and has a unique intestinal isoform. ..
  2. Nobumoto A, Nagahara K, Oomizu S, Katoh S, Nishi N, Takeshita K, et al. Galectin-9 suppresses tumor metastasis by blocking adhesion to endothelium and extracellular matrices. Glycobiology. 2008;18:735-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that Gal-9 suppresses both attachment and invasion of tumor cells by inhibiting the binding of adhesive molecules on tumor cells to ligands on vascular endothelium and ECM. ..
  3. Seki M, Oomizu S, Sakata K, Sakata A, Arikawa T, Watanabe K, et al. Galectin-9 suppresses the generation of Th17, promotes the induction of regulatory T cells, and regulates experimental autoimmune arthritis. Clin Immunol. 2008;127:78-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggested that galectin-9 ameliorates CIA by suppressing the generation of Th17, promoting the induction of regulatory T cells. ..
  4. Golden Mason L, McMahan R, Strong M, Reisdorph R, Mahaffey S, Palmer B, et al. Galectin-9 functionally impairs natural killer cells in humans and mice. J Virol. 2013;87:4835-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that galectin-9 engagement impairs the function of NK cells, including cytotoxicity and cytokine production. ..
  5. Arikawa T, Watanabe K, Seki M, Matsukawa A, Oomizu S, Sakata K, et al. Galectin-9 ameliorates immune complex-induced arthritis by regulating Fc gamma R expression on macrophages. Clin Immunol. 2009;133:382-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that galectin-9 suppresses IC-induced inflammation partly by regulating Fc gamma R expression on macrophages. ..
  6. Bi S, Hong P, Lee B, Baum L. Galectin-9 binding to cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates the redox environment to enhance T-cell migration and HIV entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, galectin-9 binding to PDI on T cells potentiates infection with HIV. We identify a mechanism for regulating cell surface redox status via a galectin-glycoprotein lattice, to regulate distinct T-cell functions. ..
  7. Chou F, Shieh S, Sytwu H. Attenuation of Th1 response through galectin-9 and T-cell Ig mucin 3 interaction inhibits autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that gal-9 may downregulate Th1 immune response in NOD mice and could be used as a therapeutic target in autoimmune diabetes. ..
  8. Nobumoto A, Oomizu S, Arikawa T, Katoh S, Nagahara K, Miyake M, et al. Galectin-9 expands unique macrophages exhibiting plasmacytoid dendritic cell-like phenotypes that activate NK cells in tumor-bearing mice. Clin Immunol. 2009;130:322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that Gal-9 promotes NK cell-mediated anti-tumor activity by expanding unique macrophages with a pDC-like phenotype. ..
  9. Tsuboi Y, Abe H, Nakagawa R, Oomizu S, Watanabe K, Nishi N, et al. Galectin-9 protects mice from the Shwartzman reaction by attracting prostaglandin E2-producing polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Clin Immunol. 2007;124:221-33 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that Gal-9 regulates LPS-induced inflammation and protects mice from the Shwartzman reaction by attracting PGE(2)-producing PMN. ..
  10. Oomizu S, Arikawa T, Niki T, Kadowaki T, Ueno M, Nishi N, et al. Galectin-9 suppresses Th17 cell development in an IL-2-dependent but Tim-3-independent manner. Clin Immunol. 2012;143:51-8 pubmed publisher
  11. Sehrawat S, Suryawanshi A, Hirashima M, Rouse B. Role of Tim-3/galectin-9 inhibitory interaction in viral-induced immunopathology: shifting the balance toward regulators. J Immunol. 2009;182:3191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that galectin-9 therapy may represent a useful approach to control HSV-induced lesions, the most common cause of infectious blindness in the Western world. ..
  12. Zhu C, Anderson A, Schubart A, Xiong H, Imitola J, Khoury S, et al. The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:1245-52 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the Tim-3-galectin-9 pathway may have evolved to ensure effective termination of effector T(H)1 cells. ..
  13. Steelman A, Smith R, Welsh C, Li J. Galectin-9 protein is up-regulated in astrocytes by tumor necrosis factor and promotes encephalitogenic T-cell apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23776-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, utilizing astrocytes from Lgals9 mutant (Gal-9(-/-)) mice as well as a myelin basic protein-specific Tim-3(+) encephalitogenic T-cell clone (LCN-8),..
  14. Wang F, Wan L, Zhang C, Zheng X, Li J, Chen Z. Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway involves the suppression induced by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Immunobiology. 2009;214:342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, blocking Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway negated prolonged survival of allogeneic skin grafts induced by CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs in vivo. Our results suggest that Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway involves the function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. ..
  15. Veenstra R, Taylor P, Zhou Q, Panoskaltsis Mortari A, Hirashima M, Flynn R, et al. Contrasting acute graft-versus-host disease effects of Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway blockade dependent upon the presence of donor regulatory T cells. Blood. 2012;120:682-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, although donor Tregs typically inhibit GVHD, under some conditions, such Tregs actually may contribute to GVHD by reducing activation-induced T-cell death. ..
  16. Colnot C, Ripoche M, Scaerou F, Foulis D, Poirier F. Galectins in mouse embryogenesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 1996;24:141-6 pubmed
  17. Sharma S, Sundararajan A, Suryawanshi A, Kumar N, Veiga Parga T, Kuchroo V, et al. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein-3 (Tim-3)/Galectin-9 interaction regulates influenza A virus-specific humoral and CD8 T-cell responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19001-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that manipulating galectin signals may represent a convenient approach to improve immune responses to some vaccines. ..
  18. Qi Y, Song X, Shen J, Xu Y, Shen Q, Luo Q, et al. Tim-2 up-regulation and galectin-9-Tim-3 pathway activation in Th2-biased response in Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice. Immunol Lett. 2012;144:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we concluded that pro-apoptotic effects on Th1 population through galectin-9-Tim-3 pathway and the up-regulation of Tim-2 on Th2 cells might be critical to Th2-biased response of host with schistosomiasis japonica. ..
  19. Ju Y, Shang X, Liu Z, Zhang J, Li Y, Shen Y, et al. The Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway involves in the homeostasis of hepatic Tregs in a mouse model of concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. Mol Immunol. 2014;58:85-91 pubmed publisher
  20. Wu C, Thalhamer T, Franca R, Xiao S, Wang C, Hotta C, et al. Galectin-9-CD44 interaction enhances stability and function of adaptive regulatory T cells. Immunity. 2014;41:270-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that exogenous galectin-9, in addition to being an effector molecule for Treg cells, acts synergistically with TGF-? to enforce iTreg cell differentiation and maintenance. ..
  21. Steelman A, Li J. Astrocyte galectin-9 potentiates microglial TNF secretion. J Neuroinflammation. 2014;11:144 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of endogenous galectin-9 production on microglial activation was examined using cultures from wild-type and Lgals9 null mice. The ability for recombinant galectin-9 to promote microglia activation was also assessed...
  22. Hirao H, Uchida Y, Kadono K, Tanaka H, Niki T, Yamauchi A, et al. The protective function of galectin-9 in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice. Liver Transpl. 2015;21:969-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, targeting Gal-9 represents a novel approach to protect from inflammation such as liver IRI. Exogenous Gal-9 treatment will be a new therapeutic strategy against innate immunity-dominated liver tissue damage. ..
  23. Heusschen R, Freitag N, Tirado Gonzalez I, Barrientos G, Moschansky P, Muñoz Fernández R, et al. Profiling Lgals9 splice variant expression at the fetal-maternal interface: implications in normal and pathological human pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:22 pubmed publisher
    ..Galectin-9 (LGALS9), a tandem repeat lectin associated with immune modulation, is expressed in the endometrium during the mid and ..
  24. Klingenspor M, Bodnar J, Welch C, Xia Y, Lusis A, Reue K. Localization of ubiquitin gene family members to mouse chromosomes 5, 11, and 18. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:789-90 pubmed
  25. Han J, Ren Z, Jiang X. [Expression and significance of galectin-3 and galectin-9 in mice nasal mucosa with allergic rhinitis]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;43:504-8 pubmed
    ..Galectin-3 and galectin-9 might play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. ..
  26. Liu Y, Ji H, Zhang Y, Shen X, Gao F, He X, et al. Recipient T cell TIM-3 and hepatocyte galectin-9 signalling protects mouse liver transplants against ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Hepatol. 2015;62:563-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Negative regulation by recipient TIM-3+CD4+ cells provides evidence for cytoprotective functions of a discrete T cell subset, which should be spared when applying T cell-targeted immunosuppression in transplant recipients. ..
  27. Chen X, Song C, Liu Z, Feng B, Zheng P, Li P, et al. Intestinal epithelial cells express galectin-9 in patients with food allergy that plays a critical role in sustaining allergic status in mouse intestine. Allergy. 2011;66:1038-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In a mouse FA model, blocking Gal-9 inhibited the allergic hypersensitivity status and the antigen-specific Th2 response in the intestine. IEC-derived Gal-9 contributes to sustaining the allergic status in the intestine. ..
  28. Katoh S, Oomizu S, Niki T, Shimizu H, Obase Y, Korenaga M, et al. Possible regulatory role of galectin-9 on Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;158 Suppl 1:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Gal-9 negatively regulates Th2-mediated eosinophilic inflammation of the lung and that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells might be involved in suppressing allergic inflammation. ..
  29. Tang Z, Liang S, Potter J, Jiang X, Mao H, Li Z. Tim-3/galectin-9 regulate the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Immunol. 2013;190:1788-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the Tim-3/Gal-9-signaling pathway plays a critical role in the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells through activation-induced apoptosis and secondary proliferation and, thus, contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. ..
  30. Wang F, He W, Yuan J, Wu K, Zhou H, Zhang W, et al. Activation of Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway improves survival of fully allogeneic skin grafts. Transpl Immunol. 2008;19:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway plays an important role in the termination of productive Th1-immune response and could lead to developing novel therapies in transplant medicine. ..
  31. Madireddi S, Eun S, Mehta A, Birta A, Zajonc D, Niki T, et al. Regulatory T Cell-Mediated Suppression of Inflammation Induced by DR3 Signaling Is Dependent on Galectin-9. J Immunol. 2017;199:2721-2728 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar results were seen in an allergic lung inflammation model. Thus, we demonstrate a novel function of Galectin-9 in facilitating activity of DR3 related to Treg-mediated suppression. ..
  32. Daley D, Mani V, Mohan N, Akkad N, Ochi A, Heindel D, et al. Dectin 1 activation on macrophages by galectin 9 promotes pancreatic carcinoma and peritumoral immune tolerance. Nat Med. 2017;23:556-567 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that dectin 1 can ligate the lectin galectin 9 in mouse and human PDA, which results in tolerogenic macrophage programming and adaptive immune suppression...
  33. Li Y, Zhou W, Tao Y, Wang S, Jiang Y, Zhang D, et al. The Galectin-9/Tim-3 pathway is involved in the regulation of NK cell function at the maternal-fetal interface in early pregnancy. Cell Mol Immunol. 2016;13:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that the Gal-9/Tim-3 signal is important for the regulation of dNK cell function, which is beneficial for the maintenance of a normal pregnancy. ..
  34. Zhang Q, Luan H, Wang L, He F, Zhou H, Xu X, et al. Galectin-9 ameliorates anti-GBM glomerulonephritis by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 immune responses in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;306:F822-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the protective role of Gal-9 in anti-GBM GN is associated with the inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced Th2 immunity in the kidney. ..
  35. Takeuchi T, Tamura M, Nishiyama K, Iwaki J, Hirabayashi J, Takahashi H, et al. Mammalian galectins bind galactose?1-4fucose disaccharide, a unique structural component of protostomial N-type glycoproteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;436:509-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Gal?1-4Fuc could be a promising seed compound for the synthesis of novel galectin inhibitors. ..
  36. Dunphy J, Barcham G, Bischof R, Young A, Nash A, Meeusen E. Isolation and characterization of a novel eosinophil-specific galectin released into the lungs in response to allergen challenge. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14916-24 pubmed
    ..The restricted expression of this novel galectin to eosinophils and its release into the lumen of the lung in a sheep asthma model indicates that it may play an important role in eosinophil function and allergic inflammation. ..
  37. Ungerer C, Quade Lyssy P, Radeke H, Henschler R, Konigs C, Köhl U, et al. Galectin-9 is a suppressor of T and B cells and predicts the immune modulatory potential of mesenchymal stromal cell preparations. Stem Cells Dev. 2014;23:755-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Gal-9 acts as an immune modulator interfering with multiple cell types including B cells and Gal-9 may serve as a predictive indicator for clinical MSC therapy. ..
  38. Wada J, Ota K, Kumar A, Wallner E, Kanwar Y. Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a beta-galactoside binding lectin. J Clin Invest. 1997;99:2452-61 pubmed
    ..Galectin-9 failed to induce apoptosis in hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that galectin-9, a developmentally regulated lectin, plays a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. ..
  39. Madireddi S, Eun S, Lee S, Nemčovičová I, Mehta A, Zajonc D, et al. Galectin-9 controls the therapeutic activity of 4-1BB-targeting antibodies. J Exp Med. 2014;211:1433-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Conservation of the Gal-9 interaction in humans has important implications for effective clinical targeting of 4-1BB and possibly other TNFR superfamily molecules. ..
  40. Jiang Z, Shih D, Xia Y, Lusis A, de Beer F, de Villiers W, et al. Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the gene encoding macrosialin, a macrophage-restricted protein. Genomics. 1998;50:199-205 pubmed
    ..Although the function of macrosialin is unknown, it might play a role in lipoprotein regulation given its binding of oxidized LDL in vitro and its colocalization to a region on chromosome 11 involved in the control of HDL levels. ..
  41. Nagae M, Nishi N, Nakamura Tsuruta S, Hirabayashi J, Wakatsuki S, Kato R. Structural analysis of the human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain reveals unexpected properties that differ from the mouse orthologue. J Mol Biol. 2008;375:119-35 pubmed
    ..The human galectin-9 NCRD exhibited greater inhibition of cell proliferation than the mouse NCRD. We discuss the biochemical and structural differences between highly homologous proteins from different species. ..
  42. Shimmura Tomita M, Wang M, Taniguchi H, Akiba H, Yagita H, Hori J. Galectin-9-mediated protection from allo-specific T cells as a mechanism of immune privilege of corneal allografts. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63620 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that constitutive expression of Gal-9 plays an immunosuppressive role in corneal allografts. Gal-9 expressed on corneal endothelial cells protects them from destruction by allo-reactive T cells within the cornea. ..
  43. Moritoki M, Kadowaki T, Niki T, Nakano D, Soma G, Mori H, et al. Galectin-9 ameliorates clinical severity of MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice by inducing plasma cell apoptosis independently of Tim-3. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60807 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, it is likely that galectin-9 attenuates the clinical severity of MRL lupus-prone mice by regulating T cell function and inducing plasma cell apoptosis. ..
  44. Li Y, Feng J, Geng S, Geng S, Wei H, Chen G, et al. The N- and C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains of galectin-9 contribute differently to its multiple functions in innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:670-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations on the underlying mechanisms will provide new insights into the biochemical basis for the multiple activities of Gal-9. ..
  45. Gitt M, Wiser M, Leffler H, Herrmann J, Xia Y, Massa S, et al. Sequence and mapping of galectin-5, a beta-galactoside-binding lectin, found in rat erythrocytes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:5032-8 pubmed
    ..The gene encoding galectin-5 (LGALS5) has been mapped in mouse to chromosome 11, approximately 50 centimorgans from the centromere and 1.8 +/- 1...
  46. Colnot C, Fowlis D, Ripoche M, Bouchaert I, Poirier F. Embryonic implantation in galectin 1/galectin 3 double mutant mice. Dev Dyn. 1998;211:306-13 pubmed
    ..We find that implantation can still occur in the absence of both galectin 1 and galectin 3. However, we show that galectin 5, a third member of this gene family, is also present in the blastocyst at the time of implantation. ..
  47. Oomizu S, Arikawa T, Niki T, Kadowaki T, Ueno M, Nishi N, et al. Cell surface galectin-9 expressing Th cells regulate Th17 and Foxp3+ Treg development by galectin-9 secretion. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48574 pubmed publisher
    ..Further elucidation of Gal-9(+) Th cells in humans indicates a conserved role of these cells through evolution and implies the possible utility of these cells for diagnosis or treatment of immunological diseases. ..
  48. Steichen A, Simonson T, Salmon S, Metzger D, Mishra B, Sharma J. Alarmin function of galectin-9 in murine respiratory tularemia. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123573 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that galectin-9 functions as a novel alarmin by augmenting the inflammatory response in sepsis development during pulmonary F. novicida infection. ..
  49. Puche A, Poirier F, Hair M, Bartlett P, Key B. Role of galectin-1 in the developing mouse olfactory system. Dev Biol. 1996;179:274-87 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration that a lectin has neurite outgrowth-promoting activity and plays a role in neuronal pathfinding in the mammalian nervous system. ..
  50. Meggyes M, Lajko A, Palkovics T, Totsimon A, Illes Z, Szereday L, et al. Feto-maternal immune regulation by TIM-3/galectin-9 pathway and PD-1 molecule in mice at day 14.5 of pregnancy. Placenta. 2015;36:1153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveals a particularly complex, tissue and cell type specific immunoregulatory mechanism by the investigated co-inhibitory receptors at the fetomaternal interface. ..
  51. Zhang Z, Luan B, Feng X. [Expression of Galectin-9 and Tim-3 in lungs of mice with asthma]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2011;13:406-10 pubmed
    ..This suggests that Galectin-9 and Tim-3 are closely related to inflammatory process in asthma. Rosiglitazone treatment may decrease the expression of Galectin-9 and Tim-3. ..
  52. Klingenspor M, Bodnar J, Xia Y, Welch C, Lusis A, Reue K. Localization of profilin-1 (Pfn1) and a related sequence (Pfn1-rs) to mouse chromosomes 11 and 15 respectively. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:539-40 pubmed
  53. Sziksz E, Kozma G, Pallinger E, Komlósi Z, Adori C, Kovacs L, et al. Galectin-9 in allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;151:308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Gal-9 plays a role as a mediator contributing to the development of allergic airway inflammation. Gal-9 may serve as a recruiter of eosinophil granulocytes and promoter of Th2 dominance. ..
  54. Nakakita S, Itoh A, Nakakita Y, Nonaka Y, Ogawa T, Nakamura T, et al. Cooperative Interactions of Oligosaccharide and Peptide Moieties of a Glycopeptide Derived from IgE with Galectin-9. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:968-79 pubmed publisher