Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Lgals9
Description: lectin, galactose binding, soluble 9
Alias: AA407335, AI194909, AI265545, LGALS35, Lgals5, gal-9, galectin-9, galectin-9, lectin, galactose binding, soluble 5
- Wada J, Kanwar Y. Identification and characterization of galectin-9, a novel beta-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6078-86 pubmed..Collectively, these data indicate that galectin-9 is a new member of the galectin gene family and has a unique intestinal isoform. ..
- Nobumoto A, Nagahara K, Oomizu S, Katoh S, Nishi N, Takeshita K, et al. Galectin-9 suppresses tumor metastasis by blocking adhesion to endothelium and extracellular matrices. Glycobiology. 2008;18:735-44 pubmed publisher..The present results suggest that Gal-9 suppresses both attachment and invasion of tumor cells by inhibiting the binding of adhesive molecules on tumor cells to ligands on vascular endothelium and ECM. ..
- Seki M, Oomizu S, Sakata K, Sakata A, Arikawa T, Watanabe K, et al. Galectin-9 suppresses the generation of Th17, promotes the induction of regulatory T cells, and regulates experimental autoimmune arthritis. Clin Immunol. 2008;127:78-88 pubmed publisher..The present results suggested that galectin-9 ameliorates CIA by suppressing the generation of Th17, promoting the induction of regulatory T cells. ..
- Golden Mason L, McMahan R, Strong M, Reisdorph R, Mahaffey S, Palmer B, et al. Galectin-9 functionally impairs natural killer cells in humans and mice. J Virol. 2013;87:4835-45 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results indicate that galectin-9 engagement impairs the function of NK cells, including cytotoxicity and cytokine production. ..
- Arikawa T, Watanabe K, Seki M, Matsukawa A, Oomizu S, Sakata K, et al. Galectin-9 ameliorates immune complex-induced arthritis by regulating Fc gamma R expression on macrophages. Clin Immunol. 2009;133:382-92 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that galectin-9 suppresses IC-induced inflammation partly by regulating Fc gamma R expression on macrophages. ..
- Bi S, Hong P, Lee B, Baum L. Galectin-9 binding to cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates the redox environment to enhance T-cell migration and HIV entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10650-5 pubmed publisher..In addition, galectin-9 binding to PDI on T cells potentiates infection with HIV. We identify a mechanism for regulating cell surface redox status via a galectin-glycoprotein lattice, to regulate distinct T-cell functions. ..
- Chou F, Shieh S, Sytwu H. Attenuation of Th1 response through galectin-9 and T-cell Ig mucin 3 interaction inhibits autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2403-11 pubmed publisher..We conclude that gal-9 may downregulate Th1 immune response in NOD mice and could be used as a therapeutic target in autoimmune diabetes. ..
- Nobumoto A, Oomizu S, Arikawa T, Katoh S, Nagahara K, Miyake M, et al. Galectin-9 expands unique macrophages exhibiting plasmacytoid dendritic cell-like phenotypes that activate NK cells in tumor-bearing mice. Clin Immunol. 2009;130:322-30 pubmed publisher..These results provide evidence that Gal-9 promotes NK cell-mediated anti-tumor activity by expanding unique macrophages with a pDC-like phenotype. ..
- Tsuboi Y, Abe H, Nakagawa R, Oomizu S, Watanabe K, Nishi N, et al. Galectin-9 protects mice from the Shwartzman reaction by attracting prostaglandin E2-producing polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Clin Immunol. 2007;124:221-33 pubmed..Our data suggest that Gal-9 regulates LPS-induced inflammation and protects mice from the Shwartzman reaction by attracting PGE(2)-producing PMN. ..
- Sehrawat S, Suryawanshi A, Hirashima M, Rouse B. Role of Tim-3/galectin-9 inhibitory interaction in viral-induced immunopathology: shifting the balance toward regulators. J Immunol. 2009;182:3191-201 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that galectin-9 therapy may represent a useful approach to control HSV-induced lesions, the most common cause of infectious blindness in the Western world. ..
- Zhu C, Anderson A, Schubart A, Xiong H, Imitola J, Khoury S, et al. The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:1245-52 pubmed..These data suggest that the Tim-3-galectin-9 pathway may have evolved to ensure effective termination of effector T(H)1 cells. ..
- Steelman A, Smith R, Welsh C, Li J. Galectin-9 protein is up-regulated in astrocytes by tumor necrosis factor and promotes encephalitogenic T-cell apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23776-87 pubmed publisher..Finally, utilizing astrocytes from Lgals9 mutant (Gal-9(-/-)) mice as well as a myelin basic protein-specific Tim-3(+) encephalitogenic T-cell clone (LCN-8),..
- Wang F, Wan L, Zhang C, Zheng X, Li J, Chen Z. Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway involves the suppression induced by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Immunobiology. 2009;214:342-9 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, blocking Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway negated prolonged survival of allogeneic skin grafts induced by CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs in vivo. Our results suggest that Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway involves the function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. ..
- Veenstra R, Taylor P, Zhou Q, Panoskaltsis Mortari A, Hirashima M, Flynn R, et al. Contrasting acute graft-versus-host disease effects of Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway blockade dependent upon the presence of donor regulatory T cells. Blood. 2012;120:682-90 pubmed publisher..Thus, although donor Tregs typically inhibit GVHD, under some conditions, such Tregs actually may contribute to GVHD by reducing activation-induced T-cell death. ..
- Colnot C, Ripoche M, Scaerou F, Foulis D, Poirier F. Galectins in mouse embryogenesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 1996;24:141-6 pubmed
- Sharma S, Sundararajan A, Suryawanshi A, Kumar N, Veiga Parga T, Kuchroo V, et al. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein-3 (Tim-3)/Galectin-9 interaction regulates influenza A virus-specific humoral and CD8 T-cell responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19001-6 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that manipulating galectin signals may represent a convenient approach to improve immune responses to some vaccines. ..
- Qi Y, Song X, Shen J, Xu Y, Shen Q, Luo Q, et al. Tim-2 up-regulation and galectin-9-Tim-3 pathway activation in Th2-biased response in Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice. Immunol Lett. 2012;144:60-6 pubmed publisher..Thus, we concluded that pro-apoptotic effects on Th1 population through galectin-9-Tim-3 pathway and the up-regulation of Tim-2 on Th2 cells might be critical to Th2-biased response of host with schistosomiasis japonica. ..
- Wu C, Thalhamer T, Franca R, Xiao S, Wang C, Hotta C, et al. Galectin-9-CD44 interaction enhances stability and function of adaptive regulatory T cells. Immunity. 2014;41:270-82 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that exogenous galectin-9, in addition to being an effector molecule for Treg cells, acts synergistically with TGF-? to enforce iTreg cell differentiation and maintenance. ..
- Steelman A, Li J. Astrocyte galectin-9 potentiates microglial TNF secretion. J Neuroinflammation. 2014;11:144 pubmed publisher..effect of endogenous galectin-9 production on microglial activation was examined using cultures from wild-type and Lgals9 null mice. The ability for recombinant galectin-9 to promote microglia activation was also assessed...
- Hirao H, Uchida Y, Kadono K, Tanaka H, Niki T, Yamauchi A, et al. The protective function of galectin-9 in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice. Liver Transpl. 2015;21:969-81 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, targeting Gal-9 represents a novel approach to protect from inflammation such as liver IRI. Exogenous Gal-9 treatment will be a new therapeutic strategy against innate immunity-dominated liver tissue damage. ..
- Heusschen R, Freitag N, Tirado Gonzalez I, Barrientos G, Moschansky P, Muñoz Fernández R, et al. Profiling Lgals9 splice variant expression at the fetal-maternal interface: implications in normal and pathological human pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:22 pubmed publisher..Galectin-9 (LGALS9), a tandem repeat lectin associated with immune modulation, is expressed in the endometrium during the mid and ..
- Klingenspor M, Bodnar J, Welch C, Xia Y, Lusis A, Reue K. Localization of ubiquitin gene family members to mouse chromosomes 5, 11, and 18. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:789-90 pubmed
- Han J, Ren Z, Jiang X. [Expression and significance of galectin-3 and galectin-9 in mice nasal mucosa with allergic rhinitis]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;43:504-8 pubmed..Galectin-3 and galectin-9 might play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. ..
- Liu Y, Ji H, Zhang Y, Shen X, Gao F, He X, et al. Recipient T cell TIM-3 and hepatocyte galectin-9 signalling protects mouse liver transplants against ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Hepatol. 2015;62:563-72 pubmed publisher..Negative regulation by recipient TIM-3+CD4+ cells provides evidence for cytoprotective functions of a discrete T cell subset, which should be spared when applying T cell-targeted immunosuppression in transplant recipients. ..
- Chen X, Song C, Liu Z, Feng B, Zheng P, Li P, et al. Intestinal epithelial cells express galectin-9 in patients with food allergy that plays a critical role in sustaining allergic status in mouse intestine. Allergy. 2011;66:1038-46 pubmed publisher..In a mouse FA model, blocking Gal-9 inhibited the allergic hypersensitivity status and the antigen-specific Th2 response in the intestine. IEC-derived Gal-9 contributes to sustaining the allergic status in the intestine. ..
- Katoh S, Oomizu S, Niki T, Shimizu H, Obase Y, Korenaga M, et al. Possible regulatory role of galectin-9 on Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;158 Suppl 1:58-65 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that Gal-9 negatively regulates Th2-mediated eosinophilic inflammation of the lung and that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells might be involved in suppressing allergic inflammation. ..
- Tang Z, Liang S, Potter J, Jiang X, Mao H, Li Z. Tim-3/galectin-9 regulate the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Immunol. 2013;190:1788-96 pubmed publisher..In summary, the Tim-3/Gal-9-signaling pathway plays a critical role in the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells through activation-induced apoptosis and secondary proliferation and, thus, contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. ..
- Wang F, He W, Yuan J, Wu K, Zhou H, Zhang W, et al. Activation of Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway improves survival of fully allogeneic skin grafts. Transpl Immunol. 2008;19:12-9 pubmed publisher..These observations suggest that Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway plays an important role in the termination of productive Th1-immune response and could lead to developing novel therapies in transplant medicine. ..
- Madireddi S, Eun S, Mehta A, Birta A, Zajonc D, Niki T, et al. Regulatory T Cell-Mediated Suppression of Inflammation Induced by DR3 Signaling Is Dependent on Galectin-9. J Immunol. 2017;199:2721-2728 pubmed publisher..Similar results were seen in an allergic lung inflammation model. Thus, we demonstrate a novel function of Galectin-9 in facilitating activity of DR3 related to Treg-mediated suppression. ..
- Daley D, Mani V, Mohan N, Akkad N, Ochi A, Heindel D, et al. Dectin 1 activation on macrophages by galectin 9 promotes pancreatic carcinoma and peritumoral immune tolerance. Nat Med. 2017;23:556-567 pubmed publisher..We found that dectin 1 can ligate the lectin galectin 9 in mouse and human PDA, which results in tolerogenic macrophage programming and adaptive immune suppression...
- Li Y, Zhou W, Tao Y, Wang S, Jiang Y, Zhang D, et al. The Galectin-9/Tim-3 pathway is involved in the regulation of NK cell function at the maternal-fetal interface in early pregnancy. Cell Mol Immunol. 2016;13:73-81 pubmed publisher..Therefore, our results suggest that the Gal-9/Tim-3 signal is important for the regulation of dNK cell function, which is beneficial for the maintenance of a normal pregnancy. ..
- Zhang Q, Luan H, Wang L, He F, Zhou H, Xu X, et al. Galectin-9 ameliorates anti-GBM glomerulonephritis by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 immune responses in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;306:F822-32 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, the protective role of Gal-9 in anti-GBM GN is associated with the inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced Th2 immunity in the kidney. ..
- Takeuchi T, Tamura M, Nishiyama K, Iwaki J, Hirabayashi J, Takahashi H, et al. Mammalian galectins bind galactose?1-4fucose disaccharide, a unique structural component of protostomial N-type glycoproteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;436:509-13 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, Gal?1-4Fuc could be a promising seed compound for the synthesis of novel galectin inhibitors. ..
- Dunphy J, Barcham G, Bischof R, Young A, Nash A, Meeusen E. Isolation and characterization of a novel eosinophil-specific galectin released into the lungs in response to allergen challenge. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14916-24 pubmed..The restricted expression of this novel galectin to eosinophils and its release into the lumen of the lung in a sheep asthma model indicates that it may play an important role in eosinophil function and allergic inflammation. ..
- Ungerer C, Quade Lyssy P, Radeke H, Henschler R, Konigs C, Köhl U, et al. Galectin-9 is a suppressor of T and B cells and predicts the immune modulatory potential of mesenchymal stromal cell preparations. Stem Cells Dev. 2014;23:755-66 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, Gal-9 acts as an immune modulator interfering with multiple cell types including B cells and Gal-9 may serve as a predictive indicator for clinical MSC therapy. ..
- Wada J, Ota K, Kumar A, Wallner E, Kanwar Y. Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a beta-galactoside binding lectin. J Clin Invest. 1997;99:2452-61 pubmed..Galectin-9 failed to induce apoptosis in hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that galectin-9, a developmentally regulated lectin, plays a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. ..
- Madireddi S, Eun S, Lee S, Nemčovičová I, Mehta A, Zajonc D, et al. Galectin-9 controls the therapeutic activity of 4-1BB-targeting antibodies. J Exp Med. 2014;211:1433-48 pubmed publisher..Conservation of the Gal-9 interaction in humans has important implications for effective clinical targeting of 4-1BB and possibly other TNFR superfamily molecules. ..
- Jiang Z, Shih D, Xia Y, Lusis A, de Beer F, de Villiers W, et al. Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the gene encoding macrosialin, a macrophage-restricted protein. Genomics. 1998;50:199-205 pubmed..Although the function of macrosialin is unknown, it might play a role in lipoprotein regulation given its binding of oxidized LDL in vitro and its colocalization to a region on chromosome 11 involved in the control of HDL levels. ..
- Nagae M, Nishi N, Nakamura Tsuruta S, Hirabayashi J, Wakatsuki S, Kato R. Structural analysis of the human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain reveals unexpected properties that differ from the mouse orthologue. J Mol Biol. 2008;375:119-35 pubmed..The human galectin-9 NCRD exhibited greater inhibition of cell proliferation than the mouse NCRD. We discuss the biochemical and structural differences between highly homologous proteins from different species. ..
- Shimmura Tomita M, Wang M, Taniguchi H, Akiba H, Yagita H, Hori J. Galectin-9-mediated protection from allo-specific T cells as a mechanism of immune privilege of corneal allografts. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63620 pubmed publisher..We propose that constitutive expression of Gal-9 plays an immunosuppressive role in corneal allografts. Gal-9 expressed on corneal endothelial cells protects them from destruction by allo-reactive T cells within the cornea. ..
- Moritoki M, Kadowaki T, Niki T, Nakano D, Soma G, Mori H, et al. Galectin-9 ameliorates clinical severity of MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice by inducing plasma cell apoptosis independently of Tim-3. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60807 pubmed publisher..Collectively, it is likely that galectin-9 attenuates the clinical severity of MRL lupus-prone mice by regulating T cell function and inducing plasma cell apoptosis. ..
- Li Y, Feng J, Geng S, Geng S, Wei H, Chen G, et al. The N- and C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains of galectin-9 contribute differently to its multiple functions in innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:670-7 pubmed publisher..Further investigations on the underlying mechanisms will provide new insights into the biochemical basis for the multiple activities of Gal-9. ..
- Gitt M, Wiser M, Leffler H, Herrmann J, Xia Y, Massa S, et al. Sequence and mapping of galectin-5, a beta-galactoside-binding lectin, found in rat erythrocytes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:5032-8 pubmed..The gene encoding galectin-5 (LGALS5) has been mapped in mouse to chromosome 11, approximately 50 centimorgans from the centromere and 1.8 +/- 1...
- Colnot C, Fowlis D, Ripoche M, Bouchaert I, Poirier F. Embryonic implantation in galectin 1/galectin 3 double mutant mice. Dev Dyn. 1998;211:306-13 pubmed..We find that implantation can still occur in the absence of both galectin 1 and galectin 3. However, we show that galectin 5, a third member of this gene family, is also present in the blastocyst at the time of implantation. ..
- Oomizu S, Arikawa T, Niki T, Kadowaki T, Ueno M, Nishi N, et al. Cell surface galectin-9 expressing Th cells regulate Th17 and Foxp3+ Treg development by galectin-9 secretion. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48574 pubmed publisher..Further elucidation of Gal-9(+) Th cells in humans indicates a conserved role of these cells through evolution and implies the possible utility of these cells for diagnosis or treatment of immunological diseases. ..
- Steichen A, Simonson T, Salmon S, Metzger D, Mishra B, Sharma J. Alarmin function of galectin-9 in murine respiratory tularemia. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123573 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these findings suggest that galectin-9 functions as a novel alarmin by augmenting the inflammatory response in sepsis development during pulmonary F. novicida infection. ..
- Puche A, Poirier F, Hair M, Bartlett P, Key B. Role of galectin-1 in the developing mouse olfactory system. Dev Biol. 1996;179:274-87 pubmed..This is the first demonstration that a lectin has neurite outgrowth-promoting activity and plays a role in neuronal pathfinding in the mammalian nervous system. ..
- Meggyes M, Lajko A, Palkovics T, Totsimon A, Illes Z, Szereday L, et al. Feto-maternal immune regulation by TIM-3/galectin-9 pathway and PD-1 molecule in mice at day 14.5 of pregnancy. Placenta. 2015;36:1153-60 pubmed publisher..Our data reveals a particularly complex, tissue and cell type specific immunoregulatory mechanism by the investigated co-inhibitory receptors at the fetomaternal interface. ..
- Zhang Z, Luan B, Feng X. [Expression of Galectin-9 and Tim-3 in lungs of mice with asthma]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2011;13:406-10 pubmed..This suggests that Galectin-9 and Tim-3 are closely related to inflammatory process in asthma. Rosiglitazone treatment may decrease the expression of Galectin-9 and Tim-3. ..
- Klingenspor M, Bodnar J, Xia Y, Welch C, Lusis A, Reue K. Localization of profilin-1 (Pfn1) and a related sequence (Pfn1-rs) to mouse chromosomes 11 and 15 respectively. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:539-40 pubmed
- Sziksz E, Kozma G, Pallinger E, Komlósi Z, Adori C, Kovacs L, et al. Galectin-9 in allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;151:308-17 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that Gal-9 plays a role as a mediator contributing to the development of allergic airway inflammation. Gal-9 may serve as a recruiter of eosinophil granulocytes and promoter of Th2 dominance. ..