Ldb1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ldb1
Description: LIM domain binding 1
Alias: CLIM2, NLI, LIM domain-binding protein 1, LIM domain-binding factor CLIM2, carboxyl-terminal LIM domain-binding protein 2, nuclear LIM interactor
Species: mouse
Products:     Ldb1

Top Publications

  1. Agulnick A, Taira M, Breen J, Tanaka T, Dawid I, Westphal H. Interactions of the LIM-domain-binding factor Ldb1 with LIM homeodomain proteins. Nature. 1996;384:270-2 pubmed
    ..How LIM domains exert these regulatory effects is not known. We have now isolated a new LIM-domain-binding factor, Ldb1, on the basis of its ability to interact with the LIM-HD protein Lhx1 (Lim1)...
  2. Bach I, Carriere C, Ostendorff H, Andersen B, Rosenfeld M. A family of LIM domain-associated cofactors confer transcriptional synergism between LIM and Otx homeodomain proteins. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1370-80 pubmed
    ..Our results link LIM homeodomain proteins and members of the Otx class of transcription factors in gene activation events during embryogenesis via the actions of specific cofactors. ..
  3. Pauken C, Capco D. The expression and stage-specific localization of protein kinase C isotypes during mouse preimplantation development. Dev Biol. 2000;223:411-21 pubmed
    ..Two isotypes have a stage-dependent nuclear localization. In addition, within each blastomere PKC isotypes occupy different subcellular locations in a stage-dependent fashion. ..
  4. Zhao Y, Kwan K, Mailloux C, Lee W, Grinberg A, Wurst W, et al. LIM-homeodomain proteins Lhx1 and Lhx5, and their cofactor Ldb1, control Purkinje cell differentiation in the developing cerebellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13182-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, targeted inactivation of Ldb1, which encodes a cofactor for all LIM-homeodomain proteins, resulted in a similar phenotype...
  5. Matthews J, Visvader J. LIM-domain-binding protein 1: a multifunctional cofactor that interacts with diverse proteins. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:1132-7 pubmed
    The ubiquitous nuclear adaptor protein LIM-domain-binding protein 1 (Ldb1) was originally identified as a cofactor for LIM-homeodomain and LIM-only (LMO) proteins that have fundamental roles in development...
  6. Visvader J, Mao X, Fujiwara Y, Hahm K, Orkin S. The LIM-domain binding protein Ldb1 and its partner LMO2 act as negative regulators of erythroid differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13707-12 pubmed
    ..We, and others, have identified a widely expressed protein, Ldb1, whose C-terminal 76-residues are sufficient to mediate interaction with LMO2...
  7. Li L, Jothi R, Cui K, Lee J, Cohen T, Gorivodsky M, et al. Nuclear adaptor Ldb1 regulates a transcriptional program essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:129-36 pubmed publisher
    The nuclear adaptor Ldb1 functions as a core component of multiprotein transcription complexes that regulate differentiation in diverse cell types...
  8. Tucker A, Al Khamis A, Ferguson C, Bach I, Rosenfeld M, Sharpe P. Conserved regulation of mesenchymal gene expression by Fgf-8 in face and limb development. Development. 1999;126:221-8 pubmed
    Clim-2 (NLI, Lbd1) is one of two related mouse proteins that interact with Lim-domain homeoproteins...
  9. Sugihara T, Bach I, Kioussi C, Rosenfeld M, Andersen B. Mouse deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor 1 recruits a LIM domain factor, LMO-4, and CLIM coregulators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15418-23 pubmed
    Nuclear LIM domains interact with a family of coregulators referred to as Clim/Ldb/Nli. Although one family member, Clim-2/Ldb-1/Nli, is highly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes, no nuclear LIM domain factor is known to be expressed ..

More Information

Publications77

  1. Hwang M, Gorivodsky M, Kim M, Westphal H, Geum D. The neuronal differentiation potential of Ldb1-null mutant embryonic stem cells is dependent on extrinsic influences. Stem Cells. 2008;26:1490-5 pubmed publisher
    LIM-domain binding protein 1 (Ldb1) is a multiadaptor protein that mediates the action of transcription factors, including LIM-homeodomain proteins...
  2. Jurata L, Kenny D, Gill G. Nuclear LIM interactor, a rhombotin and LIM homeodomain interacting protein, is expressed early in neuronal development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11693-8 pubmed
    ..We have isolated a novel protein, nuclear LIM interactor (NLI), that specifically associates with a single LIM domain in all nuclear LIM proteins tested...
  3. Bhati M, Lee C, Nancarrow A, Lee M, Craig V, Bach I, et al. Implementing the LIM code: the structural basis for cell type-specific assembly of LIM-homeodomain complexes. EMBO J. 2008;27:2018-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In the ventral spinal cord, the binary LIM homeobox protein 3 (Lhx3)/LIM domain-binding protein 1 (Ldb1) complex specifies the formation of V2 interneurons...
  4. Xu Z, Huang S, Chang L, Agulnick A, Brandt S. Identification of a TAL1 target gene reveals a positive role for the LIM domain-binding protein Ldb1 in erythroid gene expression and differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7585-99 pubmed
    ..partner E47, zinc finger transcription factor GATA-1, LIM domain protein LMO2, and LIM domain-binding protein Ldb1 transactivates the protein 4.2 (P4.2) gene through two E box GATA elements in its proximal promoter...
  5. Suleiman H, Heudobler D, Raschta A, Zhao Y, Zhao Q, Hertting I, et al. The podocyte-specific inactivation of Lmx1b, Ldb1 and E2a yields new insight into a transcriptional network in podocytes. Dev Biol. 2007;304:701-12 pubmed
    ..Promising candidates for modifier proteins are the proteins interacting with LMX1B, such as LDB1 and E47...
  6. Asbreuk C, Vogelaar C, Hellemons A, Smidt M, Burbach J. CNS expression pattern of Lmx1b and coexpression with ptx genes suggest functional cooperativity in the development of forebrain motor control systems. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;21:410-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, the mutual cofactor Ldb1 is expressed in these regions. The expression of these gene sets is maintained in the adult brain...
  7. Mukhopadhyay M, Teufel A, Yamashita T, Agulnick A, Chen L, Downs K, et al. Functional ablation of the mouse Ldb1 gene results in severe patterning defects during gastrulation. Development. 2003;130:495-505 pubmed
    The LIM domain-binding protein 1 (Ldb1) is found in multi-protein complexes containing various combinations of LIM-homeodomain, LIM-only, bHLH, GATA and Otx transcription factors. These proteins exert key functions during embryogenesis...
  8. Joshi K, Lee S, Lee B, Lee J, Lee S. LMO4 controls the balance between excitatory and inhibitory spinal V2 interneurons. Neuron. 2009;61:839-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that LMO4 nucleates the assembly of a novel LIM-complex containing SCL, Gata2, and NLI. This complex activates specific enhancers in V2b-genes consisting of binding sites for SCL and Gata2, thereby ..
  9. Dey Guha I, Mukhopadhyay M, Phillips M, Westphal H. Role of ldb1 in adult intestinal homeostasis. Int J Biol Sci. 2009;5:686-94 pubmed
    b>Ldb1 is an essential co-regulator of transcription in embryonic development. It acts in conjunction with nuclear LIM-homeodomain and LIM-only proteins to control key events of organogenesis as precursor cells enter lineage specification...
  10. Song S, Kim A, Ragoczy T, Bender M, Groudine M, Dean A. Multiple functions of Ldb1 required for beta-globin activation during erythroid differentiation. Blood. 2010;116:2356-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Ldb1 and erythroid partners SCL, GATA-1, and LMO2 form a complex that is required to establish spatial proximity between the ?-globin locus control region and gene and for transcription activation during erythroid differentiation...
  11. Teufel A, Maass T, Strand S, Kanzler S, Galante T, Becker K, et al. Liver-specific Ldb1 deletion results in enhanced liver cancer development. J Hepatol. 2010;53:1078-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated Ldb1 to be of high biological and developmental relevance, as a targeted deletion of the Ldb1 gene in mice results in an ..
  12. Asprer J, Lee B, Wu C, Vadakkan T, Dickinson M, Lu H, et al. LMO4 functions as a co-activator of neurogenin 2 in the developing cortex. Development. 2011;138:2823-32 pubmed publisher
    ..LMO4 and its binding partner nuclear LIM interactor (NLI/LDB1/CLIM2) interact with NGN2 simultaneously, forming a multi-protein transcription complex...
  13. Narkis G, Tzchori I, Cohen T, Holtz A, Wier E, Westphal H. Isl1 and Ldb co-regulators of transcription are essential early determinants of mouse limb development. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:787-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Fgf10 and Tbx are crucial for early phases of limb bud initiation. Here we show that in the absence of Isl1 or of Ldb1/2, there is no hindlimb bud development...
  14. Xu X, Mannik J, Kudryavtseva E, Lin K, Flanagan L, Spencer J, et al. Co-factors of LIM domains (Clims/Ldb/Nli) regulate corneal homeostasis and maintenance of hair follicle stem cells. Dev Biol. 2007;312:484-500 pubmed
    ..In addition, Clim2 interacts with Lhx2 in vivo, suggesting that Clim2 is an essential co-factor for the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx2, ..
  15. Tripic T, Deng W, Cheng Y, Zhang Y, Vakoc C, Gregory G, et al. SCL and associated proteins distinguish active from repressive GATA transcription factor complexes. Blood. 2009;113:2191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..a conditional erythroid rescue system as well as through the use of tiling arrays we detected the SCL/TAL1, LMO2, Ldb1, E2A complex at all positively acting GATA-1-bound elements examined...
  16. Jurata L, Gill G. Functional analysis of the nuclear LIM domain interactor NLI. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:5688-98 pubmed
    ..A recently identified, widely expressed protein, NLI, binds with high affinity to the LIM domains of LIM homeodomain and LMO proteins in vitro and in vivo...
  17. Lee J, Krivega I, Dale R, Dean A. The LDB1 Complex Co-opts CTCF for Erythroid Lineage-Specific Long-Range Enhancer Interactions. Cell Rep. 2017;19:2490-2502 pubmed publisher
    ..The LDB1 complex mediates enhancer-gene interactions at the β-globin locus through LDB1 self-interaction...
  18. Klein R, Stephens D, Ho H, Chen J, Salmans M, Wang W, et al. Cofactors of LIM Domains Associate with Estrogen Receptor ? to Regulate the Expression of Noncoding RNA H19 and Corneal Epithelial Progenitor Cell Function. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:13271-85 pubmed publisher
    Cofactors of LIM domain proteins, CLIM1 and CLIM2, are widely expressed transcriptional cofactors that are recruited to gene regulatory regions by DNA-binding proteins, including LIM domain transcription factors...
  19. Stadhouders R, Thongjuea S, Andrieu Soler C, Palstra R, Bryne J, van den Heuvel A, et al. Dynamic long-range chromatin interactions control Myb proto-oncogene transcription during erythroid development. EMBO J. 2012;31:986-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model for Myb activation by distal enhancers dynamically bound by KLF1 and the GATA1/TAL1/LDB1 complex, which primarily function as a transcription elongation element through chromatin looping.
  20. Zhang F, Tanasa B, Merkurjev D, Lin C, Song X, Li W, et al. Enhancer-bound LDB1 regulates a corticotrope promoter-pausing repression program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:1380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..report the required actions of LIM domain-binding protein 1 (LDB1)/cofactor of LIM homeodomain protein 2/nuclear LIM interactor, interacting with the enhancer-binding protein achaete-scute complex homolog 1, to mediate looping to ..
  21. Love P, Warzecha C, Li L. Ldb1 complexes: the new master regulators of erythroid gene transcription. Trends Genet. 2014;30:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..using ChIP-Seq indicates that most DNA-bound Gata1 and Tal1 proteins are contained within higher order complexes (Ldb1 complexes) that include the nuclear adapters Ldb1 and Lmo2...
  22. Yamashita T, Agulnick A, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Westphal H. Genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse LIM domain-binding protein 1 gene, Ldb1. Genomics. 1998;48:87-92 pubmed
    ..Here we report on the structural organization and chromosomal localization of the mouse Ldb1 gene. It contains at least 10 exons and spans approximately 4 kb of genomic DNA...
  23. Song M, Sun Y, Bryson A, Gill G, Evans S, Pfaff S. Islet-to-LMO stoichiometries control the function of transcription complexes that specify motor neuron and V2a interneuron identity. Development. 2009;136:2923-32 pubmed publisher
    LIM transcription factors bind to nuclear LIM interactor (Ldb/NLI/Clim) in specific ratios to form higher-order complexes that regulate gene expression...
  24. Semina E, Altherr M, Murray J. Cloning and chromosomal localization of two novel human genes encoding LIM-domain binding factors CLIM1 and CLIM2/LDB1/NLI. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:921-4 pubmed
  25. Stanulovic V, Cauchy P, Assi S, Hoogenkamp M. LMO2 is required for TAL1 DNA binding activity and initiation of definitive haematopoiesis at the haemangioblast stage. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:9874-9888 pubmed publisher
    ..Genome-wide approaches indicated that LMO2 is required at the haemangioblast stage to position the TAL1/LMO2/LDB1 complex to regulatory elements that are important for the establishment of the haematopoietic developmental program...
  26. Lee B, Lee S, Agulnick A, Lee J, Lee S. Single-stranded DNA binding proteins are required for LIM complexes to induce transcriptionally active chromatin and specify spinal neuronal identities. Development. 2016;143:1721-31 pubmed publisher
    ..To address these, we examined how two related NLI-dependent LIM complexes, which govern the development of spinal motor neurons and V2a interneurons, activate the ..
  27. Caputo L, Witzel H, Kolovos P, Cheedipudi S, Looso M, Mylona A, et al. The Isl1/Ldb1 Complex Orchestrates Genome-wide Chromatin Organization to Instruct Differentiation of Multipotent Cardiac Progenitors. Cell Stem Cell. 2015;17:287-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Ldb1 is a central regulator of genome organization in cardiac progenitor cells, which is crucial for cardiac lineage ..
  28. Dastmalchi S, Wilkinson White L, Kwan A, Gamsjaeger R, Mackay J, Matthews J. Solution structure of a tethered Lmo2(LIM2) /Ldb1(LID) complex. Protein Sci. 2012;21:1768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Lmo2 interacts with LIM domain binding protein 1 (Ldb1) through the tandem LIM domains of Lmo2 and the LIM interaction domain (LID) of Ldb1...
  29. Tran Y, Xu Z, Kato A, Mistry A, Goya Y, Taira M, et al. Spliced isoforms of LIM-domain-binding protein (CLIM/NLI/Ldb) lacking the LIM-interaction domain. J Biochem. 2006;140:105-19 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that splice isoforms lacking the LID are also present in the Ldb1 genes of mammals, chick, and Xenopus, as well as in fish paralog Ldb4...
  30. Li L, Lee J, Gross J, Song S, Dean A, Love P. A requirement for Lim domain binding protein 1 in erythropoiesis. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2543-50 pubmed publisher
    During erythrocyte development, the nuclear cofactor Lim domain binding protein 1 (Ldb1) functions as a core subunit of multiprotein DNA binding complexes that include the transcription factors Scl and Gata-1 and the Lim-only adapter Lmo2...
  31. Breen J, Agulnick A, Westphal H, Dawid I. Interactions between LIM domains and the LIM domain-binding protein Ldb1. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:4712-7 pubmed
    ..The recently described protein Ldb1 (also known as NLI; LIM domain-binding protein) binds LIM domains in vitro and synergizes with the LIM-homeodomain ..
  32. Marinić M, Aktas T, Ruf S, Spitz F. An integrated holo-enhancer unit defines tissue and gene specificity of the Fgf8 regulatory landscape. Dev Cell. 2013;24:530-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implications of such regulatory systems regarding the evolution of gene expression and the impact of human genomic structural variations. ..
  33. Hunter C, Dixit S, Cohen T, Ediger B, Wilcox C, Ferreira M, et al. Islet ?-, ?-, and ?-cell development is controlled by the Ldb1 coregulator, acting primarily with the islet-1 transcription factor. Diabetes. 2013;62:875-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Ldb1 and Ldb2 are coregulators that mediate Lin11-Isl1-Mec3 (LIM)-homeodomain (HD) and LIM-only transcription factor-driven gene regulation...
  34. Nishioka N, Nagano S, Nakayama R, Kiyonari H, Ijiri T, Taniguchi K, et al. Ssdp1 regulates head morphogenesis of mouse embryos by activating the Lim1-Ldb1 complex. Development. 2005;132:2535-46 pubmed
    ..of single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (Ssdp1), which encodes a co-factor of LIM domain interacting protein 1 (Ldb1), in the mouse mutant headshrinker (hsk) disrupts anterior head development by partially mimicking Lim1 mutants...
  35. Galloway J, Bethea M, Liu Y, Underwood R, Mobley J, Hunter C. SSBP3 Interacts With Islet-1 and Ldb1 to Impact Pancreatic β-Cell Target Genes. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:1774-86 pubmed publisher
    ..development, maturation, and function, which largely requires interaction with the LIM domain-binding protein 1 (Ldb1) coregulator...
  36. Woodside K, Shen H, Muntzel C, Daller J, Sommers C, Love P. Expression of Dlx and Lhx family homeobox genes in fetal thymus and thymocytes. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:315-20 pubmed
  37. Cai Y, Xu Z, Xie J, Ham A, Koury M, Hiebert S, et al. Eto2/MTG16 and MTGR1 are heteromeric corepressors of the TAL1/SCL transcription factor in murine erythroid progenitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify Eto2 and Mtgr1 as authentic interaction partners of Tal1 and suggest they act as heteromeric corepressors of this bHLH transcription factor during erythroid differentiation. ..
  38. Ediger B, Lim H, Juliana C, Groff D, Williams L, Dominguez G, et al. LIM domain-binding 1 maintains the terminally differentiated state of pancreatic ? cells. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:215-229 pubmed publisher
    ..LIM domain-binding protein 1 (LDB1) nucleates multimeric transcriptional complexes and establishes promoter-enhancer looping, thereby directing fate ..
  39. Landry J, Kinston S, Knezevic K, de Bruijn M, Wilson N, Nottingham W, et al. Runx genes are direct targets of Scl/Tal1 in the yolk sac and fetal liver. Blood. 2008;111:3005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data provide a key component of the transcriptional network of early hematopoiesis by identifying downstream targets of Scl that can explain key aspects of the early Scl(-/-) phenotype...
  40. Smidt M, Smits S, Bouwmeester H, Hamers F, van der Linden A, Hellemons A, et al. Early developmental failure of substantia nigra dopamine neurons in mice lacking the homeodomain gene Pitx3. Development. 2004;131:1145-55 pubmed
    ..However, an overall lower activity was observed. The results suggest that Pitx3 is specifically required for the formation of the SNc subfield at the onset of dopaminergic neuron differentiation...
  41. Kioussi C, Briata P, Baek S, Rose D, Hamblet N, Herman T, et al. Identification of a Wnt/Dvl/beta-Catenin --> Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development. Cell. 2002;111:673-85 pubmed
  42. Deng W, Lee J, Wang H, Miller J, Reik A, Gregory P, et al. Controlling long-range genomic interactions at a native locus by targeted tethering of a looping factor. Cell. 2012;149:1233-44 pubmed publisher
    ..and ?-globin promoter form a chromatin loop that requires transcription factor GATA1 and the associated molecule Ldb1. We employed artificial zinc fingers (ZF) to tether Ldb1 to the ?-globin promoter in GATA1 null erythroblasts, in ..
  43. Cross S, Macalinao D, McKie L, Rose L, Kearney A, Rainger J, et al. A dominant-negative mutation of mouse Lmx1b causes glaucoma and is semi-lethal via LDB1-mediated dimerization [corrected]. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004359 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that both wild-type and Icst LMX1B are found in complexes with LIM domain binding protein 1 (LDB1), resulting in lower levels of functional LMX1B in Icst heterozygotes than null heterozygotes...
  44. Cho H, Cargnin F, Kim Y, Lee B, Kwon R, Nam H, et al. Isl1 directly controls a cholinergic neuronal identity in the developing forebrain and spinal cord by forming cell type-specific complexes. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004280 pubmed publisher
  45. Bach I, Rodriguez Esteban C, Carriere C, Bhushan A, Krones A, Rose D, et al. RLIM inhibits functional activity of LIM homeodomain transcription factors via recruitment of the histone deacetylase complex. Nat Genet. 1999;22:394-9 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory actions of the LIM domain can often be overcome by the LIM co-regulator known as CLIM2, LDB1 and NLI (referred to hereafter as CLIM2; refs 2-4)...
  46. Almaidhan A, Cesario J, Landin Malt A, Zhao Y, Sharma N, Choi V, et al. Neural crest-specific deletion of Ldb1 leads to cleft secondary palate with impaired palatal shelf elevation. BMC Dev Biol. 2014;14:3 pubmed publisher
    b>LIM domain binding protein 1 (LDB1) is a transcriptional co-factor, which interacts with multiple transcription factors and other proteins containing LIM domains...
  47. Bulchand S, Subramanian L, Tole S. Dynamic spatiotemporal expression of LIM genes and cofactors in the embryonic and postnatal cerebral cortex. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:460-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest multiple and distinct roles for LIM-HD, Lmo, and Clim genes in cortical development, and also support a LIM-HD-independent role for some Lmo and Clim members. ..
  48. Cai Y, Xu Z, Nagarajan L, Brandt S. Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins regulate the abundance and function of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LHX2 in pituitary cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;373:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factors in embryogenesis by interaction with LIM domain-binding protein-1 (LDB1)...
  49. Rodriguez P, Bonte E, Krijgsveld J, Kolodziej K, Guyot B, Heck A, et al. GATA-1 forms distinct activating and repressive complexes in erythroid cells. EMBO J. 2005;24:2354-66 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the different roles of GATA-1 in erythroid differentiation. ..
  50. Krivega I, Dale R, Dean A. Role of LDB1 in the transition from chromatin looping to transcription activation. Genes Dev. 2014;28:1278-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In erythroid cells, lim domain binding 1 (LDB1) protein is recruited to the ?-globin locus via LMO2 and is required for looping of the ?-globin locus control ..
  51. Li L, Freudenberg J, Cui K, Dale R, Song S, Dean A, et al. Ldb1-nucleated transcription complexes function as primary mediators of global erythroid gene activation. Blood. 2013;121:4575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Gata1 and Tal1 can assemble within higher-order protein complexes (Ldb1 complexes) that include the adapter molecules Lmo2 and Ldb1...
  52. Rieger D, Reichenberger E, McLean W, Sidow A, Olsen B. A double-deletion mutation in the Pitx3 gene causes arrested lens development in aphakia mice. Genomics. 2001;72:61-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the ak mutation consists of two deletions, the larger of which removes part of Pitx3, indicating a crucial role of this gene in early lens development...
  53. Ostendorff H, Peirano R, Peters M, Schlüter A, Bossenz M, Scheffner M, et al. Ubiquitination-dependent cofactor exchange on LIM homeodomain transcription factors. Nature. 2002;416:99-103 pubmed
    ..with RLIM (RING finger LIM domain-binding protein) and with CLIM (cofactor of LIM-HD proteins; also known as NLI, Ldb and Chip) cofactors...
  54. Buttitta L, Tanaka T, Chen A, Ko M, Fan C. Microarray analysis of somitogenesis reveals novel targets of different WNT signaling pathways in the somitic mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2003;258:91-104 pubmed
  55. Krivega I, Dean A. LDB1-mediated enhancer looping can be established independent of mediator and cohesin. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8255-8268 pubmed publisher
    Mechanistic studies in erythroid cells indicate that LDB1, as part of a GATA1/TAL1/LMO2 complex, brings erythroid-expressed genes into proximity with enhancers for transcription activation...
  56. Kassouf M, Chagraoui H, Vyas P, Porcher C. Differential use of SCL/TAL-1 DNA-binding domain in developmental hematopoiesis. Blood. 2008;112:1056-67 pubmed publisher
  57. Storbeck C, Wagner S, O Reilly P, McKay M, Parks R, Westphal H, et al. The Ldb1 and Ldb2 transcriptional cofactors interact with the Ste20-like kinase SLK and regulate cell migration. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..SLK, required for cell migration, interacts with the LIM domain binding transcriptional cofactor proteins Ldb1/CLIM2 and Ldb2/CLIM1/NLI...
  58. Zhang Q, Zhao B, Li W, Oiso N, Novak E, Rusiniak M, et al. Ru2 and Ru encode mouse orthologs of the genes mutated in human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome types 5 and 6. Nat Genet. 2003;33:145-53 pubmed
    ..Both genes are previously unknown and are found only in higher eukaryotes, and together represent a new class of genes that have evolved in higher organisms to govern the synthesis of highly specialized lysosome-related organelles...
  59. Meier N, Krpic S, Rodriguez P, Strouboulis J, Monti M, Krijgsveld J, et al. Novel binding partners of Ldb1 are required for haematopoietic development. Development. 2006;133:4913-23 pubmed
    b>Ldb1, a ubiquitously expressed LIM domain binding protein, is essential in a number of tissues during development. It interacts with Gata1, Tal1, E2A and Lmo2 to form a transcription factor complex regulating late erythroid genes...
  60. Li J, Kurasawa Y, Wang Y, Clise Dwyer K, Klumpp S, Liang H, et al. Requirement for ssbp2 in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and stress response. J Immunol. 2014;193:4654-62 pubmed publisher
    ..SSBP2 binds the transcriptional adaptor protein Lim domain-binding protein 1 (LDB1) and enhances LDB1 stability to regulate gene expression...
  61. Spies N, Smith C, Rodriguez J, Baker J, Batzoglou S, Sidow A. Constraint and divergence of global gene expression in the mammalian embryo. elife. 2015;4:e05538 pubmed publisher
    ..The widespread effect of maternal and embryonic genotype in conjunction with the purifying selection we uncovered suggests that embryogenesis is an important and understudied reservoir of phenotypic variation. ..
  62. Kojic S, Nestorovic A, Rakicevic L, Belgrano A, Stankovic M, Divac A, et al. A novel role for cardiac ankyrin repeat protein Ankrd1/CARP as a co-activator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;502:60-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is probable that Ankrd1/CARP has a role in the propagation of signals initiated by myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) during myogenesis. ..
  63. Kimura N, Ueno M, Nakashima K, Taga T. A brain region-specific gene product Lhx6.1 interacts with Ldb1 through tandem LIM-domains. J Biochem. 1999;126:180-7 pubmed
    ..activity of several LHX proteins is postulated to be regulated by interaction with an LIM-domain binding protein, Ldb1. We have now identified a novel LHX molecule, termed Lhx6...
  64. Mylona A, Andrieu Soler C, Thongjuea S, Martella A, Soler E, Jorna R, et al. Genome-wide analysis shows that Ldb1 controls essential hematopoietic genes/pathways in mouse early development and reveals novel players in hematopoiesis. Blood. 2013;121:2902-13 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular and functional studies in blast colony-forming cells to gain insight into the function of the essential Ldb1 factor in early primitive hematopoietic development...
  65. Loyd C, Liu Y, Kim T, Holleman C, Galloway J, Bethea M, et al. LDB1 Regulates Energy Homeostasis During Diet-Induced Obesity. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1289-1297 pubmed publisher
    The broadly expressed transcriptional coregulator LDB1 is essential for β-cell development and glucose homeostasis. However, it is unclear whether LDB1 has metabolic roles beyond the β-cell, especially under metabolic stress...
  66. Makarev E, Gorivodsky M. Islet1 and its co-factor Ldb1 are expressed in quiescent cells of mouse intestinal epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95256 pubmed publisher
    ..Isl1 (Islet1), Lhx and Ldb1 genes play a crucial role in organ patterning, cell fate determination and cell differentiation in both embryonic ..
  67. Bulchand S, Grove E, Porter F, Tole S. LIM-homeodomain gene Lhx2 regulates the formation of the cortical hem. Mech Dev. 2001;100:165-75 pubmed
    ..The defect in the Lhx2-/- telencephalon appears to be at this step. ..
  68. Zhao Y, Flandin P, Vogt D, Blood A, Hermesz E, Westphal H, et al. Ldb1 is essential for development of Nkx2.1 lineage derived GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the telencephalon. Dev Biol. 2014;385:94-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigate the role of Ldb1, a nuclear protein that binds directly to all LIM-HD factors, in the development of these ventral telencephalon ..