Gene Symbol: Lama2
Description: laminin, alpha 2
Alias: 5830440B04, mKIAA4087, mer, merosin, laminin subunit alpha-2, dystrophia muscularis, laminin M chain, laminin-12 subunit alpha, laminin-2 subunit alpha, laminin-4 subunit alpha, merosin heavy chain
Species: mouse
Products:     Lama2

Top Publications

  1. Paulsson M, Saladin K, Engvall E. Structure of laminin variants. The 300-kDa chains of murine and bovine heart laminin are related to the human placenta merosin heavy chain and replace the a chain in some laminin variants. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:17545-51 pubmed
    ..Further, heart laminins were compared with merosin, a laminin-like protein isolated from human placenta (Ehrig, K., Leivo, I., Argraves, W. S., Ruoslahti, E...
  2. Sunada Y, Bernier S, Utani A, Yamada Y, Campbell K. Identification of a novel mutant transcript of laminin alpha 2 chain gene responsible for muscular dystrophy and dysmyelination in dy2J mice. Hum Mol Genet. 1995;4:1055-61 pubmed
    Murine dystrophia muscularis-2J (dy2J) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by muscular dystrophy and dysmyelination of peripheral nerve...
  3. Bernier S, Utani A, Sugiyama S, Doi T, Polistina C, Yamada Y. Cloning and expression of laminin alpha 2 chain (M-chain) in the mouse. Matrix Biol. 1995;14:447-55 pubmed
  4. Girgenrath M, Dominov J, Kostek C, Miller J. Inhibition of apoptosis improves outcome in a model of congenital muscular dystrophy. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:1635-9 pubmed
    ..significance of apoptosis in CMD1A pathogenesis, we determined whether pathogenesis in laminin-alpha2-deficient (Lama2(-/-)) mice could be ameliorated by inhibiting apoptosis through either (a) inactivation of the proapoptosis ..
  5. Desaki J, Matsuda S, Sakanaka M. Morphological changes of neuromuscular junctions in the dystrophic (dy) mouse: a scanning and transmission electron microscopic study. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 1995;44:59-65 pubmed
    ..This might help the nerve endings compensate for the functional deterioration of dystrophic muscle fibers. ..
  6. Conti F, Monkley S, Wood M, Critchley D, Muller U. Talin 1 and 2 are required for myoblast fusion, sarcomere assembly and the maintenance of myotendinous junctions. Development. 2009;136:3597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that talin 1 and 2 are crucial for skeletal muscle development, where they regulate myoblast fusion, sarcomere assembly and the maintenance of MTJs. ..
  7. Talts J, Andac Z, Göhring W, Brancaccio A, Timpl R. Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins. EMBO J. 1999;18:863-70 pubmed
    ..This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly. ..
  8. Guo L, Zhang X, Kuang W, Xu H, Liu L, Vilquin J, et al. Laminin alpha2 deficiency and muscular dystrophy; genotype-phenotype correlation in mutant mice. Neuromuscul Disord. 2003;13:207-15 pubmed
    ..These data may thus be of significance for attempts to treat congenital muscular dystrophy in human patients. ..
  9. Previtali S, Nodari A, Taveggia C, Pardini C, Dina G, Villa A, et al. Expression of laminin receptors in schwann cell differentiation: evidence for distinct roles. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5520-30 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the action of laminin is mediated by beta1 integrins during axonal sorting and by dystroglycan, alpha6beta1, and alpha6beta4 integrins during myelination. ..

More Information


  1. Miyagoe Suzuki Y, Nakagawa M, Takeda S. Merosin and congenital muscular dystrophy. Microsc Res Tech. 2000;48:181-91 pubmed
    b>Merosin (also called as Laminin-2) is an isoform of laminin comprised of the alpha2, beta1 and gamma1 chains...
  2. Sunada Y, Bernier S, Kozak C, Yamada Y, Campbell K. Deficiency of merosin in dystrophic dy mice and genetic linkage of laminin M chain gene to dy locus. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:13729-32 pubmed
    ..We have also mapped the mouse M chain gene, Lamm, to the same region of mouse chromosome 10 to which the dystrophia muscularis (dy) locus has been mapped...
  3. Jucker M, Tian M, Norton D, Sherman C, Kusiak J. Laminin alpha 2 is a component of brain capillary basement membrane: reduced expression in dystrophic dy mice. Neuroscience. 1996;71:1153-61 pubmed
    ..This observation might be explained by the fact that the cerebral capillary basement membrane expresses both alpha chains and therefore exhibits structural redundancy. ..
  4. Straub V, Rafael J, Chamberlain J, Campbell K. Animal models for muscular dystrophy show different patterns of sarcolemmal disruption. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:375-85 pubmed
    ..We furthermore assessed Evans blue incorporation in skeletal muscle of the dystrophia muscularis (dy/dy) mouse and its milder allelic variant, the dy2J/dy2J mouse, animal models for congenital muscular ..
  5. Lefebvre O, Sorokin L, Kedinger M, Simon Assmann P. Developmental expression and cellular origin of the laminin alpha2, alpha4, and alpha5 chains in the intestine. Dev Biol. 1999;210:135-50 pubmed
  6. Colognato H, Yurchenco P. The laminin alpha2 expressed by dystrophic dy(2J) mice is defective in its ability to form polymers. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1327-30 pubmed
    Mutations in LAMA2 cause severe congenital muscular dystrophy accompanied by nervous system defects [1]...
  7. Miner J, Cunningham J, Sanes J. Roles for laminin in embryogenesis: exencephaly, syndactyly, and placentopathy in mice lacking the laminin alpha5 chain. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1713-23 pubmed
    ..Other laminin alpha chains accumulate in these BLs, but this compensation is apparently functionally inadequate. Our results identify new roles for laminins and BLs in diverse developmental processes. ..
  8. Sixt M, Engelhardt B, Pausch F, Hallmann R, Wendler O, Sorokin L. Endothelial cell laminin isoforms, laminins 8 and 10, play decisive roles in T cell recruitment across the blood-brain barrier in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:933-46 pubmed
  9. Connolly A, Keeling R, Streif E, Pestronk A, Mehta S. Complement 3 deficiency and oral prednisolone improve strength and prolong survival of laminin alpha2-deficient mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;127:80-7 pubmed
    ..Because complement activity may be modified pharmacologically, this work may have implications for treatment of children with congenital muscular dystrophy secondary to laminin alpha2 deficiency. ..
  10. Chen Z, Strickland S. Laminin gamma1 is critical for Schwann cell differentiation, axon myelination, and regeneration in the peripheral nerve. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:889-99 pubmed
    ..In mutant mice, after sciatic nerve crush, the axons showed impaired regeneration. These experiments demonstrate that laminin is an essential component for axon myelination and regeneration in the PNS. ..
  11. Gawlik K, Miyagoe Suzuki Y, Ekblom P, Takeda S, Durbeej M. Laminin alpha1 chain reduces muscular dystrophy in laminin alpha2 chain deficient mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1775-84 pubmed
    ..Correction of LNalpha2 chain deficiency by LNalpha1 chain may serve as a paradigm for gene therapy of CMD in patients. ..
  12. Wardrop K, Dominov J. Proinflammatory signals and the loss of lymphatic vessel hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) in the early pathogenesis of laminin alpha2-deficient skeletal muscle. J Histochem Cytochem. 2011;59:167-79 pubmed publisher
    ..characterized by early-onset muscle weakness and degeneration, is caused by insufficient levels of laminin ?2 (LAMA2) in the basal lamina surrounding muscle fibers and other cells...
  13. Weinberg H, Spencer P, Raine C. Aberrant PNS development in dystrophic mice. Brain Res. 1975;88:532-7 pubmed
  14. Ohlendieck K, Campbell K. Dystrophin-associated proteins are greatly reduced in skeletal muscle from mdx mice. J Cell Biol. 1991;115:1685-94 pubmed
  15. Bradley W, Jenkison M. Abnormalities of peripheral nerves in murine muscular dystrophy. J Neurol Sci. 1973;18:227-47 pubmed
  16. Sorokin L, Maley M, Moch H, von Der Mark H, von der Mark K, Cadalbert L, et al. Laminin alpha4 and integrin alpha6 are upregulated in regenerating dy/dy skeletal muscle: comparative expression of laminin and integrin isoforms in muscles regenerating after crush injury. Exp Cell Res. 2000;256:500-14 pubmed
  17. Jaros E, Bradley W. Atypical axon-Schwann cell relationships in the common peroneal nerve of the dystrophic mouse: an ultrastructural study. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1979;5:133-47 pubmed
    ..They provide an experimental model for the investigation of factors involved in the origin and maintenance of the structural organization of peripheral nerve. ..
  18. Urushibata S, Hozumi K, Ishikawa M, Katagiri F, Kikkawa Y, Nomizu M. Identification of biologically active sequences in the laminin alpha2 chain G domain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;497:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These active peptides are useful for evaluating the molecular mechanisms of laminin-receptor interactions. ..
  19. Meinen S, Barzaghi P, Lin S, Lochmuller H, Ruegg M. Linker molecules between laminins and dystroglycan ameliorate laminin-alpha2-deficient muscular dystrophy at all disease stages. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:979-93 pubmed
  20. Gawlik K, Li J, Petersen A, Durbeej M. Laminin alpha1 chain improves laminin alpha2 chain deficient peripheral neuropathy. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2690-700 pubmed
    ..In summary, we postulate that laminin alpha1 chain is an excellent substitute for laminin alpha2 chain in multiple tissues and suggest that treatment with laminin alpha1 chain may be beneficial for MDC1A in humans. ..
  21. Madrid R, Jaros E, Cullen M, Bradley W. Genetically determined defect of Schwann cell basement membrane in dystrophic mouse. Nature. 1975;257:319-21 pubmed
  22. Ehrig K, Leivo I, Argraves W, Ruoslahti E, Engvall E. Merosin, a tissue-specific basement membrane protein, is a laminin-like protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:3264-8 pubmed
    b>Merosin is a basement membrane-associated protein found in placenta, striated muscle, and peripheral nerve. A 3.6-kilobase merosin cDNA clone was isolated from a placental cDNA expression library. The clone contained a 3...
  23. Moll J, Barzaghi P, Lin S, Bezakova G, Lochmuller H, Engvall E, et al. An agrin minigene rescues dystrophic symptoms in a mouse model for congenital muscular dystrophy. Nature. 2001;413:302-7 pubmed
    ..Most cases of congenital muscular dystrophy are caused by mutations in LAMA2, the gene encoding the alpha2 chain of the main laminin isoforms expressed by muscle fibres...
  24. Xu H, Wu X, Wewer U, Engvall E. Murine muscular dystrophy caused by a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 (Lama2) gene. Nat Genet. 1994;8:297-302 pubmed
    ..One mRNA is translated into an alpha 2 polypeptide with a deletion in domain VI. The truncated protein apparently lacks important qualities of the wild type protein and is unable to provide sufficient muscle stability. ..
  25. Ringelmann B, Roder C, Hallmann R, Maley M, Davies M, Grounds M, et al. Expression of laminin alpha1, alpha2, alpha4, and alpha5 chains, fibronectin, and tenascin-C in skeletal muscle of dystrophic 129ReJ dy/dy mice. Exp Cell Res. 1999;246:165-82 pubmed
    The dy/dy mouse is an animal model for human merosin-negative congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), which has been reported to have reduced or no expression of the basement membrane protein laminin alpha2...
  26. Patton B, Miner J, Chiu A, Sanes J. Distribution and function of laminins in the neuromuscular system of developing, adult, and mutant mice. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:1507-21 pubmed
    ..The ability of laminin 11 to serve as a stop signal for growing axons explains, in part, axonal behaviors observed at developing and regenerating synapses in vivo. ..
  27. Vuolteenaho R, Nissinen M, Sainio K, Byers M, Eddy R, Hirvonen H, et al. Human laminin M chain (merosin): complete primary structure, chromosomal assignment, and expression of the M and A chain in human fetal tissues. J Cell Biol. 1994;124:381-94 pubmed
    The primary structure of the human laminin M chain was determined from cDNA clones isolated from human placental libraries...
  28. Matsumura K, Yamada H, Saito F, Sunada Y, Shimizu T. Peripheral nerve involvement in merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy and dy mouse. Neuromuscul Disord. 1997;7:7-12 pubmed
    b>Merosin, also called laminin-2, is an isoform of laminin comprised of the alpha 2, beta 1 and gamma 1 chains...
  29. Yurchenco P, Cheng Y, Campbell K, Li S. Loss of basement membrane, receptor and cytoskeletal lattices in a laminin-deficient muscular dystrophy. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:735-42 pubmed
  30. Miner J, Patton B, Lentz S, Gilbert D, Snider W, Jenkins N, et al. The laminin alpha chains: expression, developmental transitions, and chromosomal locations of alpha1-5, identification of heterotrimeric laminins 8-11, and cloning of a novel alpha3 isoform. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:685-701 pubmed
    ..Together, these results reveal remarkable diversity in BL composition and complexity in BL development. ..
  31. Qiao C, Li J, Zhu T, Draviam R, Watkins S, Ye X, et al. Amelioration of laminin-alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy by somatic gene transfer of miniagrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11999-2004 pubmed
    ..Thus, our study demonstrated the efficacy of somatic gene therapy in a mouse model of CMD. ..
  32. Helbling Leclerc A, Zhang X, Topaloglu H, Cruaud C, Tesson F, Weissenbach J, et al. Mutations in the laminin alpha 2-chain gene (LAMA2) cause merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. Nat Genet. 1995;11:216-8 pubmed
    ..we have demonstrated an absence of one of the components of the extracellular matrix around muscle fibres, the merosin M chain, now referred to as the alpha 2 chain of laminin-2 (ref.3)...
  33. Tsuji S, Matsushita H. Evidence on hypomyelination of central nervous system in murine muscular dystrophy. J Neurol Sci. 1985;68:175-84 pubmed
    ..The reduced myelin CEHase activity in dystrophic mice suggests that impairment of hydrolysis of steryl esters may be important in the development of hypomyelination of the CNS. ..
  34. Patton B, Cunningham J, Thyboll J, Kortesmaa J, Westerblad H, Edstrom L, et al. Properly formed but improperly localized synaptic specializations in the absence of laminin alpha4. Nat Neurosci. 2001;4:597-604 pubmed
    ..Thus, formation and localization of synaptic specializations are regulated separately, and alpha4beta2gamma1 (called laminin-9) is critical in the latter process. ..
  35. Colognato H, MacCarrick M, O Rear J, Yurchenco P. The laminin alpha2-chain short arm mediates cell adhesion through both the alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 integrins. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:29330-6 pubmed
  36. Hohenester E, Tisi D, Talts J, Timpl R. The crystal structure of a laminin G-like module reveals the molecular basis of alpha-dystroglycan binding to laminins, perlecan, and agrin. Mol Cell. 1999;4:783-92 pubmed
    ..A calcium-coordinated sulfate ion is suggested to mimic the binding of anionic oligosaccharides. The structure demonstrates a conserved function of the LG module in calcium-dependent lectin-like alpha-DG binding. ..
  37. Kuang W, Xu H, Vilquin J, Engvall E. Activation of the lama2 gene in muscle regeneration: abortive regeneration in laminin alpha2-deficiency. Lab Invest. 1999;79:1601-13 pubmed
    Mutations in laminin alpha2, a subunit of the basement membrane protein laminin-2/merosin, cause merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy...
  38. Lentz S, Miner J, Sanes J, Snider W. Distribution of the ten known laminin chains in the pathways and targets of developing sensory axons. J Comp Neurol. 1997;378:547-61 pubmed
    ..g., gamma 1), continue to be expressed by Schwann cells into adulthood. In contrast to peripheral nerves and ganglia, laminin chains are expressed at low levels, if at all, in the developing spinal cord gray matter. ..
  39. Perkins C, Bray G, Aguayo A. Ongoing block of Schwann cell differentiation and deployment in dystrophic mouse spinal roots. Brain Res. 1981;227:213-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study demonstrates that the 'uncommitted' cells of dystrophic spinal roots are undifferentiated Schwann cells whose differentiation in the intact spinal roots is continuously prevented by some unknown mechanism. ..
  40. Carbonetto S. Neuromuscular transmission in dystrophic mice. J Neurophysiol. 1977;40:836-43 pubmed
    ..6. Neuromuscular transmission in dystrophic mice was found functionally normal and unrelated to the degenerative state of the muscle...
  41. Flores Delgado G, Bringas P, Warburton D. Laminin 2 attachment selects myofibroblasts from fetal mouse lung. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:L622-30 pubmed
    ..These findings lead us to speculate that LN2 may play a key role in the cell biology of myofibroblasts during lung development. ..
  42. Gawlik K, Mayer U, Blomberg K, Sonnenberg A, Ekblom P, Durbeej M. Laminin alpha1 chain mediated reduction of laminin alpha2 chain deficient muscular dystrophy involves integrin alpha7beta1 and dystroglycan. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:1759-65 pubmed
    ..We suggest that LNalpha1 chain in part ameliorates the development of LNalpha2 chain deficient muscular dystrophy by retaining the binding sites for integrin alpha7Bbeta1D and alpha-dystroglycan, respectively. ..
  43. Bentzinger C, Barzaghi P, Lin S, Ruegg M. Overexpression of mini-agrin in skeletal muscle increases muscle integrity and regenerative capacity in laminin-alpha2-deficient mice. FASEB J. 2005;19:934-42 pubmed
    Mutations in the gene encoding the alpha2 subunit of laminins cause the severe "merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy" (MDC1A)...
  44. Lathia J, Patton B, Eckley D, Magnus T, Mughal M, Sasaki T, et al. Patterns of laminins and integrins in the embryonic ventricular zone of the CNS. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:630-43 pubmed
  45. Dominov J, Kravetz A, Ardelt M, Kostek C, Beermann M, Miller J. Muscle-specific BCL2 expression ameliorates muscle disease in laminin {alpha}2-deficient, but not in dystrophin-deficient, mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:1029-40 pubmed
    ..progression, we have determined whether pathogenesis in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) and laminin alpha2-deficient (Lama2-null) mice is ameliorated by overexpression of the anti-apoptosis protein BCL2 in diseased muscles...
  46. Xu H, Christmas P, Wu X, Wewer U, Engvall E. Defective muscle basement membrane and lack of M-laminin in the dystrophic dy/dy mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5572-6 pubmed
    ..The dy mouse may provide a model for autosomal muscular dystrophies in humans and facilitate studies of functions of M-laminin. ..
  47. Yang D, Bierman J, Tarumi Y, Zhong Y, Rangwala R, Proctor T, et al. Coordinate control of axon defasciculation and myelination by laminin-2 and -8. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:655-66 pubmed
    ..Purified Ln-2 and -8 directly enhanced in vitro Schwann cell proliferation in collaboration with autocrine factors, suggesting Lns control the onset of myelination by modulating responses to mitogens in vivo. ..
  48. Miyagoe Y, Hanaoka K, Nonaka I, Hayasaka M, Arahata K, Nabeshima Y, et al. Laminin alpha2 chain-null mutant mice by targeted disruption of the Lama2 gene: a new model of merosin (laminin 2)-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. FEBS Lett. 1997;415:33-9 pubmed
    ..In degenerating muscles, considerable amounts of TUNEL positive nuclei were detected as well as DNA laddering, suggesting increased apoptotic cell death was involved in the process of muscle fiber degeneration. ..
  49. Mukasa T, Momoi T, Momoi M. Activation of caspase-3 apoptotic pathways in skeletal muscle fibers in laminin alpha2-deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;260:139-42 pubmed
    dy/dy mice, which carry an unidentified mutation in the Lama2 gene, show dystrophic pathologies similar to those of human congenital muscular dystrophy. Laminin alpha2 deficiency induces apoptosis with DNA fragmentation...
  50. Kroll T, Peters B, Hustad C, Jones P, Killen P, Ruddon R. Expression of laminin chains during myogenic differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:9270-7 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that expression of the Ae and Ac3h laminin chains is associated with expression of MyoD and the mammalian myogenic differentiation program. ..
  51. Sorokin L, Pausch F, Durbeej M, Ekblom P. Differential expression of five laminin alpha (1-5) chains in developing and adult mouse kidney. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:446-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, the identity of the alpha chains of many embryonic kidney blood vessels and several basement membranes in the inner medulla in the developing and adult kidney remain unclear. ..
  52. Kuang W, Xu H, Vachon P, Liu L, Loechel F, Wewer U, et al. Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. Partial genetic correction in two mouse models. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:844-52 pubmed
    Humans and mice with deficiency of the alpha2 subunit of the basement membrane protein laminin-2/merosin suffer from merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MCMD)...
  53. Head S, Bakker A, Liangas G. EDL and soleus muscles of the C57BL6J/dy2j laminin-alpha 2-deficient dystrophic mouse are not vulnerable to eccentric contractions. Exp Physiol. 2004;89:531-9 pubmed
    ..We used the C57BL6J/dy(2j), dystrophia muscularis, dystrophic mouse, in which the laminin-alpha(2) component of the dystrophin-associated complex is mutated,..
  54. Paulsson M, Saladin K. Mouse heart laminin. Purification of the native protein and structural comparison with Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor laminin. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:18726-32 pubmed
    ..The Mr 600,000 component contains epitopes shared with both EHS tumor laminin and the Mr 300,000 polypeptide and possibly represents a covalently cross-linked complex of an A or B chain with the Mr 300,000 chain. ..
  55. Häger M, Gawlik K, Nyström A, Sasaki T, Durbeej M. Laminin {alpha}1 chain corrects male infertility caused by absence of laminin {alpha}2 chain. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:823-33 pubmed
    ..We thus provide genetic data that laminin alpha chains are essential for normal testicular function in vivo. ..
  56. Woo M, Tanabe Y, Ishii H, Nonaka I, Yokoyama M, Esaki K. Muscle fiber growth and necrosis in dystrophic muscles: a comparative study between dy and mdx mice. J Neurol Sci. 1987;82:111-22 pubmed
    ..The difference in clinical symptoms between dy and mdx mice may result from differences in their regenerative response to necrosis. ..
  57. Schuler F, Sorokin L. Expression of laminin isoforms in mouse myogenic cells in vitro and in vivo. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 12):3795-805 pubmed
    The expression of laminin-1 (previously EHS laminin) and laminin-2 (previously merosin) isoforms by myogenic cells was examined in vitro and in vivo...
  58. Millay D, Sargent M, Osinska H, Baines C, Barton E, Vuagniaux G, et al. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent necrosis attenuates muscular dystrophy. Nat Med. 2008;14:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the premature lethality associated with deletion of Lama2, encoding the alpha-2 chain of laminin-2, was rescued, as were other indices of dystrophic disease...
  59. Kuang W, Xu H, Vachon P, Engvall E. Disruption of the lama2 gene in embryonic stem cells: laminin alpha 2 is necessary for sustenance of mature muscle cells. Exp Cell Res. 1998;241:117-25 pubmed
    Mutations in the gene coding for the alpha 2 chain of laminin-2 and -4 (merosin) cause a severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy in humans and mice...