Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Lama1
Description: laminin, alpha 1
Alias: AA408497, Lama, laminin subunit alpha-1, S-LAM alpha, S-laminin subunit alpha, laminin A chain, laminin-1 subunit alpha, laminin-3 subunit alpha
- Edwards M, Mammadova Bach E, Alpy F, Klein A, Hicks W, Roux M, et al. Mutations in Lama1 disrupt retinal vascular development and inner limiting membrane formation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7697-711 pubmed publisher..The nmf223 locus was mapped to chromosome 17, and a missense mutation was identified in Lama1 that leads to the substitution of cysteine for a tyrosine at amino acid 265 of laminin alpha1, a basement membrane ..
- Artus J, Piliszek A, Hadjantonakis A. The primitive endoderm lineage of the mouse blastocyst: sequential transcription factor activation and regulation of differentiation by Sox17. Dev Biol. 2011;350:393-404 pubmed publisher..However, analysis of implantation-delayed blastocysts, revealed a role for SOX17 in the maintenance of PrE epithelial integrity, with the absence of SOX17 leading to premature delamination and migration of parietal endoderm. ..
- Doyle J, Hoffman S, Ucla C, Reith W, Mach B, Stubbs L. Locations of human and mouse genes encoding the RFX1 and RFX2 transcription factor proteins. Genomics. 1996;35:227-30 pubmed..These data define the established relationships between these homologous mouse and human regions in further detail and provide new tools for linking cloned genes to phenotypes in both species. ..
- Previtali S, Nodari A, Taveggia C, Pardini C, Dina G, Villa A, et al. Expression of laminin receptors in schwann cell differentiation: evidence for distinct roles. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5520-30 pubmed..These data suggest that the action of laminin is mediated by beta1 integrins during axonal sorting and by dystroglycan, alpha6beta1, and alpha6beta4 integrins during myelination. ..
- Okazaki T, Yoshida B, Avraham K, Wang H, Wuenschell C, Jenkins N, et al. Molecular diversity of the SCG10/stathmin gene family in the mouse. Genomics. 1993;18:360-73 pubmed..These data are consistent with the idea that the neuron-specific SCG10 gene evolved by duplication and modification of the more broadly expressed stathmin/Lap18 gene. ..
- Gkantidis N, Katsaros C, Chiquet M. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;138:557-71 pubmed publisher..Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo...
- Schéele S, Falk M, Franzén A, Ellin F, Ferletta M, Lonai P, et al. Laminin alpha1 globular domains 4-5 induce fetal development but are not vital for embryonic basement membrane assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1502-6 pubmed..Yet, stem cells could not develop into polarized epiblast cells. Thus, alpha1LG4-5 provides vital signals for the conversion of stem cells to polarized epithelium. ..
- Kikkawa Y, Miner J. Molecular dissection of laminin alpha 5 in vivo reveals separable domain-specific roles in embryonic development and kidney function. Dev Biol. 2006;296:265-77 pubmed
- Rooney J, Gurpur P, Yablonka Reuveni Z, Burkin D. Laminin-111 restores regenerative capacity in a mouse model for alpha7 integrin congenital myopathy. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:256-64 pubmed publisher..Our data demonstrate a critical role for a laminin-rich microenvironment in muscle repair and suggest laminin- 111 protein may serve as an unexpected and novel therapeutic agent for patients with congenital myopathies. ..
- Klein G, Ekblom M, Fecker L, Timpl R, Ekblom P. Differential expression of laminin A and B chains during development of embryonic mouse organs. Development. 1990;110:823-37 pubmed..b>Laminin A chain polypeptides showed a much more restricted tissue distribution than the B chains...
- Rebustini I, Patel V, Stewart J, Layvey A, Georges Labouesse E, Miner J, et al. Laminin alpha5 is necessary for submandibular gland epithelial morphogenesis and influences FGFR expression through beta1 integrin signaling. Dev Biol. 2007;308:15-29 pubmed..clefting is delayed, although proliferation occurs; there is decreased FGFR1b and FGFR2b, but no difference in Lama1 expression; later in development, epithelial cell organization and lumen formation are disrupted...
- Gawlik K, Mayer U, Blomberg K, Sonnenberg A, Ekblom P, Durbeej M. Laminin alpha1 chain mediated reduction of laminin alpha2 chain deficient muscular dystrophy involves integrin alpha7beta1 and dystroglycan. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:1759-65 pubmed..We suggest that LNalpha1 chain in part ameliorates the development of LNalpha2 chain deficient muscular dystrophy by retaining the binding sites for integrin alpha7Bbeta1D and alpha-dystroglycan, respectively. ..
- Ringelmann B, Roder C, Hallmann R, Maley M, Davies M, Grounds M, et al. Expression of laminin alpha1, alpha2, alpha4, and alpha5 chains, fibronectin, and tenascin-C in skeletal muscle of dystrophic 129ReJ dy/dy mice. Exp Cell Res. 1999;246:165-82 pubmed..These results have significant ramifications in the diagnosis of human merosin-negative CMD. ..
- Miner J, Cunningham J, Sanes J. Roles for laminin in embryogenesis: exencephaly, syndactyly, and placentopathy in mice lacking the laminin alpha5 chain. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1713-23 pubmed..Other laminin alpha chains accumulate in these BLs, but this compensation is apparently functionally inadequate. Our results identify new roles for laminins and BLs in diverse developmental processes. ..
- Sorokin L, Pausch F, Durbeej M, Ekblom P. Differential expression of five laminin alpha (1-5) chains in developing and adult mouse kidney. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:446-62 pubmed..Thus, the identity of the alpha chains of many embryonic kidney blood vessels and several basement membranes in the inner medulla in the developing and adult kidney remain unclear. ..
- Sorokin L, Pausch F, Frieser M, Kroger S, Ohage E, Deutzmann R. Developmental regulation of the laminin alpha5 chain suggests a role in epithelial and endothelial cell maturation. Dev Biol. 1997;189:285-300 pubmed..The data show that laminin alpha5 expression is associated with epithelial and endothelial cell maturation, implicating a role for this laminin chain in the maintenance of differentiated epithelial and endothelial cell phenotype. ..
- Schuler F, Sorokin L. Expression of laminin isoforms in mouse myogenic cells in vitro and in vivo. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 12):3795-805 pubmed..Comparisons were made with specific probes for the laminin alpha 1 chain gene (LamA1)...
- Kücherer Ehret A, Pottgiesser J, Kreutzberg G, Thoenen H, Edgar D. Developmental loss of laminin from the interstitial extracellular matrix correlates with decreased laminin gene expression. Development. 1990;110:1285-93 pubmed
- Shim C, Kwon H, Kim K. Differential expression of laminin chain-specific mRNA transcripts during mouse preimplantation embryo development. Mol Reprod Dev. 1996;44:44-55 pubmed..The uterine environment enclosing the preimplantation embryos appears, therefore, to play an important role in the regulation of laminin gene expression during blastocyst development. ..
- Sasaki M, Kleinman H, Huber H, Deutzmann R, Yamada Y. Laminin, a multidomain protein. The A chain has a unique globular domain and homology with the basement membrane proteoglycan and the laminin B chains. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:16536-44 pubmed..This potential cell binding sequence could be active as another adhesion signal in addition to the previously identified cell binding sequence YIGSR (Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg) of the B1 chain. ..
- Durbeej M, Fecker L, Hjalt T, Zhang H, Salmivirta K, Klein G, et al. Expression of laminin alpha 1, alpha 5 and beta 2 chains during embryogenesis of the kidney and vasculature. Matrix Biol. 1996;15:397-413 pubmed..There also appeared to be a developmental trend, with alpha 1 chain appearing early and alpha 5 later, in maturing epithelial sheets. The alpha 5 chain could be a major alpha chain of the adult glomerular basement membrane. ..
- Kroll T, Peters B, Hustad C, Jones P, Killen P, Ruddon R. Expression of laminin chains during myogenic differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:9270-7 pubmed..The results demonstrate that expression of the Ae and Ac3h laminin chains is associated with expression of MyoD and the mammalian myogenic differentiation program. ..
- Lentz S, Miner J, Sanes J, Snider W. Distribution of the ten known laminin chains in the pathways and targets of developing sensory axons. J Comp Neurol. 1997;378:547-61 pubmed..g., gamma 1), continue to be expressed by Schwann cells into adulthood. In contrast to peripheral nerves and ganglia, laminin chains are expressed at low levels, if at all, in the developing spinal cord gray matter. ..
- Suzuki N, Ichikawa N, Kasai S, Yamada M, Nishi N, Morioka H, et al. Syndecan binding sites in the laminin alpha1 chain G domain. Biochemistry. 2003;42:12625-33 pubmed..These sites may play a critical role in the diverse biological activities involving heparin and syndecan-4 binding. ..
- Stephens L, Sutherland A, Klimanskaya I, Andrieux A, Meneses J, Pedersen R, et al. Deletion of beta 1 integrins in mice results in inner cell mass failure and peri-implantation lethality. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1883-95 pubmed
- Colognato H, Yurchenco P. Form and function: the laminin family of heterotrimers. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:213-34 pubmed
- Miner J, Li C. Defective glomerulogenesis in the absence of laminin alpha5 demonstrates a developmental role for the kidney glomerular basement membrane. Dev Biol. 2000;217:278-89 pubmed
- Miner J, Patton B, Lentz S, Gilbert D, Snider W, Jenkins N, et al. The laminin alpha chains: expression, developmental transitions, and chromosomal locations of alpha1-5, identification of heterotrimeric laminins 8-11, and cloning of a novel alpha3 isoform. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:685-701 pubmed..Together, these results reveal remarkable diversity in BL composition and complexity in BL development. ..
- Yurchenco P, Quan Y, Colognato H, Mathus T, Harrison D, Yamada Y, et al. The alpha chain of laminin-1 is independently secreted and drives secretion of its beta- and gamma-chain partners. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10189-94 pubmed..Such an alpha-chain-dependent mechanism could allow for the regulation of laminin export into a nascent basement membrane, and might serve an important role in controlling basement membrane formation. ..
- Harrison D, Hussain S, Combs A, Ervasti J, Yurchenco P, Hohenester E. Crystal structure and cell surface anchorage sites of laminin alpha1LG4-5. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11573-81 pubmed..The combined analysis of structure and activities reveal differences in LG domain interactions that should enable dissection of biological roles of different laminin ligands. ..
- Willem M, Miosge N, Halfter W, Smyth N, Jannetti I, Burghart E, et al. Specific ablation of the nidogen-binding site in the laminin gamma1 chain interferes with kidney and lung development. Development. 2002;129:2711-22 pubmed..These data demonstrate that an interaction between two basement membrane proteins is required for early kidney morphogenesis in vivo. ..
- Nguyen N, Miner J, Pierce R, Senior R. Laminin alpha 5 is required for lobar septation and visceral pleural basement membrane formation in the developing mouse lung. Dev Biol. 2002;246:231-44 pubmed..Our finding of normal lung branching morphogenesis with abnormal lobar septation demonstrates that these processes are not obligatorily linked. ..
- Niimi T, Hayashi Y, Sekiguchi K. Identification of an upstream enhancer in the mouse laminin alpha 1 gene defining its high level of expression in parietal endoderm cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9332-8 pubmed..Here, we identified a 435-bp enhancer in the 5'-flanking region of the mouse laminin alpha1 (LAMA1) gene that activated its transcription in a differentiation-dependent manner...
- Haro E, Delgado I, Junco M, Yamada Y, Mansouri A, Oberg K, et al. Sp6 and Sp8 transcription factors control AER formation and dorsal-ventral patterning in limb development. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004468 pubmed publisher..We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. ..
- Chen Z, Strickland S. Neuronal death in the hippocampus is promoted by plasmin-catalyzed degradation of laminin. Cell. 1997;91:917-25 pubmed..These results indicate that disruption of neuron-ECM interaction via tPA/plasmin catalyzed degradation of laminin sensitizes hippocampal neurons to cell death. ..
- Ishikawa A, Kitajima S, Takahashi Y, Kokubo H, Kanno J, Inoue T, et al. Mouse Nkd1, a Wnt antagonist, exhibits oscillatory gene expression in the PSM under the control of Notch signaling. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1443-53 pubmed..Collectively, our data suggest that the reciprocal interaction of Notch and Wnt signals, and of their respective negative feedback loops, function to organize the segmentation clock required for somitogenesis. ..
- Castets P, Bertrand A, Beuvin M, Ferry A, Le Grand F, Castets M, et al. Satellite cell loss and impaired muscle regeneration in selenoprotein N deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:694-704 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, we describe for the first time a major physiological function of SelN in skeletal muscles, as a key regulator of SC function, which likely plays a central role in the pathophysiological mechanism leading to SEPN1-RM...
- Hartl L, Oberbäumer I, Deutzmann R. The N terminus of laminin A chain is homologous to the B chains. Eur J Biochem. 1988;173:629-35 pubmed..The data present further evidence for a recent structural model which postulates that each of the three laminin polypeptide chains forms a distinct short arm. ..
- Seo K, Wang Y, Kokubo H, Kettlewell J, Zarkower D, Johnson R. Targeted disruption of the DM domain containing transcription factor Dmrt2 reveals an essential role in somite patterning. Dev Biol. 2006;290:200-10 pubmed
- Schmahl J, Eicher E, Washburn L, Capel B. Sry induces cell proliferation in the mouse gonad. Development. 2000;127:65-73 pubmed..Therefore, an increase in cell proliferation in the male coelomic epithelium is the earliest identified effect of Sry expression. ..
- Ning L, Kurihara H, de Vega S, Ichikawa Tomikawa N, Xu Z, Nonaka R, et al. Laminin ?1 regulates age-related mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial matrix accumulation through the TGF-? pathway. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1683-94 pubmed publisherLaminin ?1 (LAMA1), a subunit of the laminin-111 basement membrane component, has been implicated in various biological functions in vivo and in vitro...
- Prattis S, Horton S, Van Camp S, Kornegay J. Immunohistochemical detection of neural cell adhesion molecule and laminin in X-linked dystrophic dogs and mdx mice. J Comp Pathol. 1994;110:253-66 pubmed..Expression of these proteins may partly determine the clinicopathological expression of dystrophin deficiency. ..
- Center E, Emery K. Acidic glycosaminoglycans and laminin-1 in renal corpuscles of mutant blebs (my) and control mice. Histol Histopathol. 1997;12:901-7 pubmed..Morphological changes in the human kidney are associated with alteration of function; a similar association may be occurring in the mice homozygous for the my gene. ..
- Garbe J, Göhring W, Mann K, Timpl R, Sasaki T. Complete sequence, recombinant analysis and binding to laminins and sulphated ligands of the N-terminal domains of laminin alpha3B and alpha5 chains. Biochem J. 2002;362:213-21 pubmed..These antibodies also allowed the identification of a new laminin assembly form 5B consisting of alpha3B, beta3 and gamma2 chains. ..
- Shim C, Lee S, Song W, Lee C, Lee K, Kim K. Laminin chain-specific gene expression during mouse oocyte maturation. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;48:185-93 pubmed..These results suggest that the expression of laminin B1 chain in mouse oocytes may be due to its large amount of mRNA transcripts and/or high level of polyadenylation state that is efficient for translational activation. ..
- Tohonen V, Frygelius J, Mohammadieh M, Kvist U, Pelliniemi L, O BRIEN K, et al. Normal sexual development and fertility in testatin knockout mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4892-902 pubmed
- Edwards M, McLeod D, Grebe R, Heng C, Lefebvre O, Lutty G. Lama1 mutations lead to vitreoretinal blood vessel formation, persistence of fetal vasculature, and epiretinal membrane formation in mice. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:60 pubmed publisher..Two such models are the recently described mouse lines with mutations in Lama1, an important component of the retinal internal limiting membrane (ILM)...
- Enders G, Kahsai T, Lian G, Funabiki K, Killen P, Hudson B. Developmental changes in seminiferous tubule extracellular matrix components of the mouse testis: alpha 3(IV) collagen chain expressed at the initiation of spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 1995;53:1489-99 pubmed..Expression of of the alpha 3(IV) chain coincides with the initiation of spermatogenesis, suggesting a functional role of this chain in spermatogonial proliferation. ..
- Rodriguez J, Calvo F, Gonzalez J, Casar B, Andres V, Crespo P. ERK1/2 MAP kinases promote cell cycle entry by rapid, kinase-independent disruption of retinoblastoma-lamin A complexes. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:967-79 pubmed publisher..We also show that cellular transformation and tumor cell proliferation are dependent on the balance between lamin A and nuclear ERK1/2 levels, which determines Rb accessibility for phosphorylation/inactivation. ..
- Thorsteinsdottir S, Roelen B, Freund E, Gaspar A, Sonnenberg A, Mummery C. Expression patterns of laminin receptor splice variants alpha 6A beta 1 and alpha 6B beta 1 suggest different roles in mouse development. Dev Dyn. 1995;204:240-58 pubmed
- Durbeej M, Talts J, Henry M, Yurchenco P, Campbell K, Ekblom P. Dystroglycan binding to laminin alpha1LG4 module influences epithelial morphogenesis of salivary gland and lung in vitro. Differentiation. 2001;69:121-34 pubmed
- Tõnissoo T, Lulla S, Meier R, Saare M, Ruisu K, Pooga M, et al. Nucleotide exchange factor RIC-8 is indispensable in mammalian early development. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3404-15 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, the orientation of the Ric-8(-/-) embryo in the uterus was abnormal. Our study reveals that the activity of RIC-8 protein is irreplaceable for the correct gastrulation of mouse embryo. ..
- Sasaki T, Takagi J, Giudici C, Yamada Y, Arikawa Hirasawa E, Deutzmann R, et al. Laminin-121--recombinant expression and interactions with integrins. Matrix Biol. 2010;29:484-93 pubmed publisher..Together, this suggests that the Î²2 laminins have higher affinity for integrins than the Î²1 laminins. ..
- Kanagawa M, Saito F, Kunz S, Yoshida Moriguchi T, Barresi R, Kobayashi Y, et al. Molecular recognition by LARGE is essential for expression of functional dystroglycan. Cell. 2004;117:953-64 pubmed..Therefore, molecular recognition of dystroglycan by LARGE is a key determinant in the biosynthetic pathway to produce mature and functional dystroglycan. ..
- Deutzmann R, Huber J, Schmetz K, Oberbäumer I, Hartl L. Structural study of long arm fragments of laminin. Evidence for repetitive C-terminal sequences in the A-chain, not present in the B-chains. Eur J Biochem. 1988;177:35-45 pubmed..Sequence alignment indicated that the terminal globule is formed by homologous repeats of some 140 residues having no counterpart in the B chains. ..
- Luckenbill Edds L, Kaiser C, Rodgers T, Powell D. Localization of the 110 kDa receptor for laminin in brains of embryonic and postnatal mice. Cell Tissue Res. 1995;279:371-7 pubmed..We speculate that the inverse histological pattern of receptor and ligand with respect to cell bodies and fibers may reflect a role in controlling axon guidance during development or repair during regeneration. ..
- Salmivirta K, Sorokin L, Ekblom P. Differential expression of laminin alpha chains during murine tooth development. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:206-15 pubmed..These studies show that laminin networks in tooth epithelia form as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and that the molecular composition of the laminin networks varies drastically during development of tooth. ..
- Flores Delgado G, Bringas P, Warburton D. Laminin 2 attachment selects myofibroblasts from fetal mouse lung. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:L622-30 pubmed..These findings lead us to speculate that LN2 may play a key role in the cell biology of myofibroblasts during lung development. ..
- Godfrey E, Gradall K. Basal lamina molecules are concentrated in myogenic regions of the mouse limb bud. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1998;198:481-6 pubmed..These results suggest that basal lamina components play an important stimulatory role in early stages of skeletal muscle differentiation in the developing mouse limb bud. ..
- Andrews K, Betsuyaku T, Rogers S, Shipley J, Senior R, Miner J. Gelatinase B (MMP-9) is not essential in the normal kidney and does not influence progression of renal disease in a mouse model of Alport syndrome. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:303-11 pubmed..Thus, gelB does not have a discernible role in the normal kidney and gelB is not involved in the progression of glomerulonephritis in a mouse model of Alport syndrome...
- Yoshida T, Miyoshi J, Takai Y, Thesleff I. Cooperation of nectin-1 and nectin-3 is required for normal ameloblast function and crown shape development in mouse teeth. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2558-69 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that heterophilic interaction between nectin-1 and nectin-3 recruits desmosomal junctions, and that these are required for proper enamel formation. ..
- Schuger L, Varani J, Killen P, Skubitz A, Gilbride K. Laminin expression in the mouse lung increases with development and stimulates spontaneous organotypic rearrangement of mixed lung cells. Dev Dyn. 1992;195:43-54 pubmed..We conclude that laminin is critical for epithelial-mesenchymal recognition and further morphogenic interaction during both the embryonic and fetal stages of lung development. ..
- Kikkawa Y, Virtanen I, Miner J. Mesangial cells organize the glomerular capillaries by adhering to the G domain of laminin alpha5 in the glomerular basement membrane. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:187-96 pubmed..Our results elucidate a mechanism whereby mesangial cells organize the glomerular capillaries by adhering to the G domain of laminin alpha5 in the GBM. ..
- Akerlund M, Carmignac V, Schéele S, Durbeej M. Laminin alpha1 domains LG4-5 are essential for the complete differentiation of visceral endoderm. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;338:129-37 pubmed publisher..We hypothesize that alpha1LG4-5 domains provide an autocrine signal necessary for the complete differentiation of a functional visceral endoderm and vital signals for the polarization of the epiblast. ..
- Thomas T, Dziadek M. Genes coding for basement membrane glycoproteins laminin, nidogen, and collagen IV are differentially expressed in the nervous system and by epithelial, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells of the mouse embryo. Exp Cell Res. 1993;208:54-67 pubmed
- Sambasivan R, Gayraud Morel B, Dumas G, Cimper C, Paisant S, Kelly R, et al. Distinct regulatory cascades govern extraocular and pharyngeal arch muscle progenitor cell fates. Dev Cell. 2009;16:810-21 pubmed publisher..These findings identify novel genetic networks that may provide insights into myopathies which often affect only subsets of muscles...
- Hozumi K, Suzuki N, Nielsen P, Nomizu M, Yamada Y. Laminin alpha1 chain LG4 module promotes cell attachment through syndecans and cell spreading through integrin alpha2beta1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32929-40 pubmed..Our findings indicate that LG4 has a unique function distinct from laminin-1 and suggest that laminin alpha1 LG4-5 may also be produced by a proteolytic cleavage in certain tissues where it exerts its activity. ..
- Viotti M, Nowotschin S, Hadjantonakis A. SOX17 links gut endoderm morphogenesis and germ layer segregation. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:1146-56 pubmed publisher..Our results mechanistically link gut endoderm morphogenesis and germ layer segregation, two central and conserved features of gastrulation. ..
- Balmer C, LaMantia A. Loss of Gli3 and Shh function disrupts olfactory axon trajectories. J Comp Neurol. 2004;472:292-307 pubmed..Thus, two genes that influence induction and subsequent differentiation of craniofacial structures and the forebrain have distinct consequences for ORN axon growth during the initial genesis of the olfactory pathway. ..
- Keely P, Wu J, Santoro S. The spatial and temporal expression of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin and its ligands, collagen I, collagen IV, and laminin, suggest important roles in mouse mammary morphogenesis. Differentiation. 1995;59:1-13 pubmed..Our results suggest that alpha 2 beta 1 integrin interactions with its temporally and spatially regulated ligands, collagen I, collagen IV, and laminin, could play an important role in mammary morphogenesis in vivo. ..