Kv4 2


Gene Symbol: Kv4 2
Description: potassium voltage-gated channel, Shal-related family, member 2
Alias: AI839615, AW555701, Kv4.2, R75121, mKIAA1044, potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2, potassium channel Kv4.2, voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv4.2
Species: mouse
Products:     Kv4 2

Top Publications

  1. Jinno S, Jeromin A, Kosaka T. Postsynaptic and extrasynaptic localization of Kv4.2 channels in the mouse hippocampal region, with special reference to targeted clustering at gabaergic synapses. Neuroscience. 2005;134:483-94 pubmed
    ..The present findings indicate targeted clustering of Kv4.2 potassium channels at postsynaptic sites of GABAergic synapses and extrasynaptic sites, and provide some key to understand their role in the hippocampal region. ..
  2. Chen X, Yuan L, Zhao C, Birnbaum S, Frick A, Jung W, et al. Deletion of Kv4.2 gene eliminates dendritic A-type K+ current and enhances induction of long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12143-51 pubmed
    ..2 knock-out and wild-type neurons. Our results support the hypothesis that dendritic A-type K+ channels, composed of Kv4.2 subunits, regulate action potential backpropagation and the induction of specific forms of synaptic plasticity. ..
  3. Guo W, Jung W, Marionneau C, Aimond F, Xu H, Yamada K, et al. Targeted deletion of Kv4.2 eliminates I(to,f) and results in electrical and molecular remodeling, with no evidence of ventricular hypertrophy or myocardial dysfunction. Circ Res. 2005;97:1342-50 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate not only an essential role for Kv4.2 in the generation of mouse ventricular I(to,f) channels but also that the loss of I(to,f) per se does not have overt pathophysiological consequences. ..
  4. Costantini D, Arruda E, Agarwal P, Kim K, Zhu Y, Zhu W, et al. The homeodomain transcription factor Irx5 establishes the mouse cardiac ventricular repolarization gradient. Cell. 2005;123:347-58 pubmed
    ..Thus, an Irx5 repressor gradient negatively regulates potassium-channel-gene expression in the heart, forming an inverse I(to,f) gradient that ensures coordinated cardiac repolarization while also preventing arrhythmias. ..
  5. Losonczy A, Makara J, Magee J. Compartmentalized dendritic plasticity and input feature storage in neurons. Nature. 2008;452:436-41 pubmed publisher
  6. Barnwell L, Lugo J, Lee W, Willis S, Gertz S, Hrachovy R, et al. Kv4.2 knockout mice demonstrate increased susceptibility to convulsant stimulation. Epilepsia. 2009;50:1741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..2 channels is associated with enhanced susceptibility to convulsant stimulation, supporting the concept that Kv4.2 deficiency may contribute to aberrant network excitability and regulate seizure threshold. ..
  7. Sun W, MAFFIE J, Lin L, Petralia R, Rudy B, Hoffman D. DPP6 establishes the A-type K(+) current gradient critical for the regulation of dendritic excitability in CA1 hippocampal neurons. Neuron. 2011;71:1102-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite enhanced dendritic excitability, firing behavior evoked by somatic current injection was mainly unaffected in DPP6-KO recordings, indicating compartmentalized regulation of neuronal excitability. ..
  8. Foeger N, Norris A, Wren L, Nerbonne J. Augmentation of Kv4.2-encoded currents by accessory dipeptidyl peptidase 6 and 10 subunits reflects selective cell surface Kv4.2 protein stabilization. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9640-50 pubmed publisher
    ..2. ..
  9. Andrasfalvy B, Makara J, Johnston D, Magee J. Altered synaptic and non-synaptic properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in Kv4.2 knockout mice. J Physiol. 2008;586:3881-92 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Shibasaki K, Nakahira K, Trimmer J, Shibata R, Akita M, Watanabe S, et al. Mossy fibre contact triggers the targeting of Kv4.2 potassium channels to dendrites and synapses in developing cerebellar granule neurons. J Neurochem. 2004;89:897-907 pubmed
    ..2 channels is dynamically regulated by synaptic activity. This activity-dependent regulation of Kv4.2 localization provides a crucial yet dynamic link between synaptic activity and dendritic excitability. ..
  2. Lee H, Ge W, Huang W, He Y, Wang G, Rowson Baldwin A, et al. Bidirectional regulation of dendritic voltage-gated potassium channels by the fragile X mental retardation protein. Neuron. 2011;72:630-42 pubmed publisher
    ..2. Our study of FMRP regulation of Kv4.2 deepens our knowledge of NMDAR signaling and reveals a FMRP target of potential relevance to FXS. ..
  3. Lugo J, Brewster A, Spencer C, Anderson A. Kv4.2 knockout mice have hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits. Learn Mem. 2012;19:182-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings add to the growing body of evidence, suggesting an important role for Kv4.2 channels in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory...
  4. Lin L, Sun W, Wikenheiser A, Kung F, Hoffman D. KChIP4a regulates Kv4.2 channel trafficking through PKA phosphorylation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..2 binding partners, allowing for discrete local PKA signaling. These data demonstrate that PKA phosphorylation of Kv4.2 plays an important role in the trafficking of Kv4.2 through its specific interaction with KChIP4a. ..
  5. Nerbonne J, Gerber B, Norris A, Burkhalter A. Electrical remodelling maintains firing properties in cortical pyramidal neurons lacking KCND2-encoded A-type K+ currents. J Physiol. 2008;586:1565-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Repetitive firing is also maintained in Kv4.2-/- cortical pyramidal neurons, suggesting that the increased densities of I(K) and I(ss) compensate for the in vivo loss of I(A). ..
  6. Hu H, Carrasquillo Y, Karim F, Jung W, Nerbonne J, Schwarz T, et al. The kv4.2 potassium channel subunit is required for pain plasticity. Neuron. 2006;50:89-100 pubmed
    ..2-mediated currents in neurons. These results show that Kv4.2 is a downstream target of ERK in spinal cord and plays a crucial role in pain plasticity. ..
  7. Zhao Y, Ransom J, Li A, Vedantham V, von Drehle M, Muth A, et al. Dysregulation of cardiogenesis, cardiac conduction, and cell cycle in mice lacking miRNA-1-2. Cell. 2007;129:303-17 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that subtle alteration of miRNA dosage can have profound consequences in mammals and demonstrate the utility of mammalian loss-of-function models in revealing physiologic miRNA targets. ..
  8. Burkhalter A, Gonchar Y, Mellor R, Nerbonne J. Differential expression of I(A) channel subunits Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in mouse visual cortical neurons and synapses. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12274-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, the synapse-specific distribution of Kv4 channels functions to optimize dendritic excitation and the association between presynaptic and postsynaptic activity. ..
  9. Lockridge A, Su J, Yuan L. Abnormal 5-HT modulation of stress behaviors in the Kv4.2 knockout mouse. Neuroscience. 2010;170:1086-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may shed some light on the involvement of A-type potassium channels in the effective action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. ..
  10. Gross C, Yao X, Pong D, Jeromin A, Bassell G. Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates protein expression and mRNA translation of the potassium channel Kv4.2. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2 mRNA translation, protein expression, and plasma membrane levels might contribute to excess neuronal excitability in Fmr1 KO mice, and thus imply a potential mechanism underlying FXS-associated epilepsy. ..
  11. Toib A, Zhang C, Borghetti G, Zhang X, Wallner M, Yang Y, et al. Remodeling of repolarization and arrhythmia susceptibility in a myosin-binding protein C knockout mouse model. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H620-H630 pubmed publisher
  12. Murase S, Kim E, Lin L, Hoffman D, McKay R. Loss of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling during elevated activity causes vulnerability in hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15511-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study provides new insight into a mechanism by which chronic elevation of activity may cause neurodegeneration. ..
  13. Voss G, Jockusch H. Genetic mapping of members of the polyubiquitin gene subfamily coding for UbB. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:169 pubmed
  14. Marionneau C, LeDuc R, Rohrs H, Link A, Townsend R, Nerbonne J. Proteomic analyses of native brain K(V)4.2 channel complexes. Channels (Austin). 2009;3:284-94 pubmed
    ..2 channel complexes. Additional biochemical and functional approaches will be required to elucidate the physiological roles of these newly identified K(V)4 interacting proteins. ..
  15. Van Hoorick D, Raes A, Snyders D. The aromatic cluster in KCHIP1b affects Kv4 inactivation gating. J Physiol. 2007;583:959-69 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the aromatic cluster in exon1b modulates the transitions towards and from the closed inactivated states and the steady state distribution over the respective states. ..
  16. Hu H, Alter B, Carrasquillo Y, Qiu C, Gereau R. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 modulates nociceptive plasticity via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-Kv4.2 signaling in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13181-91 pubmed
    ..2-containing potassium channels in dorsal horn neurons. This modulation may contribute to nociceptive plasticity and central sensitization associated with chronic inflammatory pain conditions. ..
  17. Aimond F, Kwak S, Rhodes K, Nerbonne J. Accessory Kvbeta1 subunits differentially modulate the functional expression of voltage-gated K+ channels in mouse ventricular myocytes. Circ Res. 2005;96:451-8 pubmed
    ..1 expression is increased in Kvbeta1-/- ventricles. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Kvbeta1 differentially regulates the functional cell surface expression of myocardial I(to,f) and I(K,slow2) channels. ..
  18. Panguluri S, Tur J, Chapalamadugu K, Katnik C, Cuevas J, Tipparaju S. MicroRNA-301a mediated regulation of Kv4.2 in diabetes: identification of key modulators. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60545 pubmed publisher
    ..2 is independent of NFkB and Irx5 and modulates Kv4.2 by direct binding on Kv4.2 3'untranslated region (3'-UTR). Therefore targeting miR-301a may offer new potential for developing therapeutic approaches. ..
  19. Hoffman D. Firing first: compensatory changes in K+ channel knockout mice preserve excitability but not synaptic scaling. J Physiol. 2008;586:3731-2 pubmed publisher
  20. Mercer R, Ma L, Watts J, Strome R, Wohlgemuth S, Yang J, et al. The prion protein modulates A-type K+ currents mediated by Kv4.2 complexes through dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein 6. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:37241-55 pubmed publisher
    ..2 channels as a mechanism contributing to the effects of oligomeric A? upon neuronal excitability and viability. ..
  21. Kurokawa S, Niwano S, Niwano H, Murakami M, Ishikawa S, Masaki Y, et al. Cardiomyocyte-derived mitochondrial superoxide causes myocardial electrical remodeling by downregulating potassium channels and related molecules. Circ J. 2014;78:1950-9 pubmed
    ..05). BSO treatment caused hyperoxidative stress in the myocardium of H/M-Sod2(+/-)mice. Changes in the expression and function of potassium channels were considered to be involved in the mechanism of electrical remodeling in this model. ..
  22. Araujo D, Anderson A, Berto S, Runnels W, Harper M, Ammanuel S, et al. FoxP1 orchestration of ASD-relevant signaling pathways in the striatum. Genes Dev. 2015;29:2081-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support an integral role for FoxP1 in regulating signaling pathways vulnerable in autism and the specific regulation of striatal pathways important for vocal communication. ..
  23. Qu J, Mulo I, Myhr K. The development of Kv4.2 expression in the retina. Neurosci Lett. 2009;464:209-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The pattern of Kv4.2-IR through postnatal development indicates that Kv4.2-mediated currents are important for development in a subset of RGCs, especially around P10 as the bipolar cells mature. ..
  24. Marionneau C, Carrasquillo Y, Norris A, Townsend R, Isom L, Link A, et al. The sodium channel accessory subunit Nav?1 regulates neuronal excitability through modulation of repolarizing voltage-gated K? channels. J Neurosci. 2012;32:5716-27 pubmed publisher
    ..2-encoded current densities. Together, the results presented here identify Nav?1 as a component of native neuronal Kv4.2-encoded I(A) channel complexes and a novel regulator of I(A) channel densities and neuronal excitability. ..
  25. Khandekar A, Springer S, Wang W, HICKS S, Weinheimer C, Diaz Trelles R, et al. Notch-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Voltage-Gated Potassium Currents. Circ Res. 2016;119:1324-1338 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these findings demonstrate a novel mechanism for regulation of voltage-gated potassium currents in the setting of cardiac pathology and may provide a novel target for arrhythmia drug design. ..
  26. Granados Fuentes D, Norris A, Carrasquillo Y, Nerbonne J, Herzog E. I(A) channels encoded by Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 regulate neuronal firing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and circadian rhythms in locomotor activity. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10045-52 pubmed publisher
    ..4- and Kv4.2-encoded I(A) channels regulate the intrinsic excitability of SCN neurons during the day and night and determine the period and amplitude of circadian rhythms in SCN neuron firing and locomotor behavior. ..
  27. Kiselycznyk C, Hoffman D, Holmes A. Effects of genetic deletion of the Kv4.2 voltage-gated potassium channel on murine anxiety-, fear- and stress-related behaviors. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2012;2:5 pubmed publisher
    ..We did not find clear evidence for an involvement of Kv4.2 in neuropsychiatric or plasticity-related phenotypes, but there was support for a role in Kv4.2 in dampening excitatory responses to novel stimuli. ..
  28. Suzuki T, Shioya T, Murayama T, Sugihara M, Odagiri F, Nakazato Y, et al. Multistep ion channel remodeling and lethal arrhythmia precede heart failure in a mouse model of inherited dilated cardiomyopathy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35353 pubmed publisher
    ..DCM mice at 1 month or before, on the contrary, are associated with low risk of death in spite of inborn disorder and enlarged heart. ..
  29. Nakamura T, Sturm E, Pountney D, Orenzoff B, Artman M, Coetzee W. Developmental expression of NCS-1 (frequenin), a regulator of Kv4 K+ channels, in mouse heart. Pediatr Res. 2003;53:554-7 pubmed
    ..2 proteins at the sarcolemma. Given its high levels of expression in the heart, NCS-1 should be considered an important potential Kv4 regulatory subunit, particularly in the immature heart. ..
  30. Marder E. Variability, compensation, and modulation in neurons and circuits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108 Suppl 3:15542-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This second paradigm shift will require moving away from measurements of each system component in isolation but should reveal important previously undescribed principles in the organization of complex systems such as brains. ..
  31. Amarillo Y, De Santiago Castillo J, Dougherty K, Maffie J, Kwon E, Covarrubias M, et al. Ternary Kv4.2 channels recapitulate voltage-dependent inactivation kinetics of A-type K+ channels in cerebellar granule neurons. J Physiol. 2008;586:2093-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is likely that preferential closed-state inactivation is the physiological mechanism that regulates the activity of both ternary Kv4 channel complexes and native I(SA)-mediating channels. ..
  32. Xu H, Li H, Nerbonne J. Elimination of the transient outward current and action potential prolongation in mouse atrial myocytes expressing a dominant negative Kv4 alpha subunit. J Physiol. 1999;519 Pt 1:11-21 pubmed
    ..2W362F-expressing animals. ..
  33. Zhao C, Wang L, Netoff T, Yuan L. Dendritic mechanisms controlling the threshold and timing requirement of synaptic plasticity. Hippocampus. 2011;21:288-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, dendritic A-type and Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels dually regulate the timing-dependence and thresholds of synaptic plasticity in an additive way. ..
  34. Yao J, Zhao Q, Liu D, Chow C, Mei Y. Neuritin Up-regulates Kv4.2 ?-Subunit of Potassium Channel Expression and Affects Neuronal Excitability by Regulating the Calcium-Calcineurin-NFATc4 Signaling Pathway. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:17369-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate an indispensable role for the CaN/NFATc4 signaling pathway in neuritin-regulated neuronal functions. ..
  35. Holmqvist M, Cao J, Hernandez Pineda R, Jacobson M, Carroll K, Sung M, et al. Elimination of fast inactivation in Kv4 A-type potassium channels by an auxiliary subunit domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1035-40 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that specific auxiliary subunits with distinct functions actively modulate gating of potassium channels that govern membrane excitability. ..
  36. Lyu Y, Lin C, Azarova A, Cai L, Wang J, Liu L. Role of topoisomerase IIbeta in the expression of developmentally regulated genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7929-41 pubmed
    ..Together, these results support a role of TopIIbeta in activation/repression of developmentally regulated genes at late stages of neuronal differentiation. ..
  37. Han P, Lucero M. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide reduces expression of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 subunits underlying A-type K(+) current in adult mouse olfactory neuroepithelia. Neuroscience. 2006;138:411-9 pubmed
    ..1 and Kv4.2 expression. Modulation of A-type K(+) current expression may contribute to the previously observed neuroprotective effects of PACAP on olfactory receptor neurons. ..
  38. Gómez Herreros F, Schuurs Hoeijmakers J, McCormack M, Greally M, Rulten S, Romero Granados R, et al. TDP2 protects transcription from abortive topoisomerase activity and is required for normal neural function. Nat Genet. 2014;46:516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data implicate chromosome breakage by TOP2 as an endogenous threat to gene transcription and to normal neuronal development and maintenance. ..
  39. Chu P, Rivera J, Arnold D. A role for Kif17 in transport of Kv4.2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:365-73 pubmed
    ..Together our data show that Kif17 is probably the motor that transports Kv4.2 to dendrites but suggest that this motor does not, by itself, specify dendritic localization of the channel. ..
  40. Varga A, Anderson A, Adams J, Vogel H, Sweatt J. Input-specific immunolocalization of differentially phosphorylated Kv4.2 in the mouse brain. Learn Mem. 2000;7:321-32 pubmed
    ..Second, as phosphorylation may regulate channel biophysical properties, differential phosphorylation of Kv4.2 in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons may confer unique biophysical properties upon particular dendritic input layers. ..
  41. Hernández V, Hegeman D, Cui Q, Kelver D, Fiske M, Glajch K, et al. Parvalbumin+ Neurons and Npas1+ Neurons Are Distinct Neuron Classes in the Mouse External Globus Pallidus. J Neurosci. 2015;35:11830-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence that parvalbumin and Npas1 neurons have different topologies within the basal ganglia. ..
  42. Foeger N, Wang W, Mellor R, Nerbonne J. Stabilization of Kv4 protein by the accessory K(+) channel interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) subunit is required for the generation of native myocardial fast transient outward K(+) currents. J Physiol. 2013;591:4149-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that association with KChIP2 early in the biosynthetic pathway and KChIP2-mediated stabilization of Kv4 protein are critical determinants of native cardiac Ito,f channel expression. ..
  43. Wong W, Schlichter L. Differential recruitment of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 to lipid rafts by PSD-95. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:444-52 pubmed
    ..This work represents the first evidence that PSD-95 binding can recruit Kv channels into lipid rafts, a process that could facilitate interactions with the protein kinases that affect channel activity. ..
  44. Farkas I, Varju P, Liposits Z. Estrogen modulates potassium currents and expression of the Kv4.2 subunit in GT1-7 cells. Neurochem Int. 2007;50:619-27 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that potassium channels of GT1-7 neurons are regulated by estrogen a mechanism that might contribute to modulation of firing rate and hormone secretion in GnRH neurons. ..
  45. Jung S, Kim J, Hoffman D. Rapid, bidirectional remodeling of synaptic NMDA receptor subunit composition by A-type K+ channel activity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuron. 2008;60:657-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that A-type K+ channels are an integral part of a synaptic complex that regulates Ca2+ signaling through spontaneous NMDAR activation to control synaptic NMDAR expression and plasticity. ..
  46. Odening K, Nerbonne J, Bode C, Zehender M, Brunner M. In vivo effect of a dominant negative Kv4.2 loss-of-function mutation eliminating I(to,f) on atrial refractoriness and atrial fibrillation in mice. Circ J. 2009;73:461-7 pubmed
    ..However, the susceptibility of mice to AF in vivo is determined by the individual AERP, irrespective of genotype. ..
  47. Foeger N, Marionneau C, Nerbonne J. Co-assembly of Kv4 {alpha} subunits with K+ channel-interacting protein 2 stabilizes protein expression and promotes surface retention of channel complexes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33413-22 pubmed publisher
    ..2 N terminus. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that KChIP2 differentially regulates total and cell surface Kv4.2 protein expression and Kv4 current densities. ..
  48. De La Rosa A, Domínguez J, Sedmera D, Sankova B, Hove Madsen L, Franco D, et al. Functional suppression of Kcnq1 leads to early sodium channel remodelling and cardiac conduction system dysmorphogenesis. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;98:504-14 pubmed publisher
  49. Gaborit N, Sakuma R, Wylie J, Kim K, Zhang S, Hui C, et al. Cooperative and antagonistic roles for Irx3 and Irx5 in cardiac morphogenesis and postnatal physiology. Development. 2012;139:4007-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results have uncovered complex genetic interactions between Irx3 and Irx5 in embryonic cardiac development and postnatal physiology. ..
  50. Yamak A, Temsah R, Maharsy W, Caron S, Paradis P, Aries A, et al. Cyclin D2 rescues size and function of GATA4 haplo-insufficient hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;303:H1057-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that postnatal upregulation of a cell-cycle gene in GATA4 haplo-insufficient hearts may be protective opens new avenues for maintaining or restoring cardiac function in GATA4-dependent cardiac disease. ..
  51. Menegola M, Trimmer J. Unanticipated region- and cell-specific downregulation of individual KChIP auxiliary subunit isotypes in Kv4.2 knock-out mouse brain. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12137-42 pubmed
    ..2-dependent effects on KChIPs. The impact of Kv4.2 deletion on KChIP expression also supports the major role of KChIPs as auxiliary subunits of Kv4 channels. ..
  52. Wickenden A, Lee P, Sah R, Huang Q, Fishman G, Backx P. Targeted expression of a dominant-negative K(v)4.2 K(+) channel subunit in the mouse heart. Circ Res. 1999;85:1067-76 pubmed
    ..Our results confirm that K(v)4.2 subunits contribute to I(to) in the mouse and demonstrate that manipulation of cardiac excitability may secondarily influence contractile performance. ..
  53. Granados Fuentes D, Hermanstyne T, Carrasquillo Y, Nerbonne J, Herzog E. IA Channels Encoded by Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 Regulate Circadian Period of PER2 Expression in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus. J Biol Rhythms. 2015;30:396-407 pubmed publisher
    ..4- and Kv4.2-encoded IA channels in controlling the light-dependent responses of neurons within and/or outside of the SCN to regulate circadian phase of daily activity. ..