Gene Symbol: Krt6a
Description: keratin 6A
Alias: 2310016L08Rik, CK-6A, K6A, K6[a], Krt2-6a, Krt2-6c, MK6a, mK6[a], keratin, type II cytoskeletal 6A, 60-kDa keratin, K6-alpha, cytokeratin-6A, keratin complex 2, basic, gene 6a, keratin complex 2, basic, gene 6c, keratin-6-alpha, mK6-alpha
Species: mouse
Products:     Krt6a

Top Publications

  1. Wojcik S, Bundman D, Roop D. Delayed wound healing in keratin 6a knockout mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5248-55 pubmed
    ..Mice express two K6 isoforms, MK6a and MK6b...
  2. Kobielak K, Pasolli H, Alonso L, Polak L, Fuchs E. Defining BMP functions in the hair follicle by conditional ablation of BMP receptor IA. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:609-23 pubmed
  3. Wojcik S, Imakado S, Seki T, Longley M, Petherbridge L, Bundman D, et al. Expression of MK6a dominant-negative and C-terminal mutant transgenes in mice has distinct phenotypic consequences in the epidermis and hair follicle. Differentiation. 1999;65:97-112 pubmed
    Mouse keratin 6a (MK6a) is constitutively expressed in a single cell layer of the outer root sheath (ORS) of hair follicles, but its synthesis can be induced in interfollicular epidermis including the basal cell layer in response to ..
  4. Takahashi K, Paladini R, Coulombe P. Cloning and characterization of multiple human genes and cDNAs encoding highly related type II keratin 6 isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:18581-92 pubmed
    ..genes encoding K6 protein isoforms in the human genome, although only a partial cDNA clone is available for K6a, the dominant human K6 isoform in skin epithelial tissues (Tyner, A., and Fuchs, E. (1986) J. Cell Biol...
  5. Takahashi K, Yan B, Yamanishi K, Imamura S, Coulombe P. The two functional keratin 6 genes of mouse are differentially regulated and evolved independently from their human orthologs. Genomics. 1998;53:170-83 pubmed
    ..These novel findings have important implications for the evolution, regulation, and function of K6 genes in mammalian species. ..
  6. Rothnagel J, Seki T, Ogo M, Longley M, Wojcik S, Bundman D, et al. The mouse keratin 6 isoforms are differentially expressed in the hair follicle, footpad, tongue and activated epidermis. Differentiation. 1999;65:119-30 pubmed
    ..The two genes (denoted K6a and K6b) are linked, have the same orientation and are actively transcribed...
  7. Wong P, Colucci Guyon E, Takahashi K, Gu C, Babinet C, Coulombe P. Introducing a null mutation in the mouse K6alpha and K6beta genes reveals their essential structural role in the oral mucosa. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:921-8 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate an essential structural role for K6 isoforms in the oral mucosa, and implicate filiform papillae as being the major stress bearing structures in dorsal tongue epithelium. ..
  8. Wojcik S, Longley M, Roop D. Discovery of a novel murine keratin 6 (K6) isoform explains the absence of hair and nail defects in mice deficient for K6a and K6b. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:619-30 pubmed
    ..We generated mice deficient for both genes through embryonic stem cell technology. The majority of MK6a/b-/- mice die of starvation within the first two weeks of life...
  9. Nishiguchi Y, Ohmoto M, Koki J, Enomoto T, Kominami R, Matsumoto I, et al. Bcl11b/Ctip2 is required for development of lingual papillae in mice. Dev Biol. 2016;416:98-110 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Bcl11b regulates the differentiation of keratinocytes in the tongue and identify Bcl11b as an essential factor for the lingual papilla morphogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Chen J, Roop D. Mouse models in preclinical studies for pachyonychia congenita. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2005;10:37-46 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the existing mouse models involving the keratin genes (K6a, K6b, K16, and K17) that cause the human genetic disorder pachyonychia congenita (PC)...
  2. Adolphe C, Narang M, Ellis T, Wicking C, Kaur P, Wainwright B. An in vivo comparative study of sonic, desert and Indian hedgehog reveals that hedgehog pathway activity regulates epidermal stem cell homeostasis. Development. 2004;131:5009-19 pubmed
  3. Tam C, Mun J, Evans D, Fleiszig S. Cytokeratins mediate epithelial innate defense through their antimicrobial properties. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycine-rich C-terminal fragments derived from human cytokeratin 6A were identified in bactericidal lysate fractions of human corneal epithelial cells...
  4. Yu Z, Mannik J, Soto A, Lin K, Andersen B. The epidermal differentiation-associated Grainyhead gene Get1/Grhl3 also regulates urothelial differentiation. EMBO J. 2009;28:1890-903 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show a crucial role for Get1 in urothelial differentiation and barrier formation. ..
  5. Cui C, Kunisada M, Esibizione D, Grivennikov S, Piao Y, Nedospasov S, et al. Lymphotoxin-beta regulates periderm differentiation during embryonic skin development. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2583-90 pubmed
    ..Overall, LTbeta shows a primary early function in periderm differentiation, with later transient effects on epidermal and hair follicle differentiation. ..
  6. Gu L, Coulombe P. Keratin expression provides novel insight into the morphogenesis and function of the companion layer in hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1061-73 pubmed
    ..probes, antibodies, a LacZ reporter mouse model, and whole-mount staining assays to investigate the regulation of mK6a during mouse postnatal hair cycling, and compare it to mK75, a companion layer (Cl) marker...
  7. Kuraguchi M, Wang X, Bronson R, Rothenberg R, Ohene Baah N, Lund J, et al. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is required for normal development of skin and thymus. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e146 pubmed
  8. Jin J, Warner D, Lu Q, Pisano M, Greene R, Ding J. Deciphering TGF-?3 function in medial edge epithelium specification and fusion during mouse secondary palate development. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:1536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, cytokeratin 6? and 17 are two TGF-?3 downstream target genes in palate medial edge epithelium differentiation. ..
  9. Grimm S, Bu W, Longley M, Roop D, Li Y, Rosen J. Keratin 6 is not essential for mammary gland development. Breast Cancer Res. 2006;8:R29 pubmed
    ..embryonic and postnatal mammary development, as well as the mammary gland phenotype of mice that were null for both K6a and K6b isoforms...
  10. Wong P, Domergue R, Coulombe P. Overcoming functional redundancy to elicit pachyonychia congenita-like nail lesions in transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:197-205 pubmed
    ..Our findings point to significant redundancy among the multiple keratins expressed in hair and nail, which can be related to the common ancestry, clustered organization, and sequence relatedness of specific keratin genes. ..
  11. Li Q, Lu Q, Estepa G, Verma I. Identification of 14-3-3sigma mutation causing cutaneous abnormality in repeated-epilation mutant mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15977-82 pubmed
    ..Ectopic overexpression of WT 14-3-3sigma in Er/Er keratinocytes rescues defects in keratinocyte differentiation. Our study demonstrates that 14-3-3sigma is a crucial regulator for skin proliferation and differentiation. ..
  12. Olson L, Zhang J, Taylor H, Rose D, Rosenfeld M. Barx2 functions through distinct corepressor classes to regulate hair follicle remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3708-13 pubmed
    ..Together, our data suggest that the hair-remodeling defect of Barx2 mutant mice could be explained, in part, by failure to repress one or more critical target genes. ..
  13. Finch J, Andrews K, Krieg P, Furstenberger G, Slaga T, Ootsuyama A, et al. Identification of a cloned sequence activated during multi-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 1991;12:1519-22 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of the mal2 or keratin K6 gene in malignant SCCs was independent of the protocol, either chemical or radiation, that was used to induce the tumors. ..
  14. Mazzalupo S, Coulombe P. A reporter transgene based on a human keratin 6 gene promoter is specifically expressed in the periderm of mouse embryos. Mech Dev. 2001;100:65-9 pubmed
    ..transgene is expressed in the periderm (the outermost layer of embryonic epidermis), as are the endogenous keratin 6 alpha and beta genes...
  15. Takabayashi S, Katoh H. A mutant mouse with severe anemia and skin abnormalities controlled by a new allele of the flaky skin (fsn) locus. Exp Anim. 2005;54:339-47 pubmed
    ..5 dpc to 18.5 dpc). Time differences in the appearance of the different phenotypes observed in various tissue and organs of fsn homozygotes suggest they are caused by expression of the fsn gene at different developmental stages. ..
  16. Svärd J, Heby Henricson K, Henricson K, Persson Lek M, Rozell B, Lauth M, et al. Genetic elimination of Suppressor of fused reveals an essential repressor function in the mammalian Hedgehog signaling pathway. Dev Cell. 2006;10:187-97 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that, in striking contrast to Drosophila, in mammals, Sufu has a central role, and its loss of function leads to potent ligand-independent activation of the Hh pathway. ..
  17. Kikkawa Y, Oyama A, Ishii R, Miura I, Amano T, Ishii Y, et al. A small deletion hotspot in the type II keratin gene mK6irs1/Krt2-6g on mouse chromosome 15, a candidate for causing the wavy hair of the caracul (Ca) mutation. Genetics. 2003;165:721-33 pubmed
    ..The identification of the Ca candidate gene enables us to further define the nature of the genetic pathway required for hair formation and provides an important new candidate that may be implicated in human hair and skin diseases. ..
  18. Wong P, Coulombe P. Loss of keratin 6 (K6) proteins reveals a function for intermediate filaments during wound repair. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:327-37 pubmed
  19. Chen J, Jaeger K, Den Z, Koch P, Sundberg J, Roop D. Mice expressing a mutant Krt75 (K6hf) allele develop hair and nail defects resembling pachyonychia congenita. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:270-9 pubmed
    ..Dominant mutations in members of the KRT6 family, such as in KRT6A and KRT6B cause pachyonychia congenita (PC) -1 and -2, respectively...
  20. Miranda Carboni G, Krum S, Yee K, Nava M, Deng Q, Pervin S, et al. A functional link between Wnt signaling and SKP2-independent p27 turnover in mammary tumors. Genes Dev. 2008;22:3121-34 pubmed publisher
    ..CUL4A and CUL4B are therefore components of a conserved Wnt-induced proteasome targeting (WIPT) complex that regulates p27(KIP1) levels and cell cycle progression in mammalian cells. ..
  21. Mazzalupo S, Wong P, Martin P, Coulombe P. Role for keratins 6 and 17 during wound closure in embryonic mouse skin. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:356-65 pubmed
  22. Poirier C, Yoshiki A, Fujiwara K, Guenet J, Kusakabe M. Hague (Hag). A new mouse hair mutation with an unstable semidominant allele. Genetics. 2002;162:831-40 pubmed
    ..Fourteen genes were mapped to this region; of these, 11 were expressed in the skin (5 epidermic cytokeratin and 6 hard keratin genes), but none were mutated in hague mice. ..
  23. Zuo W, Zhang T, Wu D, Guan S, Liew A, Yamamoto Y, et al. p63(+)Krt5(+) distal airway stem cells are essential for lung regeneration. Nature. 2015;517:616-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to propagate these cells in culture while maintaining their intrinsic lineage commitment suggests their potential in stem cell-based therapies for acute and chronic lung diseases. ..
  24. Steinert P, Parry D, Racoosin E, Idler W, Steven A, Trus B, et al. The complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a type II mouse epidermal keratin of 60,000 Da: analysis of sequence differences between type I and type II keratins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:5709-13 pubmed
    ..According to the hypothesis that end-domains are located on the periphery of keratin filaments, we conclude that the corresponding mouse and human keratins are closely related, both structurally and functionally. ..