Gene Symbol: Krt5
Description: keratin 5
Alias: 3300001P10Rik, AW146334, CK5, Krt2-5, Tfip8, keratin, type II cytoskeletal 5, 58 kDa cytokeratin, CK-5, cytokeratin 5, keratin complex 2, basic, gene 5, krt5, tuftelin interacting protein 8, type-II keratin Kb5
Species: mouse
Products:     Krt5

Top Publications

  1. Revest J, Suniara R, Kerr K, Owen J, Dickson C. Development of the thymus requires signaling through the fibroblast growth factor receptor R2-IIIb. J Immunol. 2001;167:1954-61 pubmed
    ..In addition to the proliferative block, most thymic epithelial cells fail to progress from an immature cytokeratin 5-positive to a cytokeratin 5-negative phenotype...
  2. Gill J, Malin M, Hollander G, Boyd R. Generation of a complete thymic microenvironment by MTS24(+) thymic epithelial cells. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:635-42 pubmed
    ..These cells contained epithelial progenitor cells that were competent and sufficient to fully reconstitute the complex thymic epithelial microenvironment that supported normal T cell development. ..
  3. Liu C, Saito F, Liu Z, Lei Y, Uehara S, Love P, et al. Coordination between CCR7- and CCR9-mediated chemokine signals in prevascular fetal thymus colonization. Blood. 2006;108:2531-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate coordination between Gcm2-dependent parathyroid and Foxn1-dependent thymic primordia in establishing CCL21/CCR7- and CCL25/CCR9-mediated chemokine guidance essential for prevascular fetal thymus colonization. ..
  4. Van Keymeulen A, Mascre G, Youseff K, Harel I, Michaux C, De Geest N, et al. Epidermal progenitors give rise to Merkel cells during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:91-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that MCs arise from the epidermis by an Atoh1-dependent mechanism and opens new avenues for study of MC functions in sensory perception, neuroendocrine signaling, and MC carcinoma. ..
  5. Tadokoro T, Wang Y, Barak L, Bai Y, Randell S, Hogan B. IL-6/STAT3 promotes regeneration of airway ciliated cells from basal stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E3641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support a model in which IL-6, produced in the reparative niche, functions to enhance the differentiation of basal cells, and thereby acts as a "friend" to promote airway repair rather than a "foe." ..
  6. Byrne C, Tainsky M, Fuchs E. Programming gene expression in developing epidermis. Development. 1994;120:2369-83 pubmed
    ..Finally, using gene expression in cultured cells, we demonstrate that AP2 has a strong inductive effect on basal keratin expression in a cellular environment that does not normally possess AP2 activity. ..
  7. Griffith A, Cardenas K, Carter C, Gordon J, Iberg A, Engleka K, et al. Increased thymus- and decreased parathyroid-fated organ domains in Splotch mutant embryos. Dev Biol. 2009;327:216-27 pubmed publisher
  8. Lu H, Hesse M, Peters B, Magin T. Type II keratins precede type I keratins during early embryonic development. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:709-18 pubmed
    ..Whether the premature expression of type II keratins relates to their proposed role in TNF- and Fas-mediated signalling is presently unknown. ..
  9. Van Keymeulen A, Rocha A, Ousset M, Beck B, Bouvencourt G, Rock J, et al. Distinct stem cells contribute to mammary gland development and maintenance. Nature. 2011;479:189-93 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Dowling J, Yu Q, Fuchs E. Beta4 integrin is required for hemidesmosome formation, cell adhesion and cell survival. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:559-72 pubmed
  2. Volckaert T, Campbell A, Dill E, Li C, Minoo P, De Langhe S. Localized Fgf10 expression is not required for lung branching morphogenesis but prevents differentiation of epithelial progenitors. Development. 2013;140:3731-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, our data presented here show that once epithelial cells are committed to the Sox2-positive airway epithelial cell fate, Fgf10 prevents ciliated cell differentiation and promotes basal cell differentiation. ..
  3. Klug D, Carter C, Gimenez Conti I, Richie E. Cutting edge: thymocyte-independent and thymocyte-dependent phases of epithelial patterning in the fetal thymus. J Immunol. 2002;169:2842-5 pubmed
    ..However, thymocyte-derived signals are required during late fetal stages for continued development and maintenance of TEC subsets in the neonate and adult. ..
  4. Nguyen H, Merrill B, Polak L, Nikolova M, Rendl M, Shaver T, et al. Tcf3 and Tcf4 are essential for long-term homeostasis of skin epithelia. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1068-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We established roles for Tcf3 and Tcf4 in long-term maintenance and wound repair of both epidermis and hair follicles, suggesting that Tcf proteins have both Wnt-dependent and Wnt-independent roles in lineage determination. ..
  5. Akiyama T, Shimo Y, Yanai H, Qin J, Ohshima D, Maruyama Y, et al. The tumor necrosis factor family receptors RANK and CD40 cooperatively establish the thymic medullary microenvironment and self-tolerance. Immunity. 2008;29:423-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that developmental-stage-dependent cooperation between RANK and CD40 promotes mTEC development, thereby establishing self-tolerance. ..
  6. Romano R, Ortt K, Birkaya B, Smalley K, Sinha S. An active role of the DeltaN isoform of p63 in regulating basal keratin genes K5 and K14 and directing epidermal cell fate. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5623 pubmed publisher
    ..DeltaNp63 is a critical mediator of keratinocyte stratification program and directly regulates the basal keratin genes. ..
  7. Rhee H, Polak L, Fuchs E. Lhx2 maintains stem cell character in hair follicles. Science. 2006;312:1946-9 pubmed
    ..Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we uncovered a role for Lhx2 in maintaining the growth and undifferentiated properties of hair follicle progenitors. ..
  8. Ezhkova E, Pasolli H, Parker J, Stokes N, Su I, Hannon G, et al. Ezh2 orchestrates gene expression for the stepwise differentiation of tissue-specific stem cells. Cell. 2009;136:1122-35 pubmed publisher
    ..They maintain their proliferative potential and globally repressing undesirable differentiation programs while selectively establishing a specific terminal differentiation program in a stepwise fashion. ..
  9. Kobielak K, Pasolli H, Alonso L, Polak L, Fuchs E. Defining BMP functions in the hair follicle by conditional ablation of BMP receptor IA. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:609-23 pubmed
  10. Zamisch M, Moore Scott B, Su D, Lucas P, Manley N, Richie E. Ontogeny and regulation of IL-7-expressing thymic epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2005;174:60-7 pubmed
  11. Raveh E, Cohen S, Levanon D, Negreanu V, Groner Y, Gat U. Dynamic expression of Runx1 in skin affects hair structure. Mech Dev. 2006;123:842-50 pubmed
    ..The data delineate Runx1 as a novel specific marker of several hair follicle cell types and sheds light on its role in hair morphogenesis and differentiation. ..
  12. Ousset M, Van Keymeulen A, Bouvencourt G, Sharma N, Achouri Y, Simons B, et al. Multipotent and unipotent progenitors contribute to prostate postnatal development. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:1131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncover the cellular hierarchy acting during prostate development and will be instrumental in defining the cellular origin and the mechanisms underlying prostate cancer initiation. ..
  13. Grimm S, Bu W, Longley M, Roop D, Li Y, Rosen J. Keratin 6 is not essential for mammary gland development. Breast Cancer Res. 2006;8:R29 pubmed
    ..There was also increased co-localization of PR and bromodeoxyuridine, suggesting alterations in patterning events important for normal lobuloalveolar development. ..
  14. Yano M, Kuroda N, Han H, Meguro Horike M, Nishikawa Y, Kiyonari H, et al. Aire controls the differentiation program of thymic epithelial cells in the medulla for the establishment of self-tolerance. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2827-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Aire controls the differentiation program of mTECs, thereby organizing the global mTEC integrity that enables TRA expression from terminally differentiated mTECs in the thymic microenvironment. ..
  15. Zenz R, Scheuch H, Martin P, Frank C, Eferl R, Kenner L, et al. c-Jun regulates eyelid closure and skin tumor development through EGFR signaling. Dev Cell. 2003;4:879-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, using three experimental systems, we show that EGFR and HB-EGF are regulated by c-Jun, which controls eyelid development, keratinocyte proliferation, and skin tumor formation. ..
  16. Liu B, Liu Y, Du Y, Mardaryev A, Yang W, Chen H, et al. Cbx4 regulates the proliferation of thymic epithelial cells and thymus function. Development. 2013;140:780-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data establish Cbx4 as a crucial regulator for the generation and maintenance of the thymic epithelium and, hence, for thymocyte development...
  17. Okubo T, Clark C, Hogan B. Cell lineage mapping of taste bud cells and keratinocytes in the mouse tongue and soft palate. Stem Cells. 2009;27:442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are also compatible with models in which the keratinocytes of the filiform and fungiform papillae are derived from basal progenitor cells localized at the base of these structures...
  18. Horsley V, Aliprantis A, Polak L, Glimcher L, Fuchs E. NFATc1 balances quiescence and proliferation of skin stem cells. Cell. 2008;132:299-310 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may explain why patients receiving cyclosporine A for immunosuppressive therapy display excessive hair growth, and unveil a functional role for calcium-NFATc1-CDK4 circuitry in governing stem cell quiescence. ..
  19. Yi R, O Carroll D, Pasolli H, Zhang Z, Dietrich F, Tarakhovsky A, et al. Morphogenesis in skin is governed by discrete sets of differentially expressed microRNAs. Nat Genet. 2006;38:356-62 pubmed
    ..Here we characterize miRNAs in skin, the existence of which was hitherto unappreciated, and demonstrate their differential expression and importance in the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues within this vital organ. ..
  20. Blanpain C, Lowry W, Pasolli H, Fuchs E. Canonical notch signaling functions as a commitment switch in the epidermal lineage. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3022-35 pubmed
  21. Kaufman C, Zhou P, Pasolli H, Rendl M, Bolotin D, Lim K, et al. GATA-3: an unexpected regulator of cell lineage determination in skin. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2108-22 pubmed
    ..This newfound function for GATA-3 in skin development strengthens the parallels between the differentiation programs governing hair follicle and lymphocyte differentiation. ..
  22. Fiorini E, Ferrero I, Merck E, Favre S, Pierres M, Luther S, et al. Cutting edge: thymic crosstalk regulates delta-like 4 expression on cortical epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:8199-203 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data support a model where thymic crosstalk quantitatively regulates the rate of Notch1-dependent thymopoiesis by controlling DL4 expression levels on cTEC. ..
  23. Nishikawa Y, Hirota F, Yano M, Kitajima H, Miyazaki J, Kawamoto H, et al. Biphasic Aire expression in early embryos and in medullary thymic epithelial cells before end-stage terminal differentiation. J Exp Med. 2010;207:963-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This close proximity may contribute to transfer of tissue-restricted self-antigens expressed by mTECs to professional antigen-presenting cells. ..
  24. Stoler A, Kopan R, Duvic M, Fuchs E. Use of monospecific antisera and cRNA probes to localize the major changes in keratin expression during normal and abnormal epidermal differentiation. J Cell Biol. 1988;107:427-46 pubmed
    ..These data have important implications for our understanding of normal epidermal differentiation and the deviations from this process in the course of epidermal diseases of hyperproliferation. ..
  25. Heinonen K, Vanegas J, Brochu S, Shan J, Vainio S, Perreault C. Wnt4 regulates thymic cellularity through the expansion of thymic epithelial cells and early thymic progenitors. Blood. 2011;118:5163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt4 and its downstream signaling pathways could thus represent interesting candidates to improve thymic output in subjects with thymic atrophy. ..
  26. Raines A, Adam M, Magella B, Meyer S, Grimes H, Dey S, et al. Recombineering-based dissection of flanking and paralogous Hox gene functions in mouse reproductive tracts. Development. 2013;140:2942-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify novel molecular functions of Hox genes in the development of the male and female reproductive tracts. ..
  27. Takeda N, Jain R, LeBoeuf M, Padmanabhan A, Wang Q, Li L, et al. Hopx expression defines a subset of multipotent hair follicle stem cells and a progenitor population primed to give rise to K6+ niche cells. Development. 2013;140:1655-64 pubmed publisher
  28. Gaete M, Fons J, Popa E, Chatzeli L, Tucker A. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation. Biol Open. 2015;4:1625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2(+)/Sox9(+) cells. ..
  29. Daniely Y, Liao G, Dixon D, Linnoila R, Lori A, Randell S, et al. Critical role of p63 in the development of a normal esophageal and tracheobronchial epithelium. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;287:C171-81 pubmed
  30. Szymaniak A, Mahoney J, Cardoso W, Varelas X. Crumbs3-Mediated Polarity Directs Airway Epithelial Cell Fate through the Hippo Pathway Effector Yap. Dev Cell. 2015;34:283-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that polarity-dependent cues control airway cell differentiation, offering important molecular insights into organ patterning. ..
  31. Darido C, Georgy S, Wilanowski T, Dworkin S, Auden A, Zhao Q, et al. Targeting of the tumor suppressor GRHL3 by a miR-21-dependent proto-oncogenic network results in PTEN loss and tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data define the GRHL3-PTEN axis as a critical tumor suppressor pathway in SCC. ..
  32. Folgueras A, Guo X, Pasolli H, Stokes N, Polak L, Zheng D, et al. Architectural niche organization by LHX2 is linked to hair follicle stem cell function. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:314-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that niche organization underlies the requirement for LHX2 in hair follicle structure and function. ..
  33. HogenEsch H, Boggess D, Sundberg J. Changes in keratin and filaggrin expression in the skin of chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm) mutant mice. Pathobiology. 1999;67:45-50 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the differentiation of keratinocytes in cpdm/cpdm mice was normal. The altered distribution and expression of keratins in comparison with the skin of control mice was the result of hyperproliferation. ..
  34. Wang W, Kissig M, Rajakumari S, Huang L, Lim H, Won K, et al. Ebf2 is a selective marker of brown and beige adipogenic precursor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:14466-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results indicate that Ebf2 specifically marks and regulates the molecular profile of brown preadipose cells. ..
  35. Zhu X, Yuan X, Wang M, Fang Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, et al. A Wnt/Notch/Pax7 signaling network supports tissue integrity in tongue development. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9409-9419 pubmed publisher
  36. Jin J, Desai B, Navarro B, Donovan A, Andrews N, Clapham D. Deletion of Trpm7 disrupts embryonic development and thymopoiesis without altering Mg2+ homeostasis. Science. 2008;322:756-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The thymic medullary cells lost signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activity, which accounts for their depletion when Trpm7 is disrupted in thymocytes. ..
  37. Heinzel K, Bleul C. The Foxn1-dependent transcripts PCOLCE2 and mPPP1R16B are not required for normal thymopoiesis. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:2562-71 pubmed
    ..While there is no evidence for a functional role of PCOLCE2 and mPPP1R16B in thymus development, our results suggest that the lack of thymopoiesis in Foxn1-deficient mice is caused by multiple functional defects. ..
  38. Tadokoro T, Gao X, Hong C, Hotten D, Hogan B. BMP signaling and cellular dynamics during regeneration of airway epithelium from basal progenitors. Development. 2016;143:764-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results reveal crucial roles for both BMP signaling and cell shedding in homeostasis of the respiratory epithelium. ..
  39. Ganuza M, Saiz Ladera C, Canamero M, Gomez G, Schneider R, Blasco M, et al. Genetic inactivation of Cdk7 leads to cell cycle arrest and induces premature aging due to adult stem cell exhaustion. EMBO J. 2012;31:2498-510 pubmed publisher
    ..This process, a physiological attempt to maintain tissue homeostasis, led to the attrition of adult stem cell pools and to the appearance of age-related phenotypes, including telomere shortening and early death. ..
  40. Lungová V, Verheyden J, Herriges J, Sun X, Thibeault S. Ontogeny of the mouse vocal fold epithelium. Dev Biol. 2015;399:263-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This study defines the cellular and molecular context and serves as the necessary foundation for future functional investigations of VF formation. ..
  41. Hoelzl M, Heby Henricson K, Gerling M, Dias J, Kuiper R, Trünkle C, et al. Differential requirement of SUFU in tissue development discovered in a hypomorphic mouse model. Dev Biol. 2017;429:132-146 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that tissue development is differentially affected in response to the reduced SUFU levels, providing novel insight regarding the requirements of different levels of SUFU for proper organogenesis. ..
  42. Kartasova T, Roop D, Holbrook K, Yuspa S. Mouse differentiation-specific keratins 1 and 10 require a preexisting keratin scaffold to form a filament network. J Cell Biol. 1993;120:1251-61 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, restrictions on filament formation appear to be more stringent for K10 than for K1. ..
  43. Poirier C, Yoshiki A, Fujiwara K, Guenet J, Kusakabe M. Hague (Hag). A new mouse hair mutation with an unstable semidominant allele. Genetics. 2002;162:831-40 pubmed
    ..Fourteen genes were mapped to this region; of these, 11 were expressed in the skin (5 epidermic cytokeratin and 6 hard keratin genes), but none were mutated in hague mice. ..
  44. Mailleux A, Overholtzer M, Schmelzle T, Bouillet P, Strasser A, Brugge J. BIM regulates apoptosis during mammary ductal morphogenesis, and its absence reveals alternative cell death mechanisms. Dev Cell. 2007;12:221-34 pubmed
    ..These data provide important mechanistic information on the processes involved in sculpting the mammary gland and demonstrate that BIM is a critical regulator of apoptosis in vivo. ..
  45. Wang S, Komatsu Y, Mishina Y. Potential contribution of neural crest cells to dental enamel formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our unanticipated finding may change the general understanding of tooth development and provide new insights into dental stem cell biology. ..
  46. Williams S, Ratliff L, Postiglione M, Knoblich J, Fuchs E. Par3-mInsc and G?i3 cooperate to promote oriented epidermal cell divisions through LGN. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:758-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we uncover a developmental switch between delamination-driven early stratification and spindle-orientation-dependent differentiation that occurs around E15, revealing a two-step mechanism underlying epidermal maturation. ..
  47. Lomada D, Liu B, Coghlan L, Hu Y, Richie E. Thymus medulla formation and central tolerance are restored in IKKalpha-/- mice that express an IKKalpha transgene in keratin 5+ thymic epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:829-37 pubmed
  48. Vaughan A, Brumwell A, Xi Y, Gotts J, Brownfield D, Treutlein B, et al. Lineage-negative progenitors mobilize to regenerate lung epithelium after major injury. Nature. 2015;517:621-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Quiescent LNEPs activate a ?Np63 (a p63 splice variant) and cytokeratin 5 remodelling program after influenza or bleomycin injury in mice...
  49. Chatzeli L, Gaete M, Tucker A. Fgf10 and Sox9 are essential for the establishment of distal progenitor cells during mouse salivary gland development. Development. 2017;144:2294-2305 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insights into the factors required for the expansion of salivary gland epithelial progenitors, which can be useful for organ regeneration therapy. ..
  50. Calderón L, Boehm T. Three chemokine receptors cooperatively regulate homing of hematopoietic progenitors to the embryonic mouse thymus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7517-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal the redundant roles of Ccr9, Ccr7, and Cxcr4 for thymic homing and provide a framework to examine the regulation of progenitor homing in the postnatal thymus. ..
  51. Bell S, Zhang L, Mendell A, Xu Y, Haitchi H, Lessard J, et al. Kruppel-like factor 5 is required for formation and differentiation of the bladder urothelium. Dev Biol. 2011;358:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of Klf5 from the developing bladder urothelium blocked epithelial cell differentiation, impaired bladder morphogenesis and function causing hydroureter and hydronephrosis at birth. ..
  52. Sevilla L, Latorre V, Sanchis A, Perez P. Epidermal inactivation of the glucocorticoid receptor triggers skin barrier defects and cutaneous inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:361-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results show that epidermal loss of GR provokes skin barrier defects and cutaneous inflammation...
  53. Alfaro D, Muñoz J, García Ceca J, Cejalvo T, Jiménez E, Zapata A. Alterations in the thymocyte phenotype of EphB-deficient mice largely affect the double negative cell compartment. Immunology. 2008;125:131-43 pubmed publisher
  54. Zhu X, Zhu H, Zhang L, Huang S, Cao J, Ma G, et al. Wls-mediated Wnts differentially regulate distal limb patterning and tissue morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;365:328-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a comprehensive view of the role of Wnts in limb patterning and tissue morphogenesis...
  55. Chakravarti D, Su X, Cho M, Bui N, Coarfa C, Venkatanarayan A, et al. Induced multipotency in adult keratinocytes through down-regulation of ?Np63 or DGCR8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E572-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a role for ?Np63 in the transcriptional regulation of DGCR8 to reprogram adult somatic cells into multipotent stem cells. ..
  56. Runck L, Method A, Bischoff A, Levitt M, Pena A, Collins M, et al. Defining the molecular pathologies in cloaca malformation: similarities between mouse and human. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, deranged Shh and BMP signaling is correlated with severe anorectal malformations in both mouse and humans. ..
  57. Torchia E, Zhang L, Huebner A, Sen S, Roop D. Aurora kinase-A deficiency during skin development impairs cell division and stratification. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:78-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the deletion of Aurora-A in the developing epidermis alters centrosome function of basal keratinocytes and markedly impairs their ability to divide and stratify. ..
  58. Mori M, Mahoney J, Stupnikov M, Paez Cortez J, Szymaniak A, Varelas X, et al. Notch3-Jagged signaling controls the pool of undifferentiated airway progenitors. Development. 2015;142:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of human lungs showing similar abnormalities and decreased NOTCH3 expression in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suggests an involvement of NOTCH3-dependent events in the pathogenesis of this condition. ..
  59. Mamo T, Wittern A, Kleppa M, Bohnenpoll T, Weiss A, Kispert A. BMP4 uses several different effector pathways to regulate proliferation and differentiation in the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the developing mouse ureter. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:3553-3563 pubmed publisher
  60. Li J, Zhao Z, Carter C, Ehrlich L, Bedford M, Richie E. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates fetal hematopoiesis and thymocyte development. J Immunol. 2013;190:597-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this report demonstrates that CARM1 is a key epigenetic regulator of hematopoiesis that affects multiple lineages at various stages of differentiation. ..
  61. Okano J, Levy C, Lichti U, Sun H, Yuspa S, Sakai Y, et al. Cutaneous retinoic acid levels determine hair follicle development and downgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39304-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish that proper RA distribution is essential for morphogenesis, development, and differentiation of hfs...
  62. Gandhi D, Molotkov A, Batourina E, Schneider K, Dan H, Reiley M, et al. Retinoid signaling in progenitors controls specification and regeneration of the urothelium. Dev Cell. 2013;26:469-482 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations have important implications for tissue engineering and repair and, ultimately, may lead to treatments that prevent loss of the urothelial barrier, a major cause of voiding dysfunction and bladder pain syndrome. ..
  63. Pearson H, Perez Mancera P, Dow L, Ryan A, Tennstedt P, Bogani D, et al. SCRIB expression is deregulated in human prostate cancer, and its deficiency in mice promotes prostate neoplasia. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the polarity network could provide a new avenue for therapeutic intervention. ..
  64. Akiyama T, Maeda S, Yamane S, Ogino K, Kasai M, Kajiura F, et al. Dependence of self-tolerance on TRAF6-directed development of thymic stroma. Science. 2005;308:248-51 pubmed
    ..Engraftment of thymic stroma of TRAF6(-/-) embryos into athymic nude mice induced autoimmunity. Thus, TRAF6 directs the development of thymic stroma and represents a critical point of regulation for self-tolerance and autoimmunity. ..
  65. Beronja S, Janki P, Heller E, Lien W, Keyes B, Oshimori N, et al. RNAi screens in mice identify physiological regulators of oncogenic growth. Nature. 2013;501:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..By documenting some oncogenic growth regulators, we pave the way for future investigations of other hits and raise promise for unearthing new targets for cancer therapies. ..
  66. Cangkrama M, Darido C, Georgy S, Partridge D, Auden A, Srivastava S, et al. Two Ancient Gene Families Are Critical for Maintenance of the Mammalian Skin Barrier in Postnatal Life. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1438-1448 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define the molecular safeguards for barrier function that accompany the transition from intrauterine to terrestrial life. ..
  67. Akiyama N, Takizawa N, Miyauchi M, Yanai H, Tateishi R, Shinzawa M, et al. Identification of embryonic precursor cells that differentiate into thymic epithelial cells expressing autoimmune regulator. J Exp Med. 2016;213:1441-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings identified two novel stages in the differentiation program of Aire(+) mTECs. ..
  68. Bayo P, Sanchis A, Bravo A, Cascallana J, Buder K, Tuckermann J, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor is required for skin barrier competence. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1377-88 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the epidermis of GR(+/dim) and GR(dim/dim) embryos appeared normal, thus suggesting that DNA-binding-independent actions of GR are sufficient to mediate epidermal and hair follicle development during embryogenesis. ..
  69. Roth W, Reuter U, Wohlenberg C, Bruckner Tuderman L, Magin T. Cytokines as genetic modifiers in K5-/- mice and in human epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Hum Mutat. 2009;30:832-41 pubmed publisher
    Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is a skin disorder caused by fully-penetrant mutations in the keratin genes KRT5 and KRT14, leading to extensive cytolysis and cell fragility of basal keratinocytes...
  70. Byrd K, Lough K, Patel J, Descovich C, Curtis T, Williams S. LGN plays distinct roles in oral epithelial stratification, filiform papilla morphogenesis and hair follicle development. Development. 2016;143:2803-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, LGN has crucial tissue-specific functions in patterning surface ectoderm and its appendages by controlling division orientation. ..
  71. Yi R, Poy M, Stoffel M, Fuchs E. A skin microRNA promotes differentiation by repressing 'stemness'. Nature. 2008;452:225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that miR-203 defines a molecular boundary between proliferative basal progenitors and terminally differentiating suprabasal cells, ensuring proper identity of neighbouring layers. ..
  72. Sun P, Yuan Y, Li A, Li B, Dai X. Cytokeratin expression during mouse embryonic and early postnatal mammary gland development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2010;133:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..double/triple-label immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry to systematically compare the expression of cytokeratin 5 (K5), cytokeratin 6 (K6), cytokeratin 8 (K8), cytokeratin 14 (K14) and cytokeratin 19 (K19) in embryonic and ..
  73. Suzuki D, Sahu R, Leu N, Senoo M. The carboxy-terminus of p63 links cell cycle control and the proliferative potential of epidermal progenitor cells. Development. 2015;142:282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the p63 C-terminus links cell cycle control and the proliferative potential of epidermal progenitor cells via mechanisms that equilibrate TAp63 and ΔNp63 isoform function. ..
  74. Niu Y, Wang J, Shang Z, Huang S, Shyr C, Yeh S, et al. Increased CK5/CK8-positive intermediate cells with stromal smooth muscle cell atrophy in the mice lacking prostate epithelial androgen receptor. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20202 pubmed publisher
    ..AR have increased apoptosis in epithelial CK8-positive luminal cells and increased proliferation in epithelial CK5-positive basal cells...
  75. Colopy S, Bjorling D, Mulligan W, Bushman W. A population of progenitor cells in the basal and intermediate layers of the murine bladder urothelium contributes to urothelial development and regeneration. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:988-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence and proliferation of LRCs within both the K5-BC and intermediate cell layers suggests the presence of two populations of urothelial progenitor cells. ..
  76. Inaba H, Yamakawa D, Tomono Y, Enomoto A, Mii S, Kasahara K, et al. Regulation of keratin 5/14 intermediate filaments by CDK1, Aurora-B, and Rho-kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;498:544-550 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that mitotic reorganization of K5/K14-IF network is governed largely through K5 phosphorylation by CDK1, Aurora-B, and Rho-kinase. ..
  77. Rodriguez P, da Silva S, Oxburgh L, Wang F, Hogan B, Que J. BMP signaling in the development of the mouse esophagus and forestomach. Development. 2010;137:4171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest multiple roles for BMP signaling in the developing esophagus and forestomach. ..
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