Gene Symbol: Krt19
Description: keratin 19
Alias: AI663979, CK-19, EndoC, K19, Krt-1.19, Krt1-19, keratin, type I cytoskeletal 19, cytokeratin 19, keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 19
Species: mouse
Products:     Krt19

Top Publications

  1. Deramaudt T, Sachdeva M, Wescott M, Chen Y, Stoffers D, Rustgi A. The PDX1 homeodomain transcription factor negatively regulates the pancreatic ductal cell-specific keratin 19 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38385-95 pubmed
    ..We find that this down-regulation may be required for normal ductal expression of cytokeratin K19. The K19 promoter-reporter gene assay demonstrates that ectopic PDX1 inhibits K19 reporter gene activity in primary ..
  2. Ichinose Y, Hashido K, Miyamoto H, Nagata T, Nozaki M, Morita T, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding mouse cytokeratin no. 19. Gene. 1989;80:315-23 pubmed
    ..This pattern of expression is very similar to that for the mouse gene encoding extra-embryonic endodermal cytoskeletal protein C (EndoC), suggesting they may be the same.
  3. Blyszczuk P, Asbrand C, Rozzo A, Kania G, St Onge L, Rupnik M, et al. Embryonic stem cells differentiate into insulin-producing cells without selection of nestin-expressing cells. Int J Dev Biol. 2004;48:1095-104 pubmed
    ..Islet-like clusters are characterized by expression of C-peptide, insulin and partially cytokeratin 19 as well as by ion channel activity similar to that found in embryonic beta cells...
  4. Maurer J, Nelson B, Cecena G, Bajpai R, Mercola M, Terskikh A, et al. Contrasting expression of keratins in mouse and human embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3451 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse ES cells express very low levels of the simple epithelial keratins K8, K18 and K19. By contrast hES cells express moderate levels of the RNAs for these intermediate filament proteins as do mouse ..
  5. Lu H, Hesse M, Peters B, Magin T. Type II keratins precede type I keratins during early embryonic development. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:709-18 pubmed
    ..At E0.5, transcripts encoding K5, K6, K7, K8, K14, K15, K18, and K19 are apparently absent...
  6. Watson E, Geary Joo C, Hughes M, Cross J. The Mrj co-chaperone mediates keratin turnover and prevents the formation of toxic inclusion bodies in trophoblast cells of the placenta. Development. 2007;134:1809-17 pubmed
  7. Nozaki M, Mori M, Matsushiro A. The complete sequence of the gene encoding mouse cytokeratin 15. Gene. 1994;138:197-200 pubmed
    To characterize the type-I keratin-encoding gene family around the mouse keratin 19-encoding gene (K19, EndoC), which encodes simple epithelial-type cytokeratin (CK), we screened a mouse genomic library by hybridization to a K19 cDNA ..
  8. Stone M, O Neill A, Lovering R, Strong J, Resneck W, Reed P, et al. Absence of keratin 19 in mice causes skeletal myopathy with mitochondrial and sarcolemmal reorganization. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3999-4008 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of a mammalian phenotype associated with a genetic perturbation of keratin 19. ..
  9. Takase H, Itoh T, Ino S, Wang T, Koji T, Akira S, et al. FGF7 is a functional niche signal required for stimulation of adult liver progenitor cells that support liver regeneration. Genes Dev. 2013;27:169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the cellular and molecular basis for LPC regulation and identify FGF7 as a potential therapeutic target for liver diseases. ..

More Information


  1. Toivola D, Nakamichi I, Strnad P, Michie S, Ghori N, Harada M, et al. Keratin overexpression levels correlate with the extent of spontaneous pancreatic injury. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:882-92 pubmed publisher
    ..exocrine pancreas K8 and K18 are dispensable and are co-expressed with limited levels of membrane-proximal K19 and K20...
  2. Ursitti J, Lee P, Resneck W, McNally M, Bowman A, O Neill A, et al. Cloning and characterization of cytokeratins 8 and 19 in adult rat striated muscle. Interaction with the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41830-8 pubmed
    ..filament proteins in reverse transcriptase-PCR experiments to identify and clone cytokeratins 8 and 19 (K8 and K19) from cardiac muscle of the adult rat. Northern blots showed that K8 has a 2.2-kb transcript and K19 has a 1...
  3. Micsenyi A, Tan X, Sneddon T, Luo J, Michalopoulos G, Monga S. Beta-catenin is temporally regulated during normal liver development. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1134-46 pubmed
    ..Nuclear and cytoplasmic beta-catenin corresponded to cell proliferation in liver development. Finally, a smaller-molecular-weight species of beta-catenin might be maintaining normal interactions at the membrane. ..
  4. Gu B, Sun P, Yuan Y, Moraes R, Li A, Teng A, et al. Pygo2 expands mammary progenitor cells by facilitating histone H3 K4 methylation. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:811-26 pubmed publisher
  5. Lovering R, O Neill A, Muriel J, Prosser B, Strong J, Bloch R. Physiology, structure, and susceptibility to injury of skeletal muscle in mice lacking keratin 19-based and desmin-based intermediate filaments. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;300:C803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous results show that the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of mice lacking keratin 19 (K19) lose costameres, accumulate mitochondria under the sarcolemma, and generate lower specific tension than controls...
  6. Solar M, Cardalda C, Houbracken I, Martin M, Maestro M, De Medts N, et al. Pancreatic exocrine duct cells give rise to insulin-producing beta cells during embryogenesis but not after birth. Dev Cell. 2009;17:849-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, once the ductal epithelium differentiates it has a restricted plasticity, even under regenerative settings. ..
  7. Tamai Y, Ishikawa T, Bösl M, Mori M, Nozaki M, Baribault H, et al. Cytokeratins 8 and 19 in the mouse placental development. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:563-72 pubmed
    To investigate the expression and biological roles of cytokeratin 19 (K19) in development and in adult tissues, we inactivated the mouse K19 gene (Krt1-19) by inserting a bacterial beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ) by homologous ..
  8. Means A, Xu Y, Zhao A, Ray K, Gu G. A CK19(CreERT) knockin mouse line allows for conditional DNA recombination in epithelial cells in multiple endodermal organs. Genesis. 2008;46:318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..of a K19(CreERT) mouse line in which the tamoxifen-activable CreER(T) was knocked into the endogenous cytokeratin 19 locus...
  9. Youssef K, Van Keymeulen A, Lapouge G, Beck B, Michaux C, Achouri Y, et al. Identification of the cell lineage at the origin of basal cell carcinoma. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:299-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies uncover the cells at the origin of BCC in mice and demonstrate that expression of differentiation markers in tumour cells is not necessarily predictive of the cancer initiating cells...
  10. Hesse M, Franz T, Tamai Y, Taketo M, Magin T. Targeted deletion of keratins 18 and 19 leads to trophoblast fragility and early embryonic lethality. EMBO J. 2000;19:5060-70 pubmed
    ..These findings have generated considerable confusion about the function of K8, K18 and K19 that are co-expressed in the mouse blastocyst and internal epithelia...
  11. Harada N, Tamai Y, Ishikawa T, Sauer B, Takaku K, Oshima M, et al. Intestinal polyposis in mice with a dominant stable mutation of the beta-catenin gene. EMBO J. 1999;18:5931-42 pubmed
    ..Some nascent microadenomas were also found in the colon. These results present experimental genetic evidence that activation of the Wnt signaling pathway can cause intestinal and colonic tumors. ..
  12. Lapouge G, Youssef K, Vokaer B, Achouri Y, Michaux C, Sotiropoulou P, et al. Identifying the cellular origin of squamous skin tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate that different epidermal lineages including bulge SC are competent to initiate papilloma formation and that multiple genetic hits in the context of oncogenic KRas are required for the development of invasive SCC. ..
  13. Sekiya S, Suzuki A. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma can arise from Notch-mediated conversion of hepatocytes. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3914-8 pubmed
    ..These findings will help to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of ICC and to develop therapeutic strategies for this refractory disease. ..
  14. Yimlamai D, Christodoulou C, Galli G, Yanger K, Pepe Mooney B, Gurung B, et al. Hippo pathway activity influences liver cell fate. Cell. 2014;157:1324-38 pubmed publisher
  15. Lussier M, Ouellet T, Lampron C, Lapointe L, Royal A. Mouse keratin 19: complete amino acid sequence and gene expression during development. Gene. 1989;85:435-44 pubmed
    The complete amino acid sequence of the mouse keratin 19 (K19) was determined from a partial sequence of cDNA isolated from a mouse (day 10.5) embryo library and an amplified genomic fragment...
  16. Lussier M, Filion M, Compton J, Nadeau J, Lapointe L, Royal A. The mouse keratin 19-encoding gene: sequence, structure and chromosomal assignment. Gene. 1990;95:203-13 pubmed
    Keratin 19 (K19) is synthesized mainly in embryonic and adult simple epithelia, but has also been found in stratified epithelia as well...
  17. Van Keymeulen A, Rocha A, Ousset M, Beck B, Bouvencourt G, Rock J, et al. Distinct stem cells contribute to mammary gland development and maintenance. Nature. 2011;479:189-93 pubmed publisher
  18. Nagahama Y, Sone M, Chen X, Okada Y, Yamamoto M, Xin B, et al. Contributions of hepatocytes and bile ductular cells in ductular reactions and remodeling of the biliary system after chronic liver injury. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:3001-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that hepatocytes and bile ducts or ductules are important sources of ductular reaction and that the intrahepatic biliary system undergoes remarkable remodeling in response to chronic liver injury. ..
  19. Hayhurst G, Strick Marchand H, Mulet C, Richard A, Morosan S, Kremsdorf D, et al. Morphogenetic competence of HNF4 alpha-deficient mouse hepatic cells. J Hepatol. 2008;49:384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the lack of epithelialization characteristic of the HNF4 alpha-null embryonic liver is due, at least in part, to non-cell autonomous defects, and that null cells do not suffer intrinsic defects in polarization. ..
  20. Gieseck R, Ramalingam T, Hart K, Vannella K, Cantu D, Lu W, et al. Interleukin-13 Activates Distinct Cellular Pathways Leading to Ductular Reaction, Steatosis, and Fibrosis. Immunity. 2016;45:145-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it may be possible to promote interleukin-13-dependent hepatobiliary expansion without generating pathological fibrosis. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  21. Nikolaou K, Moulos P, Chalepakis G, Hatzis P, Oda H, Reinberg D, et al. Spontaneous development of hepatocellular carcinoma with cancer stem cell properties in PR-SET7-deficient livers. EMBO J. 2015;34:430-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatocellular carcinoma in PR-SET7-deficient mice displays a cancer stem cell gene signature specified by the co-expression of ductal progenitor markers and oncofetal genes. ..
  22. Song H, Mak K, Topol L, Yun K, Hu J, Garrett L, et al. Mammalian Mst1 and Mst2 kinases play essential roles in organ size control and tumor suppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1431-6 pubmed publisher
  23. Hand N, Master Z, Eauclaire S, Weinblatt D, Matthews R, Friedman J. The microRNA-30 family is required for vertebrate hepatobiliary development. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1081-90 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these, the biliary miRNA miR-30a, is required for biliary development in zebrafish. This is the first demonstration of a functional role for miRNA in hepatic organogenesis. ..
  24. Matondo R, Toussaint M, Govaert K, van Vuuren L, Nantasanti S, Nijkamp M, et al. Surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation initiate cancer in cytokeratin-19+- liver cells deficient for p53 and Rb. Oncotarget. 2016;7:54662-54675 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that human liver patients with hepatitis B and C viral infection or with mutations for p53 and Rb are at high risk to develop tumors at the surgical intervention site. ..
  25. Means A, Chytil A, Moses H, Coffey R, Wright C, Taketo M, et al. Keratin 19 gene drives Cre recombinase expression throughout the early postimplantation mouse embryo. Genesis. 2005;42:23-7 pubmed
  26. Wögenstein K, Szabo S, Lunova M, Wiche G, Haybaeck J, Strnad P, et al. Epiplakin deficiency aggravates murine caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and favors the formation of acinar keratin granules. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108323 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data propose epiplakin to be a protective protein during acute pancreatitis, and that its loss causes impaired disease-associated keratin reorganization. ..
  27. Sekiya S, Suzuki A. Hepatocytes, rather than cholangiocytes, can be the major source of primitive ductules in the chronically injured mouse liver. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1468-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should be valuable in elucidating the mechanism of liver regeneration associated with the fate-conversion of hepatocytes and in developing therapeutic strategies for liver diseases. ..
  28. Cordi S, Godard C, Saandi T, Jacquemin P, Monga S, Colnot S, et al. Role of β-catenin in development of bile ducts. Differentiation. 2016;91:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work is expected to significantly impact on in vitro differentiation of stem cells to cholangiocytes for toxicology studies and disease modeling. ..
  29. Takahashi N, Ko M. The short 3'-end region of complementary DNAs as PCR-based polymorphic markers for an expression map of the mouse genome. Genomics. 1993;16:161-8 pubmed
  30. Pan F, Bankaitis E, Boyer D, Xu X, Van De Casteele M, Magnuson M, et al. Spatiotemporal patterns of multipotentiality in Ptf1a-expressing cells during pancreas organogenesis and injury-induced facultative restoration. Development. 2013;140:751-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we show that acinar cells, without exogenously introduced factors, can regain aspects of embryonic multipotentiality under injury, and convert into mature ?-cells...
  31. Schievenbusch S, Sauer E, Curth H, Schulte S, Demir M, Toex U, et al. Neighbor of Punc E 11: expression pattern of the new hepatic stem/progenitor cell marker during murine liver development. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:2656-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Nope should be most useful in future research to define the differentiation stage of hepatic-specified cells of various sources and is a promising candidate to identify and isolate hepatic stem cells from the adult liver. ..
  32. Guest R, Boulter L, Kendall T, Minnis Lyons S, Walker R, Wigmore S, et al. Cell lineage tracing reveals a biliary origin of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 2014;74:1005-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data prove that in the context of chronic inflammation and p53 loss, frequent occurrences in human disease, biliary epithelia are a target of transformation and an origin of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. ..
  33. Appert A, Fridmacher V, Locquet O, Magre S. Patterns of keratins 8, 18 and 19 during gonadal differentiation in the mouse: sex- and time-dependent expression of keratin 19. Differentiation. 1998;63:273-84 pubmed
    The acidic keratins K18 and K19 have been shown to display a sex-specific expression during gonadal differentiation in the rat...
  34. Nakhai H, Siveke J, Klein B, Mendoza Torres L, Mazur P, Algül H, et al. Conditional ablation of Notch signaling in pancreatic development. Development. 2008;135:2757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our findings suggest that in late stages of pancreatic development exocrine cell differentiation and maintenance are independent of Rbpj. ..
  35. Buresh R, Kuslak S, Rusch M, Vezina C, Selleck S, Marker P. Sulfatase 1 is an inhibitor of ductal morphogenesis with sexually dimorphic expression in the urogenital sinus. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3420-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify sulfatase 1 as an inhibitor of prostatic branching morphogenesis and growth factor signaling that is down-regulated as part of the normal response to androgen action in the male urogenital sinus...
  36. Tao G, Toivola D, Zhong B, Michie S, Resurreccion E, Tamai Y, et al. Keratin-8 null mice have different gallbladder and liver susceptibility to lithogenic diet-induced injury. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4629-38 pubmed
    ..keratin expression pattern and filament organization in normal and keratin polypeptide-8 (K8)-null, K18-null and K19-null gallbladders, and examined susceptibility to liver and gallbladder injury induced by a high-fat lithogenic ..
  37. Kiyohashi K, Kakinuma S, Kamiya A, Sakamoto N, Nitta S, Yamanaka H, et al. Wnt5a signaling mediates biliary differentiation of fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells in mice. Hepatology. 2013;57:2502-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt5a-mediated signaling in fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells suppresses biliary differentiation. These findings also suggest that activation of CaMKII by Wnt5a signaling suppresses biliary differentiation. (HEPATOLOGY 2013;). ..
  38. Magnuson M, Osipovich A. Pancreas-specific Cre driver lines and considerations for their prudent use. Cell Metab. 2013;18:9-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss preferred strategies for achieving high-fidelity driver lines and remind investigators of the continuing need for caution when interpreting results obtained from any Cre/LoxP-based experiment performed in mice. ..
  39. Yamasaki H, Sada A, Iwata T, Niwa T, Tomizawa M, Xanthopoulos K, et al. Suppression of C/EBPalpha expression in periportal hepatoblasts may stimulate biliary cell differentiation through increased Hnf6 and Hnf1b expression. Development. 2006;133:4233-43 pubmed
    ..Wild-type hepatoblasts constructed mature hepatic tissue accompanied by biliary cell differentiation. These results also demonstrate that the suppression of C/EBPalpha expression may stimulate biliary cell differentiation. ..
  40. Filion M, Sarafian V, Lussier M, Belanger C, Lapointe L, Royal A. Arrangement of a cluster of three mouse type I keratin genes expressed sequentially during esophageal-type epithelial cell differentiation. Genomics. 1994;24:303-10 pubmed
    ..We report here the cloning and mapping of a 55-kb region surrounding the keratin 19 (K19) gene in the mouse genome...
  41. Bagheri Fam S, Sim H, Bernard P, Jayakody I, Taketo M, Scherer G, et al. Loss of Fgfr2 leads to partial XY sex reversal. Dev Biol. 2008;314:71-83 pubmed
    ..In summary, we provide evidence that FGFR2 is important for male sex determination in mice, thereby rendering human FGFR2 a candidate gene for unsolved DSD cases such as 10q26 deletions. ..
  42. Kumabe S. Immunohistochemical study of genesis of the mouse oral vestibule. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2003;80:93-102 pubmed
  43. Moniot B, Declosmenil F, Barrionuevo F, Scherer G, Aritake K, Malki S, et al. The PGD2 pathway, independently of FGF9, amplifies SOX9 activity in Sertoli cells during male sexual differentiation. Development. 2009;136:1813-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism participates together with FGF9 as an amplification system of Sox9 gene expression and activity during mammalian testicular organogenesis. ..
  44. Planas Paz L, Orsini V, Boulter L, Calabrese D, Pikiolek M, Nigsch F, et al. The RSPO-LGR4/5-ZNRF3/RNF43 module controls liver zonation and size. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:467-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that the RSPO-LGR4/5-ZNRF3/RNF43 module controls metabolic liver zonation and is a hepatic growth/size rheostat during development, homeostasis and regeneration. ..
  45. Lickert H, Kutsch S, Kanzler B, Tamai Y, Taketo M, Kemler R. Formation of multiple hearts in mice following deletion of beta-catenin in the embryonic endoderm. Dev Cell. 2002;3:171-81 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that ablation of beta-catenin in embryonic endoderm changes cell fate from endoderm to precardiac mesoderm, consistent with the existence of bipotential mesendodermal progenitors in mouse embryos. ..
  46. Ito A, Nishikawa Y, Ohnuma K, Ohnuma I, Koma Y, Sato A, et al. SgIGSF is a novel biliary-epithelial cell adhesion molecule mediating duct/ductule development. Hepatology. 2007;45:684-94 pubmed
    ..The process and ductular cells were continuously positive for SgIGSF and cytokeratin 19, a BEC marker...
  47. Sojoodi M, Stradiot L, Tanaka K, Heremans Y, Leuckx G, Besson V, et al. The zinc finger transcription factor PW1/PEG3 restrains murine beta cell cycling. Diabetologia. 2016;59:1474-1479 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PW1 is a co-regulator of the beta cell cycle and can thus be considered a novel therapeutic target in diabetes. ..
  48. Magin T. Lessons from keratin transgenic and knockout mice. Subcell Biochem. 1998;31:141-72 pubmed
  49. Vanderpool C, Sparks E, Huppert K, Gannon M, Means A, Huppert S. Genetic interactions between hepatocyte nuclear factor-6 and Notch signaling regulate mouse intrahepatic bile duct development in vivo. Hepatology. 2012;55:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a model to investigate genetic interactions of factors important to intrahepatic bile duct development and their effect on cholestatic liver disease phenotypes. ..
  50. Bullard T, Koek L, Roztocil E, Kingsley P, Mirels L, Ovitt C. Ascl3 expression marks a progenitor population of both acinar and ductal cells in mouse salivary glands. Dev Biol. 2008;320:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Ascl3-expressing cells contribute to the maintenance of the adult salivary glands. ..
  51. Koch P, de Viragh P, Scharer E, Bundman D, Longley M, Bickenbach J, et al. Lessons from loricrin-deficient mice: compensatory mechanisms maintaining skin barrier function in the absence of a major cornified envelope protein. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:389-400 pubmed
  52. Vaziri Sani F, Kaartinen V, El Shahawy M, Linde A, Gritli Linde A. Developmental changes in cellular and extracellular structural macromolecules in the secondary palate and in the nasal cavity of the mouse. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:221-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The hitherto-unknown innervation pattern of the developing palate was revealed. These findings may be of value for unravelling the pathogenesis of palatal clefting. ..
  53. Kopinke D, Murtaugh L. Exocrine-to-endocrine differentiation is detectable only prior to birth in the uninjured mouse pancreas. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Exocrine transdifferentiation has been proposed to occur during injury and regeneration, and our experimental model is suited to test this hypothesis in vivo. ..
  54. Adam R, Yang H, Rockowitz S, Larsen S, Nikolova M, Oristian D, et al. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice. Nature. 2015;521:366-70 pubmed publisher
  55. Runck L, Method A, Bischoff A, Levitt M, Pena A, Collins M, et al. Defining the molecular pathologies in cloaca malformation: similarities between mouse and human. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, deranged Shh and BMP signaling is correlated with severe anorectal malformations in both mouse and humans. ..
  56. Song Y, Gilbert D, O Sullivan T, Yang C, Pan W, Fathalizadeh A, et al. Carcinoma initiation via RB tumor suppressor inactivation: a versatile approach to epithelial subtype-dependent cancer initiation in diverse tissues. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80459 pubmed publisher
    ..inactivates RB and functionally redundant proteins p107 and p130, neoplasia could be initiated in either K18 or K19 expressing cells of numerous tissues...
  57. Rivkin E, Eddy E, Willis W, Goulding E, Suganuma R, Yanagimachi R, et al. Sperm tail abnormalities in mutant mice with neo(r) gene insertion into an intron of the keratin 9 gene. Mol Reprod Dev. 2005;72:259-71 pubmed
    ..Results of this study support the view that intron 6 influences the transcriptional efficiency of the K9 gene by decreasing production of wild-type K9 and changing the expression of K9 proteins...
  58. Xuan S, Borok M, Decker K, Battle M, Duncan S, Hale M, et al. Pancreas-specific deletion of mouse Gata4 and Gata6 causes pancreatic agenesis. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3516-28 pubmed publisher
  59. Shah S, Love J, O Neill A, Lovering R, Bloch R. Influences of desmin and keratin 19 on passive biomechanical properties of mouse skeletal muscle. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:704061 pubmed publisher
    ..from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of young (3 months) and aged (10 months) wild-type, desmin-null, K19-null, and desmin/K19 double-null mice...
  60. Serafimidis I, Heximer S, Beis D, Gavalas A. G protein-coupled receptor signaling and sphingosine-1-phosphate play a phylogenetically conserved role in endocrine pancreas morphogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4442-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identified sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) as a ligand mediating islet cell aggregation in both species acting through distinct but closely related receptors. ..
  61. Correll A, Webb G, Ford J, Rogers G, Powell B. Localization by in situ hybridization of a type I keratin intermediate filament gene (Krt-1.14) to band D of mouse chromosome 11. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1992;60:245-6 pubmed
    ..It also demonstrates that the Krt-1.14 genes are at a single locality in the mouse in contrast to the two locations on the short and long arms of chromosome 17 in humans. ..
  62. Zhang H, Pu W, Tian X, Huang X, He L, Liu Q, et al. Genetic lineage tracing identifies endocardial origin of liver vasculature. Nat Genet. 2016;48:537-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a substantial portion of liver vessels derives from the endocardium and shares a common developmental origin with coronary arteries. ..
  63. Grimm Günter E, Revenu C, Ramos S, Hurbain I, Smyth N, Ferrary E, et al. Plastin 1 binds to keratin and is required for terminal web assembly in the intestinal epithelium. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2549-62 pubmed publisher
  64. Wuidart A, Ousset M, Rulands S, Simons B, Van Keymeulen A, Blanpain C. Quantitative lineage tracing strategies to resolve multipotency in tissue-specific stem cells. Genes Dev. 2016;30:1261-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods offer a rigorous framework to assess the lineage relationship and SC fate in different organs and tissues. ..
  65. Liu Z, Brunskill E, Varnum Finney B, Zhang C, Zhang A, Jay P, et al. The intracellular domains of Notch1 and Notch2 are functionally equivalent during development and carcinogenesis. Development. 2015;142:2452-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Reinterpretation of clinical findings based on our analyses suggests that differences in outcome segregating with Notch1 or Notch2 are likely to reflect outcomes dependent on the overall strength of Notch signals. ..
  66. Ikenoue T, Terakado Y, Nakagawa H, Hikiba Y, Fujii T, Matsubara D, et al. A novel mouse model of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma induced by liver-specific Kras activation and Pten deletion. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23899 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that mice carrying liver-specific Kras activation in combination with homozygous Pten deletion should be useful for the investigation of therapeutic strategies for human ICC. ..
  67. Farmer D, Nathan S, Finley J, Shengyang Yu K, Emmerson E, Byrnes L, et al. Defining epithelial cell dynamics and lineage relationships in the developing lacrimal gland. Development. 2017;144:2517-2528 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data reveal crucial features of lacrimal gland development that have broad implications for understanding epithelial organogenesis. ..
  68. Sancho R, Gruber R, Gu G, Behrens A. Loss of Fbw7 reprograms adult pancreatic ductal cells into ?, ?, and ? cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2014;15:139-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the plasticity of seemingly differentiated adult cells, identifies Fbw7 as a master regulator of cell fate decisions in the pancreas, and reveals adult pancreatic duct cells as a latent multipotent cell type. ..
  69. Zito G, Saotome I, Liu Z, Ferro E, Sun T, Nguyen D, et al. Spontaneous tumour regression in keratoacanthomas is driven by Wnt/retinoic acid signalling cross-talk. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3543 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the physiological mechanisms of tumour regression and suggest therapeutic strategies to induce tumour regression. ..
  70. Page M, Lombard P, Ng F, Göttgens B, Jensen K. The epidermis comprises autonomous compartments maintained by distinct stem cell populations. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data demonstrate that epidermal stem cells are lineage restricted during homeostasis and suggest that compartmentalization may constitute a conserved mechanism underlying epithelial tissue maintenance. ..
  71. Gao T, Zhou D, Yang C, Singh T, Penzo Méndez A, Maddipati R, et al. Hippo signaling regulates differentiation and maintenance in the exocrine pancreas. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:1543-53, 1553.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammalian Hippo kinases, and YAP, maintain postnatal pancreatic acinar differentiation in mice. ..
  72. Beverdam A, Svingen T, Bagheri Fam S, McClive P, Sinclair A, Harley V, et al. Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta (PTK2B), but not focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern in developing mouse gonads. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2735-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Fak mRNA and FAK protein were expressed in gonads of both sexes at all stages examined. Our data suggest cell type- and stage-specific roles for PTK2B during early testis development. ..
  73. Vijayaraj P, Kröger C, Reuter U, Windoffer R, Leube R, Magin T. Keratins regulate protein biosynthesis through localization of GLUT1 and -3 upstream of AMP kinase and Raptor. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a novel keratin function upstream of mTOR signaling via GLUT localization and have implications for pathomechanisms and therapy approaches for keratin disorders and the analysis of other gene families. ..
  74. Tomizawa M, Toyama Y, Ito C, Toshimori K, Iwase K, Takiguchi M, et al. Hepatoblast-like cells enriched from mouse embryonic stem cells in medium without glucose, pyruvate, arginine, and tyrosine. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;333:17-27 pubmed publisher
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