Gene Symbol: Krt18
Description: keratin 18
Alias: CK18, K18, Krt1-18, keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18, cytokeratin endo B, cytokeratin-18, keratin D, keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 18
Species: mouse
Products:     Krt18

Top Publications

  1. Ichinose Y, Morita T, Zhang F, Srimahasongcram S, Tondella M, Matsumoto M, et al. Nucleotide sequence and structure of the mouse cytokeratin endoB gene. Gene. 1988;70:85-95 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, this clone contains at least four murine B1 repetitive sequences. One typical B1 repetitive sequence was recognized in the 5' upstream region, and the other three in the 3' flanking region. ..
  2. Ku N, Soetikno R, Omary M. Keratin mutation in transgenic mice predisposes to Fas but not TNF-induced apoptosis and massive liver injury. Hepatology. 2003;37:1006-14 pubmed
    ..Transgenic mice that overexpress mutant human K18 (Arg89-->Cys [R89C]) develop mild chronic hepatitis, hepatocyte fragility, keratin filament disruption, and ..
  3. Ku N, Omary M. A disease- and phosphorylation-related nonmechanical function for keratin 8. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:115-25 pubmed
  4. Bazzi H, Fantauzzo K, Richardson G, Jahoda C, Christiano A. Transcriptional profiling of developing mouse epidermis reveals novel patterns of coordinated gene expression. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:961-70 pubmed
    ..Our observations reveal a coordinated mode of expression of the SSC genes as well as the correlation of their initiation in the nasal epithelium with the initiation of barrier formation at this site. ..
  5. Wang X, Pasolli H, Williams T, Fuchs E. AP-2 factors act in concert with Notch to orchestrate terminal differentiation in skin epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:37-48 pubmed publisher
  6. Magin T, Schroder R, Leitgeb S, Wanninger F, Zatloukal K, Grund C, et al. Lessons from keratin 18 knockout mice: formation of novel keratin filaments, secondary loss of keratin 7 and accumulation of liver-specific keratin 8-positive aggregates. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:1441-51 pubmed
    Here, we report on the analysis of keratin 18 null mice. Unlike the ablation of K8, which together with K18 is expressed in embryonic and simple adult epithelia, K18 null mice are viable, fertile, and show a normal lifespan...
  7. Plante J, Simard M, Rantakari P, Cote M, Provost P, Poutanen M, et al. Epithelial cells are the major site of hydroxysteroid (17beta) dehydrogenase 2 and androgen receptor expression in fetal mouse lungs during the period overlapping the surge of surfactant. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;117:139-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results are in concordance with the hypothesis that in mouse fetal lungs the level of androgen receptor occupancy is finely tuned by local HSD17B2 expression. ..
  8. Ku N, Michie S, Oshima R, Omary M. Chronic hepatitis, hepatocyte fragility, and increased soluble phosphoglycokeratins in transgenic mice expressing a keratin 18 conserved arginine mutant. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:1303-14 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the function and potential disease association of K18, we examined the effects of mutating a highly conserved arginine (arg89) of K18...
  9. LeBoeuf M, Terrell A, Trivedi S, Sinha S, Epstein J, Olson E, et al. Hdac1 and Hdac2 act redundantly to control p63 and p53 functions in epidermal progenitor cells. Dev Cell. 2010;19:807-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify critical requirements for HDAC1/2 in epidermal development and indicate that HDAC1/2 directly mediate repressive functions of p63 and suppress p53 activity. ..

More Information


  1. Ku N, Toivola D, Strnad P, Omary M. Cytoskeletal keratin glycosylation protects epithelial tissue from injury. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:876-85 pubmed publisher
    Keratins 8 and 18 (K8 and K18) are heteropolymeric intermediate filament phosphoglycoproteins of simple-type epithelia...
  2. Hesse M, Franz T, Tamai Y, Taketo M, Magin T. Targeted deletion of keratins 18 and 19 leads to trophoblast fragility and early embryonic lethality. EMBO J. 2000;19:5060-70 pubmed
    ..These findings have generated considerable confusion about the function of K8, K18 and K19 that are co-expressed in the mouse blastocyst and internal epithelia...
  3. Ku N, Michie S, Resurreccion E, Broome R, Omary M. Keratin binding to 14-3-3 proteins modulates keratin filaments and hepatocyte mitotic progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4373-8 pubmed
    Keratin polypeptides 8 and 18 (K8/18) are the major intermediate filament proteins of simple-type epithelia. K18 Ser-33 phosphorylation regulates its binding to 14-3-3 proteins during mitosis...
  4. Toivola D, Nieminen M, Hesse M, He T, Baribault H, Magin T, et al. Disturbances in hepatic cell-cycle regulation in mice with assembly-deficient keratins 8/18. Hepatology. 2001;34:1174-83 pubmed
    Simple epithelial tissues such as liver and pancreas express keratins 8 (K8) and 18 (K18) as their major intermediate filament proteins...
  5. Lu H, Hesse M, Peters B, Magin T. Type II keratins precede type I keratins during early embryonic development. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:709-18 pubmed
    ..At E0.5, transcripts encoding K5, K6, K7, K8, K14, K15, K18, and K19 are apparently absent...
  6. Mikula M, Schreiber M, Husak Z, Kucerova L, Ruth J, Wieser R, et al. Embryonic lethality and fetal liver apoptosis in mice lacking the c-raf-1 gene. EMBO J. 2001;20:1952-62 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the essential function of Raf-1 is to counteract apoptosis rather than to promote proliferation, and that effectors distinct from the MEK/ERK cascade must mediate the anti-apoptotic function of Raf-1. ..
  7. Kulesh D, Cecena G, Darmon Y, Vasseur M, Oshima R. Posttranslational regulation of keratins: degradation of mouse and human keratins 18 and 8. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:1553-65 pubmed
    Human keratin 18 (K18) and keratin 8 (K8) and their mouse homologs, Endo B and Endo A, respectively, are expressed in adult mice primarily in a variety of simple epithelial cell types in which they are normally found in equal amounts ..
  8. Tamai Y, Ishikawa T, Bösl M, Mori M, Nozaki M, Baribault H, et al. Cytokeratins 8 and 19 in the mouse placental development. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:563-72 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that K19 and K8 cooperate in ensuring the normal development of placental tissues. ..
  9. Watson E, Geary Joo C, Hughes M, Cross J. The Mrj co-chaperone mediates keratin turnover and prevents the formation of toxic inclusion bodies in trophoblast cells of the placenta. Development. 2007;134:1809-17 pubmed
    ..of the mouse, the absence of the Mrj (Dnajb6) co-chaperone prevents proteasome degradation of keratin 18 (K18; Krt18) intermediate filaments, resulting in the formation of keratin inclusion bodies...
  10. Caulin C, Ware C, Magin T, Oshima R. Keratin-dependent, epithelial resistance to tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:17-22 pubmed
    ..Keratin 8 (K8) and keratin 18 (K18) form intermediate filaments characteristic of liver and other single cell layered, internal epithelia and their ..
  11. Singer P, Trevor K, Oshima R. Molecular cloning and characterization of the Endo B cytokeratin expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:538-47 pubmed
    ..Endo B mRNA was detectable in RNA isolated from F9 cells treated with retinoic acid for 48 h. Approximately three to five genes homologous to Endo B were detected in the mouse genome. ..
  12. Gilbert S, Loranger A, Marceau N. Keratins modulate c-Flip/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 antiapoptotic signaling in simple epithelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7072-81 pubmed
    Among the large family of intermediate filament proteins, the keratin 8 and 18 (K8/K18) pair constitutes a hallmark for all simple epithelial cells, such as hepatocytes and mammary cells...
  13. Ikeda K, Kageyama R, Suzuki Y, Kawakami K. Six1 is indispensable for production of functional progenitor cells during olfactory epithelial development. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1453-64 pubmed publisher
  14. Terpstra L, Prud homme J, Arabian A, Takeda S, Karsenty G, Dedhar S, et al. Reduced chondrocyte proliferation and chondrodysplasia in mice lacking the integrin-linked kinase in chondrocytes. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:139-48 pubmed
    ..ILK inactivation in chondrocytes resulted in reduced cyclin D1 expression, and this most likely explains the defect in chondrocyte proliferation observed when ILK is inactivated in growth plate cells. ..
  15. Kröger C, Vijayaraj P, Reuter U, Windoffer R, Simmons D, Heukamp L, et al. Placental vasculogenesis is regulated by keratin-mediated hyperoxia in murine decidual tissues. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1578-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that keratin mutations might mediate conditions leading to early pregnancy loss due to hyperoxia in the decidua. ..
  16. Xu B, Qu X, Gu S, Doughman Y, Watanabe M, Dunwoodie S, et al. Cited2 is required for fetal lung maturation. Dev Biol. 2008;317:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Cited2-Tcfap2c complex controls lung maturation by regulating Cebpa expression. Understanding the function of this complex may provide novel therapeutic strategies for patients with respiratory distress syndromes. ..
  17. Toivola D, Nakamichi I, Strnad P, Michie S, Ghori N, Harada M, et al. Keratin overexpression levels correlate with the extent of spontaneous pancreatic injury. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:882-92 pubmed publisher
    Mutation of the adult hepatocyte keratins K8 and K18 predisposes to liver disease. In contrast, exocrine pancreas K8 and K18 are dispensable and are co-expressed with limited levels of membrane-proximal K19 and K20...
  18. Talbot D, Loring J, Schorle H, Lorgin J. Spatiotemporal expression pattern of keratins in skin of AP-2alpha-deficient mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:816-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the mutants lack a ring of ectodermal cells highly positive for keratin 15 in the area where lens induction occurs, indicating a defect in the inductive interactions underlying eye formation. ..
  19. Hermesz E, Mackem S, Mahon K. Rpx: a novel anterior-restricted homeobox gene progressively activated in the prechordal plate, anterior neural plate and Rathke's pouch of the mouse embryo. Development. 1996;122:41-52 pubmed
  20. Corcoran J, Ferretti P. Keratin 8 and 18 expression in mesenchymal progenitor cells of regenerating limbs is associated with cell proliferation and differentiation. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:355-70 pubmed
    ..Analysis of NvK8 and NvK18 transcripts confirms that K8 and K18 are expressed in the blastemal cells of regenerating newt limbs and that their expression is first observed 3-5 ..
  21. Yao B, Xie J, Liu N, Yan T, Li Z, Liu Y, et al. Identification of a new sweat gland progenitor population in mice and the role of their niche in tissue development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;479:670-675 pubmed publisher
    ..K8 and K18 expression was barely detected in the early stage of skin development (Embryo 17...
  22. Vaziri Sani F, Kaartinen V, El Shahawy M, Linde A, Gritli Linde A. Developmental changes in cellular and extracellular structural macromolecules in the secondary palate and in the nasal cavity of the mouse. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:221-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The hitherto-unknown innervation pattern of the developing palate was revealed. These findings may be of value for unravelling the pathogenesis of palatal clefting. ..
  23. Coleman Krnacik S, Rosen J. Differential temporal and spatial gene expression of fibroblast growth factor family members during mouse mammary gland development. Mol Endocrinol. 1994;8:218-29 pubmed
    ..The differential spatial and temporal pattern of FGF-1, FGF-2 and FGF-7 gene expression indicate that they each have unique functions in the gland. ..
  24. Kam J, Dumontier E, Baim C, Brignall A, Mendes da Silva D, Cowan M, et al. RGMB and neogenin control cell differentiation in the developing olfactory epithelium. Development. 2016;143:1534-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that RGMB-neogenin-mediated cell-cell interactions between newly born neurons and progenitor cells control the ratio of glia and neurons produced in the OE. ..
  25. Beck L, Leroy C, Beck Cormier S, Forand A, Salaun C, Paris N, et al. The phosphate transporter PiT1 (Slc20a1) revealed as a new essential gene for mouse liver development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9148 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is the first to illustrate a specific in vivo role for PiT1 by uncovering it as being a critical gene for normal developmental liver growth. ..
  26. Su L, Morgan P, Lane E. Protein and mRNA expression of simple epithelial keratins in normal, dysplastic, and malignant oral epithelia. Am J Pathol. 1994;145:1349-57 pubmed
    Simple epithelial keratins K7, K8, and K18 are present in no more than trace amounts in normal stratified squamous epithelial but have been reported in squamous cell carcinomas...
  27. Krolewski R, Packard A, Jang W, Wildner H, Schwob J. Ascl1 (Mash1) knockout perturbs differentiation of nonneuronal cells in olfactory epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51737 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, persistent neurogenic failure distorts the differentiation of multiple other cell types in the olfactory epithelium. ..
  28. Cheng W, Jacobs W, Zhang J, Moro A, Park J, Kushida M, et al. DeltaNp63 plays an anti-apoptotic role in ventral bladder development. Development. 2006;133:4783-92 pubmed
    ..We conclude that DeltaNp63 plays a crucial anti-apoptotic role in normal bladder development...
  29. Mardaryev A, Liu B, Rapisarda V, Poterlowicz K, Malashchuk I, Rudolf J, et al. Cbx4 maintains the epithelial lineage identity and cell proliferation in the developing stratified epithelium. J Cell Biol. 2016;212:77-89 pubmed publisher
  30. Yu W, Slack J, Tosh D. Conversion of columnar to stratified squamous epithelium in the developing mouse oesophagus. Dev Biol. 2005;284:157-70 pubmed
    ..The results show that, in normal development, the squamous epithelium arises from the columnar epithelium by a direct conversion process. ..
  31. Hosoya A, Kwak S, Kim E, Lunny D, Lane E, Cho S, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of cytokeratins in the junctional region of ectoderm and endoderm. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1864-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also suggest that these cytokeratins are useful molecules for monitoring the epithelial cell differentiation in the junctional region of the germ layers...
  32. Cui X, Li X, Shen X, Bae Y, Kang J, Kim N. Transcription profile in mouse four-cell, morula, and blastocyst: Genes implicated in compaction and blastocoel formation. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:133-43 pubmed
    ..The identification of the genes being expressed in here will provide insight into the complex gene regulatory networks effecting compaction and blastocoel formation...
  33. Singla A, Moons D, Snider N, Wagenmaker E, Jayasundera V, Omary M. Oxidative stress, Nrf2 and keratin up-regulation associate with Mallory-Denk body formation in mouse erythropoietic protoporphyria. Hepatology. 2012;56:322-31 pubmed publisher
    ..including increased transglutaminase-2 and keratin overexpression, with a greater keratin 8 (K8)-to-keratin 18 (K18) ratio, which are critical for drug-induced MDB formation...
  34. Hesse M, Watson E, Schwaluk T, Magin T. Rescue of keratin 18/19 doubly deficient mice using aggregation with tetraploid embryos. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:355-61 pubmed
    ..We rescued K18-/- K19-/- embryos until e11...
  35. Khialeeva E, Lane T, Carpenter E. Disruption of reelin signaling alters mammary gland morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:767-76 pubmed publisher
  36. Tadeu A, Horsley V. Notch signaling represses p63 expression in the developing surface ectoderm. Development. 2013;140:3777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data reveal a role for Notch signaling in the molecular control of ectodermal progenitor cell specification to the epidermal keratinocyte lineage. ..
  37. Lungová V, Verheyden J, Herriges J, Sun X, Thibeault S. Ontogeny of the mouse vocal fold epithelium. Dev Biol. 2015;399:263-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This study defines the cellular and molecular context and serves as the necessary foundation for future functional investigations of VF formation. ..
  38. Prandi S, Bromke M, Hübner S, Voigt A, Boehm U, Meyerhof W, et al. A subset of mouse colonic goblet cells expresses the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82820 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression in colonic goblet cells is consistent with a role of Tas2rs in defense mechanisms against potentially harmful xenobiotics. ..
  39. Wen F, Cecena G, Munoz Ritchie V, Fuchs E, Chambon P, Oshima R. Expression of conditional cre recombinase in epithelial tissues of transgenic mice. Genesis. 2003;35:100-6 pubmed
    Keratin 18 (K18) expression is a defining characteristic of internal epithelial cells of mammals...
  40. Li L, Liu C, Biechele S, Zhu Q, Song L, Lanner F, et al. Location of transient ectodermal progenitor potential in mouse development. Development. 2013;140:4533-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work not only improves our understanding of ectodermal layer development in early embryos, but also provides a framework for regenerative differentiation towards ectodermal tissues. ..
  41. Steinert P, Rice R, Roop D, Trus B, Steven A. Complete amino acid sequence of a mouse epidermal keratin subunit and implications for the structure of intermediate filaments. Nature. 1983;302:794-800 pubmed
  42. Seagroves T, Peacock D, Liao D, Schwab L, Krueger R, Handorf C, et al. VHL deletion impairs mammary alveologenesis but is not sufficient for mammary tumorigenesis. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2269-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that additional VHL-regulated genes besides HIF1A function to maintain the proliferative and regenerative potential of the breast epithelium...
  43. Fessing M, Mardaryev A, Gdula M, Sharov A, Sharova T, Rapisarda V, et al. p63 regulates Satb1 to control tissue-specific chromatin remodeling during development of the epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:825-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a novel mechanism by which Satb1, a direct downstream target of p63, contributes in epidermal morphogenesis via establishing tissue-specific chromatin organization and gene expression in epidermal progenitor cells. ..
  44. Ben Arie N, Hassan B, Bermingham N, Malicki D, Armstrong D, Matzuk M, et al. Functional conservation of atonal and Math1 in the CNS and PNS. Development. 2000;127:1039-48 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that both the mouse and fly homologs encode lineage identity information and, more interestingly, that some of the cells dependent on this information serve similar mechanoreceptor functions. ..
  45. Harada M, Strnad P, Resurreccion E, Ku N, Omary M. Keratin 18 overexpression but not phosphorylation or filament organization blocks mouse Mallory body formation. Hepatology. 2007;45:88-96 pubmed
    ..These hepatocyte cytoplasmic deposits are composed primarily of hyperphosphorylated keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18)...
  46. Szabo S, Wögenstein K, Österreicher C, Guldiken N, Chen Y, Doler C, et al. Epiplakin attenuates experimental mouse liver injury by chaperoning keratin reorganization. J Hepatol. 2015;62:1357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..experiments revealed that epiplakin is expressed in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and binds to keratin 8 (K8) and K18 via multiple domains...
  47. Gilbert S, Loranger A, Omary M, Marceau N. Keratin impact on PKC?- and ASMase-mediated regulation of hepatocyte lipid raft size - implication for FasR-associated apoptosis. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:3262-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatocytes express the keratin 8 and 18 pair (denoted K8/K18) of IFs, and a loss of K8 or K18, as in K8-null mice, leads to degradation of the keratin partner...
  48. Koike H, Zhang R, Ueno Y, Sekine K, Zheng Y, Takebe T, et al. Nutritional modulation of mouse and human liver bud growth through a branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Development. 2017;144:1018-1024 pubmed publisher
  49. Pósfai E, Petropoulos S, de Barros F, Schell J, Jurisica I, Sandberg R, et al. Position- and Hippo signaling-dependent plasticity during lineage segregation in the early mouse embryo. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Plasticity of both lineages is coincident with their window of sensitivity to Hippo signaling. ..
  50. Bjerknes M, Khandanpour C, Moroy T, Fujiyama T, Hoshino M, Klisch T, et al. Origin of the brush cell lineage in the mouse intestinal epithelium. Dev Biol. 2012;362:194-218 pubmed publisher
  51. Duan Y, Sun Y, Zhang F, Zhang W, Wang D, Wang Y, et al. Keratin K18 increases cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) surface expression by binding to its C-terminal hydrophobic patch. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40547-59 pubmed publisher
    ..b>K18 controls the function of CFTR...
  52. Lee J, Jang K, Kim H, Lim Y, Kim S, Yoon H, et al. Predisposition to apoptosis in keratin 8-null liver is related to inactivation of NF-?B and SAPKs but not decreased c-Flip. Biol Open. 2013;2:695-702 pubmed publisher
    Keratin 8 and 18 (K8/K18) are major intermediate filament proteins of liver hepatocytes. They provide mechanical and nonmechanical stability, thereby protecting cells from stress...
  53. Sugiyama Y, Takabe Y, Nakakura T, Tanaka S, Koike T, Shiojiri N. Sinusoid development and morphogenesis may be stimulated by VEGF-Flk-1 signaling during fetal mouse liver development. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:386-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, VEGF-Flk-1 signaling may play an important role in the growth and morphogenesis of primitive sinusoids during fetal liver development. ..
  54. Chakravarti D, Su X, Cho M, Bui N, Coarfa C, Venkatanarayan A, et al. Induced multipotency in adult keratinocytes through down-regulation of ?Np63 or DGCR8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E572-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a role for ?Np63 in the transcriptional regulation of DGCR8 to reprogram adult somatic cells into multipotent stem cells. ..
  55. Toivola D, Habtezion A, Misiorek J, Zhang L, Nyström J, Sharpe O, et al. Absence of keratin 8 or 18 promotes antimitochondrial autoantibody formation in aging male mice. FASEB J. 2015;29:5081-9 pubmed publisher
    Human mutations in keratin 8 (K8) and keratin 18 (K18), the intermediate filament proteins of hepatocytes, predispose to several liver diseases...
  56. Mikkola M, Costanzo A, Thesleff I, Roop D, Koster M. Treasure or artifact: a decade of p63 research speaks for itself. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:180-3; author reply 184-6 pubmed publisher
  57. Tao G, Toivola D, Zhong B, Michie S, Resurreccion E, Tamai Y, et al. Keratin-8 null mice have different gallbladder and liver susceptibility to lithogenic diet-induced injury. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4629-38 pubmed
    ..characterized keratin expression pattern and filament organization in normal and keratin polypeptide-8 (K8)-null, K18-null and K19-null gallbladders, and examined susceptibility to liver and gallbladder injury induced by a high-fat ..
  58. Conrad M, Jakupoglu C, Moreno S, Lippl S, Banjac A, Schneider M, et al. Essential role for mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in hematopoiesis, heart development, and heart function. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9414-23 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TrxR2 plays a pivotal role in both hematopoiesis and heart function. ..
  59. Drori S, Girnun G, Tou L, Szwaya J, Mueller E, Xia K, et al. Hic-5 regulates an epithelial program mediated by PPARgamma. Genes Dev. 2005;19:362-75 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Hic5 is an important component in determining an epithelial differentiation program induced by PPARgamma. ..
  60. Terszowski G, Müller S, Bleul C, Blum C, Schirmbeck R, Reimann J, et al. Evidence for a functional second thymus in mice. Science. 2006;312:284-7 pubmed
    ..The identification of a regular second thymus in the mouse may provide evolutionary links to thymus organogenesis in other vertebrates and suggests a need to reconsider the effect of thoracic thymectomy on de novo T cell production. ..
  61. Nitou M, Ishikawa K, Shiojiri N. Immunohistochemical analysis of development of desmin-positive hepatic stellate cells in mouse liver. J Anat. 2000;197 Pt 4:635-46 pubmed
    ..These developmental changes in the geography of desmin-positive cells in the liver parenchyma and their morphology may be associated with their maturation and interactions with other cell types. ..
  62. Hatsell S, Cowin P. Gli3-mediated repression of Hedgehog targets is required for normal mammary development. Development. 2006;133:3661-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, positive Hedgehog signaling is absent throughout mammary development, distinguishing the mammary gland from other epidermal appendages, such as hair follicles, which require Hedgehog pathway activity. ..
  63. Tomizawa M, Toyama Y, Ito C, Toshimori K, Iwase K, Takiguchi M, et al. Hepatoblast-like cells enriched from mouse embryonic stem cells in medium without glucose, pyruvate, arginine, and tyrosine. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;333:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Since cells in HSM were positive for cytokeratin (CK)8 and CK18 (hepatocyte markers) and for CK19 (a marker of bile duct epithelial cells), we concluded that they were ..
  64. Kawai M, Saegusa Y, Kemmochi S, Harada T, Shimamoto K, Shibutani M, et al. Cytokeratin 8/18 is a useful immunohistochemical marker for hepatocellular proliferative lesions in mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72:263-9 pubmed
  65. Vijayaraj P, Kröger C, Reuter U, Windoffer R, Leube R, Magin T. Keratins regulate protein biosynthesis through localization of GLUT1 and -3 upstream of AMP kinase and Raptor. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a novel keratin function upstream of mTOR signaling via GLUT localization and have implications for pathomechanisms and therapy approaches for keratin disorders and the analysis of other gene families. ..
  66. Strnad P, Tao G, Zhou Q, Harada M, Toivola D, Brunt E, et al. Keratin mutation predisposes to mouse liver fibrosis and unmasks differential effects of the carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide models. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1169-79 pubmed publisher
    Keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18) are important hepatoprotective proteins. Animals expressing K8/K18 mutants show a marked susceptibility to acute/subacute liver injury...
  67. Gallicano G, Kouklis P, Bauer C, Yin M, Vasioukhin V, Degenstein L, et al. Desmoplakin is required early in development for assembly of desmosomes and cytoskeletal linkage. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:2009-22 pubmed
  68. Hesse M, Grund C, Herrmann H, Bröhl D, Franz T, Omary M, et al. A mutation of keratin 18 within the coil 1A consensus motif causes widespread keratin aggregation but cell type-restricted lethality in mice. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:3127-40 pubmed
    ..genes encoding epidermal keratins cause skin disorders, while those in internal epithelial keratins, such as K8 and K18, are risk factors for liver diseases...
  69. Asselin Labat M, Sutherland K, Barker H, Thomas R, Shackleton M, Forrest N, et al. Gata-3 is an essential regulator of mammary-gland morphogenesis and luminal-cell differentiation. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:201-9 pubmed
    ..These studies provide evidence for the existence of an epithelial hierarchy within the mammary gland and establish Gata-3 as a critical regulator of luminal differentiation. ..
  70. Maurer J, Nelson B, Cecena G, Bajpai R, Mercola M, Terskikh A, et al. Contrasting expression of keratins in mouse and human embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3451 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse ES cells express very low levels of the simple epithelial keratins K8, K18 and K19...
  71. Papathanasiou S, Rickelt S, Soriano M, Schips T, Maier H, Davos C, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-α confers cardioprotection through ectopic expression of keratins K8 and K18. Nat Med. 2015;21:1076-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-mediated ectopic expression in cardiomyocytes of keratin 8 (K8) and keratin 18 (K18), two epithelial-specific intermediate filament proteins...
  72. Gilbert S, Ruel A, Loranger A, Marceau N. Switch in Fas-activated death signaling pathway as result of keratin 8/18-intermediate filament loss. Apoptosis. 2008;13:1479-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatocytes are type II cells and their IFs are made exclusively of K8/K18. We have shown previously that K8-null mouse hepatocytes, lacking K8/K18 IFs, are more sensitive than their wild-..
  73. Foshay K, Gallicano G. miR-17 family miRNAs are expressed during early mammalian development and regulate stem cell differentiation. Dev Biol. 2009;326:431-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we demonstrate that these miRNAs regulate STAT3 mRNA in vitro. We suggest that STAT3, a known ES cell regulator, is one target mRNA responsible for the effects of these miRNAs on cellular differentiation. ..
  74. Montenegro M, Rojas M, Dominguez S, Vergara A. Cytokeratin, vimentin and E-cadherin immunodetection in the embryonic palate in two strains of mice with different susceptibility to glucocorticoid-induced clefting. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 2000;20:137-43 pubmed
    ..heads of embryos were processed by standard immunohistochemistry with antipancytokeratin (KAE1), antikeratins 18 (K18) and 19 (K19), antivimentin, and anti E-cadherin antibodies...
  75. Leifeld L, Kothe S, Sohl G, Hesse M, Sauerbruch T, Magin T, et al. Keratin 18 provides resistance to Fas-mediated liver failure in mice. Eur J Clin Invest. 2009;39:481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They comprise keratins 18 [K18] and 8 [K8] in hepatocytes...
  76. Strizzi L, Mancino M, Bianco C, Raafat A, Gonzales M, Booth B, et al. Netrin-1 can affect morphogenesis and differentiation of the mouse mammary gland. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Netrin-1 may facilitate functional differentiation of mammary epithelial cells and possibly affect the expression of Nanog and/or Cripto-1 in multipotent cells that may reside in the mammary gland. ..
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