Gene Symbol: Krt15
Description: keratin 15
Alias: AI528832, K15, Krt1-15, keratin, type I cytoskeletal 15, CK-15, cytokeratin-15, keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 15
Species: mouse
Products:     Krt15

Top Publications

  1. Su X, Cho M, Gi Y, Ayanga B, Sherr C, Flores E. Rescue of key features of the p63-null epithelial phenotype by inactivation of Ink4a and Arf. EMBO J. 2009;28:1904-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the absence of p63, abnormal upregulation of Ink4a and Arf is incompatible with skin development. ..
  2. Jaks V, Barker N, Kasper M, van Es J, Snippert H, Clevers H, et al. Lgr5 marks cycling, yet long-lived, hair follicle stem cells. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression analysis suggests involvement of autocrine Hedgehog signaling in maintaining the Lgr5(+) stem cell population. ..
  3. Nijhof J, Braun K, Giangreco A, van Pelt C, Kawamoto H, Boyd R, et al. The cell-surface marker MTS24 identifies a novel population of follicular keratinocytes with characteristics of progenitor cells. Development. 2006;133:3027-37 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the cell-surface marker MTS24 identifies a new reservoir of hair follicle keratinocytes with a proliferative capacity and gene expression profile suggestive of progenitor or stem cells. ..
  4. Vidal V, Chaboissier M, Lützkendorf S, Cotsarelis G, Mill P, Hui C, et al. Sox9 is essential for outer root sheath differentiation and the formation of the hair stem cell compartment. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1340-51 pubmed
    ..Our genetic analysis places Sox9 in a molecular cascade downstream of sonic hedgehog and suggests that this gene is involved in basal cell carcinoma. ..
  5. Hwang J, Mehrani T, Millar S, Morasso M. Dlx3 is a crucial regulator of hair follicle differentiation and cycling. Development. 2008;135:3149-59 pubmed publisher
  6. Fujiwara H, Ferreira M, Donati G, MARCIANO D, Linton J, Sato Y, et al. The basement membrane of hair follicle stem cells is a muscle cell niche. Cell. 2011;144:577-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, bulge stem cells, via nephronectin expression, create a smooth muscle cell niche and act as tendon cells for the APM. Our results reveal a functional role for basement membrane heterogeneity in tissue patterning. PAPERCLIP: ..
  7. Huelsken J, Vogel R, Erdmann B, Cotsarelis G, Birchmeier W. beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin. Cell. 2001;105:533-45 pubmed
    ..Further analysis demonstrates that beta-catenin is essential for fate decisions of skin stem cells: in the absence of beta-catenin, stem cells fail to differentiate into follicular keratinocytes, but instead adopt an epidermal fate. ..
  8. Werner S, Munz B. Suppression of keratin 15 expression by transforming growth factor beta in vitro and by cutaneous injury in vivo. Exp Cell Res. 2000;254:80-90 pubmed
    ..The identified cDNA includes sequences of the keratin 15 (K15) gene which encodes a component of the cytoskeleton of basal cells in stratified epithelia...
  9. Lu H, Hesse M, Peters B, Magin T. Type II keratins precede type I keratins during early embryonic development. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:709-18 pubmed
    ..At E0.5, transcripts encoding K5, K6, K7, K8, K14, K15, K18, and K19 are apparently absent...

More Information


  1. Nanashima N, Ito K, Ishikawa T, Nakano M, Nakamura T. Damage of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of keratin expression in external radiation-induced acute alopecia. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30:579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, cytokeratin Krt15 and CD34, which are known as hair follicle stem cell markers, were decreased in alopecic mice...
  2. Li J, Jiang T, Hughes M, Wu P, Yu J, Widelitz R, et al. Progressive alopecia reveals decreasing stem cell activation probability during aging of mice with epidermal deletion of DNA methyltransferase 1. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:2681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Although K15-positive stem cells in the mutant bulge are comparable in number to the control, their ability to proliferate and ..
  3. Bhattacharya S, Wheeler H, Leid M, Ganguli Indra G, INDRA A. Transcription Factor CTIP2 Maintains Hair Follicle Stem Cell Pool and Contributes to Altered Expression of LHX2 and NFATC1. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:2593-2602 pubmed publisher
    ..CTIP2 appears to serve as a transcriptional organizer that integrates input from multiple signaling cues during HF morphogenesis and hair cycling. ..
  4. Takeda N, Jain R, LeBoeuf M, Padmanabhan A, Wang Q, Li L, et al. Hopx expression defines a subset of multipotent hair follicle stem cells and a progenitor population primed to give rise to K6+ niche cells. Development. 2013;140:1655-64 pubmed publisher
  5. Li S, Park H, Trempus C, Gordon D, Liu Y, Cotsarelis G, et al. A keratin 15 containing stem cell population from the hair follicle contributes to squamous papilloma development in the mouse. Mol Carcinog. 2013;52:751-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Adolphe C, Nieuwenhuis E, Villani R, Li Z, Kaur P, Hui C, et al. Patched 1 and patched 2 redundancy has a key role in regulating epidermal differentiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:1981-1990 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, our findings implicate Ptch receptor redundancy as a key issue in elucidating the cellular origin of Hh-induced tumors. ..
  7. Günschmann C, Stachelscheid H, Akyuz M, Schmitz A, Missero C, Bruning J, et al. Insulin/IGF-1 controls epidermal morphogenesis via regulation of FoxO-mediated p63 inhibition. Dev Cell. 2013;26:176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the present study reveals a critical role for IIS-dependent control of p63 activity in coordination of ACD and stratification during epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  8. Romano R, Smalley K, Liu S, Sinha S. Abnormal hair follicle development and altered cell fate of follicular keratinocytes in transgenic mice expressing DeltaNp63alpha. Development. 2010;137:1431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence supporting a role for DeltaNp63alpha in actively suppressing hair follicle differentiation and directing IFE cell lineage commitment. ..
  9. Snippert H, Haegebarth A, Kasper M, Jaks V, van Es J, Barker N, et al. Lgr6 marks stem cells in the hair follicle that generate all cell lineages of the skin. Science. 2010;327:1385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult Lgr6+ cells executed long-term wound repair, including the formation of new hair follicles. We conclude that Lgr6 marks the most primitive epidermal stem cell...
  10. Jensen K, Collins C, Nascimento E, Tan D, Frye M, Itami S, et al. Lrig1 expression defines a distinct multipotent stem cell population in mammalian epidermis. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:427-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Lrig1-positive cells constitute a previously unidentified reservoir of adult mouse interfollicular epidermal stem cells. ..
  11. Nieuwenhuis E, Barnfield P, Makino S, Hui C. Epidermal hyperplasia and expansion of the interfollicular stem cell compartment in mutant mice with a C-terminal truncation of Patched1. Dev Biol. 2007;308:547-60 pubmed
    ..Increased expression of regulators of epidermal homeostasis, c-Myc and p63, was also observed in Ptc1(mes/mes) adult skin. These results suggest that the CTD of Ptc1 is involved in regulating epidermal homeostasis in mature skin. ..
  12. Nozaki M, Mori M, Matsushiro A. The complete sequence of the gene encoding mouse cytokeratin 15. Gene. 1994;138:197-200 pubmed
    ..Northern hybridization and genomic Southern blotting revealed that the downstream gene encodes the mouse K15 gene...
  13. Lloyd C, Yu Q, Cheng J, Turksen K, Degenstein L, Hutton E, et al. The basal keratin network of stratified squamous epithelia: defining K15 function in the absence of K14. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:1329-44 pubmed
    ..We show that a key factor is the presence of another keratin, K15, which was hitherto unappreciated as a basal cell component...
  14. Shou S, Scott V, Reed C, Hitzemann R, Stadler H. Transcriptome analysis of the murine forelimb and hindlimb autopod. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:74-89 pubmed
    ..05) suggesting that by E 12.5, unique gene combinations are being used during the differentiation of each autopod type. ..
  15. Blanpain C, Lowry W, Pasolli H, Fuchs E. Canonical notch signaling functions as a commitment switch in the epidermal lineage. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3022-35 pubmed
  16. Sun P, Watanabe K, Fallahi M, Lee B, Afetian M, Rhéaume C, et al. Pygo2 regulates ?-catenin-induced activation of hair follicle stem/progenitor cells and skin hyperplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:10215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Pygo2 as an important regulator of Wnt/?-catenin function in skin epithelia and p53 activation as a prominent downstream event of ?-catenin/Pygo2 action in stem cell activation. ..
  17. Panousopoulou E, Hobbs C, Mason I, Green J, Formstone C. Epiboly generates the epidermal basal monolayer and spreads the nascent mammalian skin to enclose the embryonic body. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:1915-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We observe a failure of ventral enclosure in Crash mutants suggesting that defective epidermal spreading might underlie some ventral wall birth defects. ..
  18. Giangreco A, Jensen K, Takai Y, Miyoshi J, Watt F. Necl2 regulates epidermal adhesion and wound repair. Development. 2009;136:3505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Necl2 is involved in regulating epidermal stem cell quiescence and location. ..
  19. Mill P, Lee A, Fukata Y, Tsutsumi R, Fukata M, Keighren M, et al. Palmitoylation regulates epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle differentiation. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000748 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate a key role for palmitoylation in regulating developmental signals in mammalian tissue homeostasis. ..
  20. Zhang Y, Call M, Yeh L, Liu H, Kochel T, Wang I, et al. Aberrant expression of a beta-catenin gain-of-function mutant induces hyperplastic transformation in the mouse cornea. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results argue that beta-catenin activation is a crucial step during OSSN pathogenesis. Thus, inhibition of beta-catenin might be beneficial for treating this disease. ..
  21. Yao B, Xie J, Liu N, Yan T, Li Z, Liu Y, et al. Identification of a new sweat gland progenitor population in mice and the role of their niche in tissue development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;479:670-675 pubmed publisher
  22. Mailleux A, Overholtzer M, Schmelzle T, Bouillet P, Strasser A, Brugge J. BIM regulates apoptosis during mammary ductal morphogenesis, and its absence reveals alternative cell death mechanisms. Dev Cell. 2007;12:221-34 pubmed
    ..These data provide important mechanistic information on the processes involved in sculpting the mammary gland and demonstrate that BIM is a critical regulator of apoptosis in vivo. ..
  23. Whitaker Menezes D, Jones S, Friedman T, Korngold R, Murphy G. An epithelial target site in experimental graft-versus-host disease and cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity is defined by cytokeratin 15 expression. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2003;9:559-70 pubmed rete ridges were shown to express a distinctive pattern of keratin expression defined by antibodies to cytokeratin 15 (K15)...
  24. Besson V, Smeriglio P, Wegener A, Relaix F, Nait Oumesmar B, Sassoon D, et al. PW1 gene/paternally expressed gene 3 (PW1/Peg3) identifies multiple adult stem and progenitor cell populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11470-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that PW1 serves as an invaluable marker for competent self-renewing stem cells in a wide array of adult tissues, and the PW1-reporter mouse serves as a tool for rapid stem cell isolation and characterization. ..
  25. Blanco S, Kurowski A, Nichols J, Watt F, Benitah S, Frye M. The RNA-methyltransferase Misu (NSun2) poises epidermal stem cells to differentiate. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that post-transcriptional RNA methylation can play a previously unappreciated role in controlling stem cell fate. ..
  26. Giroux V, Lento A, Islam M, Pitarresi J, Kharbanda A, Hamilton K, et al. Long-lived keratin 15+ esophageal progenitor cells contribute to homeostasis and regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2378-2391 pubmed publisher
    ..progenitor cell population in the mouse esophageal epithelium that is characterized by expression of keratin 15 (Krt15)...
  27. Niimori D, Kawano R, Felemban A, Niimori Kita K, Tanaka H, Ihn H, et al. Tsukushi controls the hair cycle by regulating TGF-?1 signaling. Dev Biol. 2012;372:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical analysis indicates that TSK directly binds to TGF-?1. Our data suggest that TSK controls the hair cycle by regulating TGF-?1 signaling. ..
  28. El Shahawy M, Reibring C, Neben C, Hallberg K, Marangoni P, Harfe B, et al. Cell fate specification in the lingual epithelium is controlled by antagonistic activities of Sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006914 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal key functions for SHH and RA in cell fate specification in the lingual epithelium and aid in deciphering the molecular mechanisms that assign cell identity. ..
  29. Farmer D, Nathan S, Finley J, Shengyang Yu K, Emmerson E, Byrnes L, et al. Defining epithelial cell dynamics and lineage relationships in the developing lacrimal gland. Development. 2017;144:2517-2528 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data reveal crucial features of lacrimal gland development that have broad implications for understanding epithelial organogenesis. ..
  30. Tai G, Ranjzad P, Marriage F, Rehman S, Denley H, Dixon J, et al. Cytokeratin 15 marks basal epithelia in developing ureters and is upregulated in a subset of urothelial cell carcinomas. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81167 pubmed publisher
    ..In skin, which also contains a multilayered epithelium, cytokeratin 15 (CK15), an acidic intermediate filament protein, marks cells whose progeny contribute to epidermal ..
  31. Shirokova V, Biggs L, Jussila M, Ohyama T, Groves A, Mikkola M. Foxi3 Deficiency Compromises Hair Follicle Stem Cell Specification and Activation. Stem Cells. 2016;34:1896-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Foxi3 regulates multiple aspects of hair follicle development and homeostasis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1896-1908. ..
  32. Xiao Y, Woo W, Nagao K, Li W, Terunuma A, Mukouyama Y, et al. Perivascular hair follicle stem cells associate with a venule annulus. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:2324-2331 pubmed publisher
    ..By birth, a vascular annulus stereotypically surrounded the keratin 15 negative (K15-) stem cells in the upper bulge and remained associated with the K15- upper bulge throughout the hair cycle...
  33. Troy T, Arabzadeh A, Turksen K. Re-assessing K15 as an epidermal stem cell marker. Stem Cell Rev. 2011;7:927-34 pubmed publisher
    The intermediate filament keratin 15 (K15) is present in variable amounts in various stratified epithelia, but has also been reported to be a stem cell marker in the hair follicle...
  34. Moriyama M, Durham A, Moriyama H, Hasegawa K, Nishikawa S, Radtke F, et al. Multiple roles of Notch signaling in the regulation of epidermal development. Dev Cell. 2008;14:594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we conclude that Notch signaling orchestrates the balance between differentiation and immature programs in suprabasal cells during epidermal development. ..
  35. Filion M, Sarafian V, Lussier M, Belanger C, Lapointe L, Royal A. Arrangement of a cluster of three mouse type I keratin genes expressed sequentially during esophageal-type epithelial cell differentiation. Genomics. 1994;24:303-10 pubmed
    ..Restriction mapping and sequencing data indicate that they encode the mouse K15 and K13. The three genes are separated by about 5-6 kb, and they are in the same transcriptional orientation...
  36. Vaziri Sani F, Kaartinen V, El Shahawy M, Linde A, Gritli Linde A. Developmental changes in cellular and extracellular structural macromolecules in the secondary palate and in the nasal cavity of the mouse. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:221-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The hitherto-unknown innervation pattern of the developing palate was revealed. These findings may be of value for unravelling the pathogenesis of palatal clefting. ..
  37. Lee B, Villarreal Ponce A, Fallahi M, Ovadia J, Sun P, Yu Q, et al. Transcriptional mechanisms link epithelial plasticity to adhesion and differentiation of epidermal progenitor cells. Dev Cell. 2014;29:47-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings reveal Ovol-Zeb1-?-catenin sequential repression and highlight Ovol1 and Ovol2 as gatekeepers of epithelial adhesion and differentiation by inhibiting progenitor-like traits and epithelial plasticity. ..
  38. Golonzhka O, Leid M, Indra G, Indra A. Expression of COUP-TF-interacting protein 2 (CTIP2) in mouse skin during development and in adulthood. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:754-60 pubmed
    ..Some, but not all, of the cells present within hair follicle bulge were found to co-express CTIP2, keratin K15, but not CD34, indicating that a subset of K15(+) CD34(-) skin stem cells may express CTIP2...
  39. Cang Y, Zhang J, Nicholas S, Kim A, Zhou P, Goff S. DDB1 is essential for genomic stability in developing epidermis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2733-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that DDB1 plays an important role in development by controlling levels of cell cycle regulators and thereby maintaining genomic stability. ..
  40. Raveh E, Cohen S, Levanon D, Negreanu V, Groner Y, Gat U. Dynamic expression of Runx1 in skin affects hair structure. Mech Dev. 2006;123:842-50 pubmed
    ..The data delineate Runx1 as a novel specific marker of several hair follicle cell types and sheds light on its role in hair morphogenesis and differentiation. ..
  41. Nieuwenhuis E, Motoyama J, Barnfield P, Yoshikawa Y, Zhang X, Mo R, et al. Mice with a targeted mutation of patched2 are viable but develop alopecia and epidermal hyperplasia. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6609-22 pubmed
    ..While functional compensation by Ptc1 might account for the lack of a strong mutant phenotype in Ptc2-deficient mice, our results suggest that normal Ptc2 function is required for adult skin homeostasis. ..
  42. Talbot D, Loring J, Schorle H, Lorgin J. Spatiotemporal expression pattern of keratins in skin of AP-2alpha-deficient mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:816-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the mutants lack a ring of ectodermal cells highly positive for keratin 15 in the area where lens induction occurs, indicating a defect in the inductive interactions underlying eye formation. ..
  43. Sato H, Koide T, Sagai T, Ishiguro S, Tamai M, Saitou N, et al. The genomic organization of type I keratin genes in mice. Genomics. 1999;56:303-9 pubmed