Gene Symbol: Krt1
Description: keratin 1
Alias: Krt-2.1, Krt2-1, Krt86, keratin, type II cytoskeletal 1, 67 kDa cytokeratin, CK-1, cytokeratin-1, keratin 86, keratin complex 2, basic, gene 1, type-II keratin Kb1
Species: mouse
Products:     Krt1

Top Publications

  1. Zhang Y, Burgess D, Overbeek P, Govindarajan V. Dominant inhibition of lens placode formation in mice. Dev Biol. 2008;323:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results also suggest that the lens cells of the surface ectoderm may be critical for the proper differentiation of the corneal epithelium. ..
  2. Jonker L, Kist R, Aw A, Wappler I, Peters H. Pax9 is required for filiform papilla development and suppresses skin-specific differentiation of the mammalian tongue epithelium. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1313-22 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization demonstrated that several 'hard' keratins, Krt1-5, Krt1-24, and Krt2-16, are not expressed in the absence of Pax9...
  3. Yi R, O Carroll D, Pasolli H, Zhang Z, Dietrich F, Tarakhovsky A, et al. Morphogenesis in skin is governed by discrete sets of differentially expressed microRNAs. Nat Genet. 2006;38:356-62 pubmed
    ..Here we characterize miRNAs in skin, the existence of which was hitherto unappreciated, and demonstrate their differential expression and importance in the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues within this vital organ. ..
  4. List K, Szabo R, Wertz P, Segre J, Haudenschild C, Kim S, et al. Loss of proteolytically processed filaggrin caused by epidermal deletion of Matriptase/MT-SP1. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:901-10 pubmed
    ..The data identify keratinocyte Matriptase/MT-SP1 as an essential component of the profilaggrin-processing pathway and a key regulator of terminal epidermal differentiation. ..
  5. Byrne C, Tainsky M, Fuchs E. Programming gene expression in developing epidermis. Development. 1994;120:2369-83 pubmed
    ..Finally, using gene expression in cultured cells, we demonstrate that AP2 has a strong inductive effect on basal keratin expression in a cellular environment that does not normally possess AP2 activity. ..
  6. Romano R, Ortt K, Birkaya B, Smalley K, Sinha S. An active role of the DeltaN isoform of p63 in regulating basal keratin genes K5 and K14 and directing epidermal cell fate. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5623 pubmed publisher
    ..DeltaNp63 is a critical mediator of keratinocyte stratification program and directly regulates the basal keratin genes. ..
  7. Guttormsen J, Koster M, Stevens J, Roop D, Williams T, Winger Q. Disruption of epidermal specific gene expression and delayed skin development in AP-2 gamma mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2008;317:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results document an important role for AP-2 gamma in skin development, and reveal the existence of regulatory factors that can compensate for AP-2 gamma in its absence. ..
  8. Blanpain C, Lowry W, Pasolli H, Fuchs E. Canonical notch signaling functions as a commitment switch in the epidermal lineage. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3022-35 pubmed
  9. Vidal V, Chaboissier M, Lützkendorf S, Cotsarelis G, Mill P, Hui C, et al. Sox9 is essential for outer root sheath differentiation and the formation of the hair stem cell compartment. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1340-51 pubmed
    ..Our genetic analysis places Sox9 in a molecular cascade downstream of sonic hedgehog and suggests that this gene is involved in basal cell carcinoma. ..

More Information


  1. Segre J, Bauer C, Fuchs E. Klf4 is a transcription factor required for establishing the barrier function of the skin. Nat Genet. 1999;22:356-60 pubmed
    ..Our studies provide new insights into transcriptional governance of barrier function, and pave the way for unravelling the molecular events that orchestrate this essential process. ..
  2. Andl T, Reddy S, Gaddapara T, Millar S. WNT signals are required for the initiation of hair follicle development. Dev Cell. 2002;2:643-53 pubmed
    ..This phenotype indicates that activation of WNT signaling in the skin precedes, and is required for, localized expression of regulatory genes and initiation of hair follicle placode formation. ..
  3. Romano R, Smalley K, Liu S, Sinha S. Abnormal hair follicle development and altered cell fate of follicular keratinocytes in transgenic mice expressing DeltaNp63alpha. Development. 2010;137:1431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence supporting a role for DeltaNp63alpha in actively suppressing hair follicle differentiation and directing IFE cell lineage commitment. ..
  4. Suzuki K, Haraguchi R, Ogata T, Barbieri O, Alegria O, Vieux Rochas M, et al. Abnormal urethra formation in mouse models of split-hand/split-foot malformation type 1 and type 4. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008;16:36-44 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that different genes associated with human SHFM could also be involved in the aetiogenesis of hypospadias pointing toward a common molecular origin of these congenital malformations. ..
  5. Matsui T, Kinoshita Ida Y, Hayashi Kisumi F, Hata M, Matsubara K, Chiba M, et al. Mouse homologue of skin-specific retroviral-like aspartic protease involved in wrinkle formation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27512-25 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first evidence that retroviral-like aspartic protease is functionally important in mammalian tissue organization. ..
  6. Takabayashi S, Katoh H. A mutant mouse with severe anemia and skin abnormalities controlled by a new allele of the flaky skin (fsn) locus. Exp Anim. 2005;54:339-47 pubmed
    ..5 dpc to 18.5 dpc). Time differences in the appearance of the different phenotypes observed in various tissue and organs of fsn homozygotes suggest they are caused by expression of the fsn gene at different developmental stages. ..
  7. Roth W, Kumar V, Beer H, Richter M, Wohlenberg C, Reuter U, et al. Keratin 1 maintains skin integrity and participates in an inflammatory network in skin through interleukin-18. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5269-79 pubmed publisher
    Keratin 1 (KRT1) and its heterodimer partner keratin 10 (KRT10) are major constituents of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton in suprabasal epidermis...
  8. Poirier C, Yoshiki A, Fujiwara K, Guenet J, Kusakabe M. Hague (Hag). A new mouse hair mutation with an unstable semidominant allele. Genetics. 2002;162:831-40 pubmed
    ..Fourteen genes were mapped to this region; of these, 11 were expressed in the skin (5 epidermic cytokeratin and 6 hard keratin genes), but none were mutated in hague mice. ..
  9. Xu H, Delling M, Jun J, Clapham D. Oregano, thyme and clove-derived flavors and skin sensitizers activate specific TRP channels. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:628-35 pubmed
    ..Our results support a role for temperature-sensitive TRP channels in chemesthesis in oral and nasal epithelium and suggest that TRPV3 may be a molecular target of plant-derived skin sensitizers. ..
  10. Packer A, Jane wit D, McLean L, Panteleyev A, Christiano A, Wolgemuth D. Hoxa4 expression in developing mouse hair follicles and skin. Mech Dev. 2000;99:153-7 pubmed
    ..Hoxa4 is not expressed in hair follicles after P4. Hoxb4, however, is expressed both in developing follicles at P2 and in catagen at P19, suggesting differential expression of these two paralogous genes in the hair follicle cycle. ..
  11. Dai D, Li L, Huebner A, Zeng H, Guevara E, Claypool D, et al. Planar cell polarity effector gene Intu regulates cell fate-specific differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:130-8 pubmed publisher
  12. Celli G, LaRochelle W, Mackem S, Sharp R, Merlino G. Soluble dominant-negative receptor uncovers essential roles for fibroblast growth factors in multi-organ induction and patterning. EMBO J. 1998;17:1642-55 pubmed
  13. Yamamoto K, Miki Y, Sato M, Taketomi Y, Nishito Y, Taya C, et al. The role of group IIF-secreted phospholipase A2 in epidermal homeostasis and hyperplasia. J Exp Med. 2015;212:1901-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight PLA2G2F as a previously unrecognized regulator of skin pathophysiology and point to this enzyme as a novel drug target for epidermal-hyperplasic diseases. ..
  14. Wakabayashi N, Itoh K, Wakabayashi J, Motohashi H, Noda S, Takahashi S, et al. Keap1-null mutation leads to postnatal lethality due to constitutive Nrf2 activation. Nat Genet. 2003;35:238-45 pubmed
    ..Breeding to Nrf2-deficient mice reversed the phenotypic Keap1 deficiencies. These experiments show that Keap1 acts upstream of Nrf2 in the cellular response to oxidative and xenobiotic stress. ..
  15. Hahn N, Dietz C, Kühl S, Vossmerbaeumer U, Kroll J. KLEIP deficiency in mice causes progressive corneal neovascular dystrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3260-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data identify KLEIP as an important molecule regulating corneal epithelial integrity. ..
  16. Horsley V, O Carroll D, Tooze R, Ohinata Y, Saitou M, Obukhanych T, et al. Blimp1 defines a progenitor population that governs cellular input to the sebaceous gland. Cell. 2006;126:597-609 pubmed
  17. Torchia E, Zhang L, Huebner A, Sen S, Roop D. Aurora kinase-A deficiency during skin development impairs cell division and stratification. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:78-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the deletion of Aurora-A in the developing epidermis alters centrosome function of basal keratinocytes and markedly impairs their ability to divide and stratify. ..
  18. Ezhkova E, Pasolli H, Parker J, Stokes N, Su I, Hannon G, et al. Ezh2 orchestrates gene expression for the stepwise differentiation of tissue-specific stem cells. Cell. 2009;136:1122-35 pubmed publisher
    ..They maintain their proliferative potential and globally repressing undesirable differentiation programs while selectively establishing a specific terminal differentiation program in a stepwise fashion. ..
  19. Croyle M, Lehman J, O Connor A, Wong S, Malarkey E, Iribarne D, et al. Role of epidermal primary cilia in the homeostasis of skin and hair follicles. Development. 2011;138:1675-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that epidermal primary cilia may function in stress responses and epidermal homeostasis involving pathways other than those typically associated with primary cilia. ..
  20. Sundberg J, Erickson A, Roop D, Binder R. Ornithine decarboxylase expression in cutaneous papillomas in SENCAR mice is associated with altered expression of keratins 1 and 10. Cancer Res. 1994;54:1344-51 pubmed
    ..High constitutive ODC expression and decreased K1 and K10 expression will be useful phenotypic markers for studying the early stages of tumorigenesis in mouse skin. ..
  21. Krishnaswami S, Kumar S, Ordoukhanian P, Yu B. Fate and plasticity of the epidermis in response to congenital activation of BRAF. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies indicate that early activation of the RAF signaling pathway in the ectoderm has effects on specific steps of epidermal differentiation, which may be amenable to treatment with currently available pharmacologic inhibitors. ..
  22. Ray S, Foote H, Lechler T. beta-Catenin protects the epidermis from mechanical stresses. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that a complete understanding of the functions of cell adhesion proteins must take into account their roles in response to mechanical stresses. ..
  23. Ishida Yamamoto A, Senshu T, Eady R, Takahashi H, Shimizu H, Akiyama M, et al. Sequential reorganization of cornified cell keratin filaments involving filaggrin-mediated compaction and keratin 1 deimination. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;118:282-7 pubmed
    ..Abnormal keratin aggregation in bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma is likely to disturb the normal deimination of K1. ..
  24. Chiang C, Swan R, Grachtchouk M, Bolinger M, Litingtung Y, Robertson E, et al. Essential role for Sonic hedgehog during hair follicle morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 1999;205:1-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal an essential role for Shh during hair follicle morphogenesis, where it is required for normal advancement beyond the hair germ stage of development...
  25. Ingraham C, Kinoshita A, Kondo S, Yang B, Sajan S, Trout K, et al. Abnormal skin, limb and craniofacial morphogenesis in mice deficient for interferon regulatory factor 6 (Irf6). Nat Genet. 2006;38:1335-40 pubmed
    ..Histological and gene expression analyses indicate that the primary defect is in keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation. This study describes a new role for an IRF family member in epidermal development. ..
  26. Troy T, Li Y, O Malley L, Turksen K. The temporal and spatial expression of Claudins in epidermal development and the accelerated program of epidermal differentiation in K14-CaSR transgenic mice. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:423-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that Cldn6 is expressed very early in epidermal morphogenesis, followed by Cldn18, Cldn11 and Cldn1. ..
  27. Lee J, Kim T, Yang T, Koo B, Oh S, Lee K, et al. A crucial role of WW45 in developing epithelial tissues in the mouse. EMBO J. 2008;27:1231-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data provide compelling evidence that WW45 is a key mediator of MST1 signalling in the coordinate coupling of proliferation arrest with terminal differentiation for proper epithelial tissue development in mammals. ..
  28. Wallace L, Roberts Thompson L, Reichelt J. Deletion of K1/K10 does not impair epidermal stratification but affects desmosomal structure and nuclear integrity. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1750-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Krt1(-/-);Krt10(-/-) mice revealed that K1/K10 IFs are unexpectedly dispensable for epidermal stratification...
  29. Ihrie R, Marques M, Nguyen B, Horner J, Papazoglu C, Bronson R, et al. Perp is a p63-regulated gene essential for epithelial integrity. Cell. 2005;120:843-56 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Perp is a key effector in the p63 developmental program, playing an essential role in an adhesion subprogram central to epithelial integrity and homeostasis. ..
  30. Lee D, Zhao X, Yim Y, Eisenberg E, Greene L. Essential role of cyclin-G-associated kinase (Auxilin-2) in developing and mature mice. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2766-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that GAK deletion blocks development and causes lethality in adult animals by disrupting clathrin-mediated endocytosis. ..
  31. Hwang J, Mehrani T, Millar S, Morasso M. Dlx3 is a crucial regulator of hair follicle differentiation and cycling. Development. 2008;135:3149-59 pubmed publisher
  32. Kist R, Watson M, Crosier M, Robinson M, Fuchs J, Reichelt J, et al. The formation of endoderm-derived taste sensory organs requires a Pax9-dependent expansion of embryonic taste bud progenitor cells. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004709 pubmed publisher
    ..In this pathway, Pax9 is essential to generate a pool of taste bud progenitors and to maintain their competence towards prosensory cell fate induction. ..
  33. Kuraguchi M, Wang X, Bronson R, Rothenberg R, Ohene Baah N, Lund J, et al. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is required for normal development of skin and thymus. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e146 pubmed
  34. Finch J, Andrews K, Krieg P, Furstenberger G, Slaga T, Ootsuyama A, et al. Identification of a cloned sequence activated during multi-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 1991;12:1519-22 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of the mal2 or keratin K6 gene in malignant SCCs was independent of the protocol, either chemical or radiation, that was used to induce the tumors. ..
  35. Cui C, Kunisada M, Esibizione D, Grivennikov S, Piao Y, Nedospasov S, et al. Lymphotoxin-beta regulates periderm differentiation during embryonic skin development. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2583-90 pubmed
    ..Overall, LTbeta shows a primary early function in periderm differentiation, with later transient effects on epidermal and hair follicle differentiation. ..
  36. Wang X, Pasolli H, Williams T, Fuchs E. AP-2 factors act in concert with Notch to orchestrate terminal differentiation in skin epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:37-48 pubmed publisher
  37. Muroyama A, Seldin L, Lechler T. Divergent regulation of functionally distinct γ-tubulin complexes during differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2016;213:679-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our studies demonstrate that distinct γ-tubulin complexes regulate different microtubule behaviors at the centrosome and show that differential regulation of these complexes drives loss of centrosomal MTOC activity. ..
  38. Nguyen H, Merrill B, Polak L, Nikolova M, Rendl M, Shaver T, et al. Tcf3 and Tcf4 are essential for long-term homeostasis of skin epithelia. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1068-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We established roles for Tcf3 and Tcf4 in long-term maintenance and wound repair of both epidermis and hair follicles, suggesting that Tcf proteins have both Wnt-dependent and Wnt-independent roles in lineage determination. ..
  39. Steinert P, Parry D, Idler W, Johnson L, Steven A, Roop D. Amino acid sequences of mouse and human epidermal type II keratins of Mr 67,000 provide a systematic basis for the structural and functional diversity of the end domains of keratin intermediate filament subunits. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:7142-9 pubmed
  40. Thomason H, Zhou H, Kouwenhoven E, Dotto G, Restivo G, Nguyen B, et al. Cooperation between the transcription factors p63 and IRF6 is essential to prevent cleft palate in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore identify p63 as a key regulatory molecule during palate development and provide a mechanism for the cooperative role of p63 and IRF6 in orofacial development in mice and humans. ..
  41. Nishiguchi Y, Ohmoto M, Koki J, Enomoto T, Kominami R, Matsumoto I, et al. Bcl11b/Ctip2 is required for development of lingual papillae in mice. Dev Biol. 2016;416:98-110 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Bcl11b regulates the differentiation of keratinocytes in the tongue and identify Bcl11b as an essential factor for the lingual papilla morphogenesis. ..
  42. Panousopoulou E, Hobbs C, Mason I, Green J, Formstone C. Epiboly generates the epidermal basal monolayer and spreads the nascent mammalian skin to enclose the embryonic body. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:1915-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We observe a failure of ventral enclosure in Crash mutants suggesting that defective epidermal spreading might underlie some ventral wall birth defects. ..
  43. Bierkamp C, Schwarz H, Huber O, Kemler R. Desmosomal localization of beta-catenin in the skin of plakoglobin null-mutant mice. Development. 1999;126:371-81 pubmed
    ..Our analysis underlines the central role of plakoglobin for desmosomal assembly and function during embryogenesis. ..
  44. Liu Y, Snedecor E, Choi Y, Yang N, Zhang X, Xu Y, et al. Gorab Is Required for Dermal Condensate Cells to Respond to Hedgehog Signals during Hair Follicle Morphogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:378-386 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, data obtained from this study provided insight into the biological functions of Gorab during embryonic morphogenesis of the skin in which Hh signaling and primary cilia exert important functions. ..
  45. Hwang M, Kalinin A, Morasso M. The temporal and spatial expression of the novel Ca++-binding proteins, Scarf and Scarf2, during development and epidermal differentiation. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:801-8 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, Scarf and Scarf2 were also detected in the tongue and oral epithelia, rib bone undergoing ossification and in the medullar region of thymus. ..
  46. Nieuwenhuis E, Barnfield P, Makino S, Hui C. Epidermal hyperplasia and expansion of the interfollicular stem cell compartment in mutant mice with a C-terminal truncation of Patched1. Dev Biol. 2007;308:547-60 pubmed
    ..Increased expression of regulators of epidermal homeostasis, c-Myc and p63, was also observed in Ptc1(mes/mes) adult skin. These results suggest that the CTD of Ptc1 is involved in regulating epidermal homeostasis in mature skin. ..
  47. Sun P, Watanabe K, Fallahi M, Lee B, Afetian M, Rhéaume C, et al. Pygo2 regulates ?-catenin-induced activation of hair follicle stem/progenitor cells and skin hyperplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:10215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Pygo2 as an important regulator of Wnt/?-catenin function in skin epithelia and p53 activation as a prominent downstream event of ?-catenin/Pygo2 action in stem cell activation. ..
  48. Yang S, Andl T, Grachtchouk V, Wang A, Liu J, Syu L, et al. Pathological responses to oncogenic Hedgehog signaling in skin are dependent on canonical Wnt/beta3-catenin signaling. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1130-5 pubmed publisher
  49. Foley J, Dann P, Hong J, Cosgrove J, Dreyer B, Rimm D, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related protein maintains mammary epithelial fate and triggers nipple skin differentiation during embryonic breast development. Development. 2001;128:513-25 pubmed
    ..Finally, PTHrP signaling regulates the epidermal and mesenchymal expression of LEF1 and (&bgr;)-catenin, suggesting that these changes in cell fate involve an interaction between the PTHrP and Wnt signaling pathways. ..
  50. Casanova J, Travisano S, de la Pompa J. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in epicardium is independent of Snail1. Genesis. 2013;51:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Snail1 is not required for the initiation and progression of embryonic epicardial EMT. ..
  51. Suzuki K, Yamaguchi Y, Villacorte M, Mihara K, Akiyama M, Shimizu H, et al. Embryonic hair follicle fate change by augmented beta-catenin through Shh and Bmp signaling. Development. 2009;136:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate the presence of growth factor signal cross-talk involving beta-catenin signaling, which regulates the HF fate. ..
  52. Wang D, Zhang Z, O Loughlin E, Wang L, Fan X, Lai E, et al. MicroRNA-205 controls neonatal expansion of skin stem cells by modulating the PI(3)K pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an essential role for miR-205 in maintaining the expansion of skin SCs by antagonizing negative regulators of PI(3)K signalling. ..
  53. Kopecki Z, Yang G, Arkell R, Jackson J, Melville E, Iwata H, et al. Flightless I over-expression impairs skin barrier development, function and recovery following skin blistering. J Pathol. 2014;232:541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results therefore demonstrate an important role for Flii in the development and regulation of the epidermal barrier, which may contribute to the impaired healing and skin fragility of EB patients. ..
  54. Zgheib C, Xu J, Mallette A, Caskey R, Zhang L, Hu J, et al. SCF increases in utero-labeled stem cells migration and improves wound healing. Wound Repair Regen. 2015;23:583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that SCF improves diabetic wound healing in part by increasing the recruitment of a unique stem cell population present in the skin. ..
  55. Itoh N, Yonehara S, Schreurs J, Gorman D, Maruyama K, Ishii A, et al. Cloning of an interleukin-3 receptor gene: a member of a distinct receptor gene family. Science. 1990;247:324-7 pubmed
    ..A sequence comparison of the IL-3 receptor with other cytokine receptors (erythropoietin, IL-4, IL-6, and the beta chain IL-2 receptor) revealed a common motif of a distinct receptor gene family. ..
  56. Chin S, Romano R, Nagarajan P, Sinha S, Garrett Sinha L. Aberrant epidermal differentiation and disrupted ?Np63/Notch regulatory axis in Ets1 transgenic mice. Biol Open. 2013;2:1336-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the established tumor suppressive role for Notch signaling in skin tumorigenesis, the demonstrated ability of Ets1 to interfere with this signaling pathway may be important in mediating its pro-tumorigenic activities. ..
  57. Kousa Y, Moussa D, Schutte B. IRF6 expression in basal epithelium partially rescues Irf6 knockout mice. Dev Dyn. 2017;246:670-681 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we show that altering the expression level of IRF6 dramatically modified this phenotype in utero. Developmental Dynamics 246:670-681, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  58. Sevilla L, Nachat R, Groot K, Klement J, Uitto J, Djian P, et al. Mice deficient in involucrin, envoplakin, and periplakin have a defective epidermal barrier. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1599-612 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, combined loss of the cornified envelope proteins not only impairs the epidermal barrier, but also changes the composition of T cell subpopulations in the skin. ..
  59. Bazzi H, Fantauzzo K, Richardson G, Jahoda C, Christiano A. Transcriptional profiling of developing mouse epidermis reveals novel patterns of coordinated gene expression. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:961-70 pubmed
    ..Our observations reveal a coordinated mode of expression of the SSC genes as well as the correlation of their initiation in the nasal epithelium with the initiation of barrier formation at this site. ..
  60. Beier D, Dushkin H, Sussman D. Mapping genes in the mouse using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of recombinant inbred strains and interspecific crosses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:9102-6 pubmed
    ..These results were confirmed using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of an interspecific backcross. ..
  61. Niimori D, Kawano R, Felemban A, Niimori Kita K, Tanaka H, Ihn H, et al. Tsukushi controls the hair cycle by regulating TGF-?1 signaling. Dev Biol. 2012;372:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical analysis indicates that TSK directly binds to TGF-?1. Our data suggest that TSK controls the hair cycle by regulating TGF-?1 signaling. ..
  62. Descargues P, Sil A, Sano Y, Korchynskyi O, Han G, Owens P, et al. IKKalpha is a critical coregulator of a Smad4-independent TGFbeta-Smad2/3 signaling pathway that controls keratinocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2487-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that a TGFbeta-Smad2/3-IKKalpha axis is a critical Smad4-independent regulator of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. ..
  63. Tao J, Koster M, Harrison W, Moran J, Beier D, Roop D, et al. A spontaneous Fatp4/Scl27a4 splice site mutation in a new murine model for congenital ichthyosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50634 pubmed publisher
  64. McGowan K, Aradhya S, Fuchs H, de Angelis M, Barsh G. A mouse keratin 1 mutation causes dark skin and epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1013-6 pubmed
    ..Dsk12 recapitulates the gross pathologic, histologic, and genetic aspects of the human disorder, EHK. ..
  65. Nakamura M, Matzuk M, Gerstmayer B, Bosio A, Lauster R, Miyachi Y, et al. Control of pelage hair follicle development and cycling by complex interactions between follistatin and activin. FASEB J. 2003;17:497-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that follistatin and activin interaction plays an important role in both HF development and cycling, possibly in part by regulating expression of BMP-2 and its antagonist. ..
  66. Gimenez Conti I, Lynch M, Roop D, Bhowmik S, Majeski P, Conti C. Expression of keratins in mouse vaginal epithelium. Differentiation. 1994;56:143-51 pubmed
    ..Together, these results show that K1 expression is induced by estrogens in the vaginal epithelium. In contrast, K6, K8, K13 and K14 are constitutively expressed even when squamous differentiation is not observed...
  67. Rountree R, Willis C, Dinh H, Blumberg H, Bailey K, Dean C, et al. RIP4 regulates epidermal differentiation and cutaneous inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that RIP4 functions in the epidermis through PKC-specific signaling pathways to regulate differentiation and inflammation. ..
  68. Moriyama M, Durham A, Moriyama H, Hasegawa K, Nishikawa S, Radtke F, et al. Multiple roles of Notch signaling in the regulation of epidermal development. Dev Cell. 2008;14:594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we conclude that Notch signaling orchestrates the balance between differentiation and immature programs in suprabasal cells during epidermal development. ..
  69. Glotzer D, Zelzer E, Olsen B. Impaired skin and hair follicle development in Runx2 deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2008;315:459-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that Runx2 and hedgehog signaling are involved in the well known, but unexplained, coupling of skin thickness to hair follicle development. ..
  70. Kartasova T, Roop D, Yuspa S. Relationship between the expression of differentiation-specific keratins 1 and 10 and cell proliferation in epidermal tumors. Mol Carcinog. 1992;6:18-25 pubmed
    ..In contrast, stable K1 or K10 transfectants could not be selected in 308 cells, suggesting that benign tumor cells expressing suprabasal keratins cannot sustain proliferation. ..
  71. Kashiwagi M, Morgan B, Georgopoulos K. The chromatin remodeler Mi-2beta is required for establishment of the basal epidermis and normal differentiation of its progeny. Development. 2007;134:1571-82 pubmed
    ..Mi-2beta is however essential for the reprogramming of basal cells to the follicular and, subsequently, hair matrix fates. ..
  72. Koster M, Dai D, Marinari B, Sano Y, Costanzo A, Karin M, et al. p63 induces key target genes required for epidermal morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3255-60 pubmed
    ..Our data provide insights into the role of DeltaNp63alpha in epidermal morphogenesis and homeostasis, and may contribute to our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying disorders caused by p63 mutations. ..
  73. Jaubert J, Cheng J, Segre J. Ectopic expression of kruppel like factor 4 (Klf4) accelerates formation of the epidermal permeability barrier. Development. 2003;130:2767-77 pubmed
    ..These studies show that KLF4 regulates barrier acquisition and provides an animal model for studying how to accelerate the process of barrier acquisition for the premature infant. ..
  74. Kartasova T, Roop D, Holbrook K, Yuspa S. Mouse differentiation-specific keratins 1 and 10 require a preexisting keratin scaffold to form a filament network. J Cell Biol. 1993;120:1251-61 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, restrictions on filament formation appear to be more stringent for K10 than for K1. ..
  75. Akinduro O, Sully K, Patel A, Robinson D, Chikh A, McPhail G, et al. Constitutive Autophagy and Nucleophagy during Epidermal Differentiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1460-1470 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may have implications and improve treatment options for patients with epidermal barrier defects. ..
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