Gene Symbol: Kcnd1
Description: potassium voltage-gated channel, Shal-related family, member 1
Alias: 1110037K09Rik, Kca2-1, Kv4.1, Shal, Shal1, mShal1, potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 1, voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv4.1
Species: mouse
Products:     Kcnd1

Top Publications

  1. Pak M, Baker K, Covarrubias M, Butler A, Ratcliffe A, Salkoff L. mShal, a subfamily of A-type K+ channel cloned from mammalian brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:4386-90 pubmed
    ..mShal, the vertebrate homolog of the Drosophila Shal gene, defines a distinct subfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels...
  2. Wang G, Shahidullah M, Rocha C, Strang C, Pfaffinger P, Covarrubias M. Functionally active t1-t1 interfaces revealed by the accessibility of intracellular thiolate groups in kv4 channels. J Gen Physiol. 2005;126:55-69 pubmed
    ..These results conclusively demonstrate that the T1--T1 interface of Kv4 channels is functionally active and dynamic, and that critical reactive thiolate groups in this interface may not be protected by Zn(2+) binding. ..
  3. Beck E, Covarrubias M. Kv4 channels exhibit modulation of closed-state inactivation in inside-out patches. Biophys J. 2001;81:867-83 pubmed
    ..Closed-state inactivation was similarly enhanced in Kv4.3. An allosteric model that assumes significant closed-state inactivation at all relevant voltages can explain Kv4 inactivation gating and the modulatory changes. ..
  4. Chabala L, Bakry N, Covarrubias M. Low molecular weight poly(A)+ mRNA species encode factors that modulate gating of a non-Shaker A-type K+ channel. J Gen Physiol. 1993;102:713-28 pubmed
    ..function in vivo, we coinjected Xenopus oocytes with cRNA encoding a cloned subthreshold A-type K+ channel (mShal1, also referred to as mKv4...
  5. Duprat F, Guillemare E, Romey G, Fink M, Lesage F, Lazdunski M, et al. Susceptibility of cloned K+ channels to reactive oxygen species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11796-800 pubmed
    ..Other channel types (such as Shaker K+ channel Kv1.2, Shab channels Kv2.1 and Kv2.2, Shal channel Kv4.1, inward rectifiers IRK1 and ROMK1, and hIsK) were completely resistant to this treatment...
  6. Li X, Hu X, Li X, Hao X. Overexpression of tau downregulated the mRNA levels of Kv channels and improved proliferation in N2A cells. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0116628 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of tau overexpression on Kv channels provided an alternative explanation for low sensitivity to anti-cancer chemicals in some specific cancer tissues. ..
  7. Wang G, Covarrubias M. Voltage-dependent gating rearrangements in the intracellular T1-T1 interface of a K+ channel. J Gen Physiol. 2006;127:391-400 pubmed
    ..Oxidative stress in excitable tissues may perturb this interface to modulate Kv4 channel function. ..
  8. Lesage F, Attali B, Lazdunski M, Barhanin J. Developmental expression of voltage-sensitive K+ channels in mouse skeletal muscle and C2C12 cells. FEBS Lett. 1992;310:162-6 pubmed
    ..The message for the very peculiar K+ channel of IsK type could only be detected by polymerase chain reaction on skeletal muscle mRNA. ..
  9. Barfield J, Yeung C, Cooper T. The effects of putative K+ channel blockers on volume regulation of murine spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 2005;72:1275-81 pubmed
    ..4 (also known as KCNA1), Kv1.5 (KCNA5), Kv4.1 (KCND1), Kv4.2 (KCND2), Kv4.3 (KCND3), mink (KCNE1), and acid-sensitive TASK2 (KCNK5) and TASK3 (KCNK9)...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Amberg G, Koh S, Hatton W, Murray K, Monaghan K, Horowitz B, et al. Contribution of Kv4 channels toward the A-type potassium current in murine colonic myocytes. J Physiol. 2002;544:403-15 pubmed
    ..From this we conclude that Kv4.3, in association with KChIP1, is the major molecular determinant of I(A) in murine colonic myocytes. ..
  2. Nakamura T, Nandi S, Pountney D, Artman M, Rudy B, Coetzee W. Different effects of the Ca(2+)-binding protein, KChIP1, on two Kv4 subfamily members, Kv4.1 and Kv4.2. FEBS Lett. 2001;499:205-9 pubmed
    ..2 and Kv4.1. These results reveal a novel interaction of KChIP1 with these two Kv4 members. This represents a mechanism to further increase the functional diversity of K(+) channels. ..
  3. van der Lugt N, Domen J, Verhoeven E, Linders K, van der Gulden H, Allen J, et al. Proviral tagging in E mu-myc transgenic mice lacking the Pim-1 proto-oncogene leads to compensatory activation of Pim-2. EMBO J. 1995;14:2536-44 pubmed
    ..These data show that the described strategy of 'complementation tagging' represents a powerful new tool to identify components of pathways involved in processes as complex as multistep tumorigenesis. ..
  4. Brunkow M, Jeffery E, Hjerrild K, Paeper B, Clark L, Yasayko S, et al. Disruption of a new forkhead/winged-helix protein, scurfin, results in the fatal lymphoproliferative disorder of the scurfy mouse. Nat Genet. 2001;27:68-73 pubmed
    ..In sf mice, a frameshift mutation results in a product lacking the forkhead domain. Genetic complementation demonstrates that the protein product of Foxp3, scurfin, is essential for normal immune homeostasis. ..
  5. Li M, Adelman J. ChIPping away at potassium channel regulation. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:202-4 pubmed
  6. Han P, Lucero M. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide reduces expression of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 subunits underlying A-type K(+) current in adult mouse olfactory neuroepithelia. Neuroscience. 2006;138:411-9 pubmed
    ..immunoblot and immunohistochemistry, we found that the two candidate channel families underlying I(A), shaker and shal, are expressed in olfactory epithelia of Swiss Webster mice. Specifically, Kv1...
  7. Jerng H, Shahidullah M, Covarrubias M. Inactivation gating of Kv4 potassium channels: molecular interactions involving the inner vestibule of the pore. J Gen Physiol. 1999;113:641-60 pubmed
    ..We propose that components of the pore's internal vestibule control both closing and inactivation in Kv4 K+ channels. ..
  8. Shi J, Miles D, Orr B, Massa S, Kernie S. Injury-induced neurogenesis in Bax-deficient mice: evidence for regulation by voltage-gated potassium channels. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:3499-512 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the neuroprotection observed after injury in Bax-deficiency may be due to increased neurogenesis via activation of the Kv4 family of potassium channels. ..
  9. Kollo M, Holderith N, Antal M, Nusser Z. Unique clustering of A-type potassium channels on different cell types of the main olfactory bulb. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:1686-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence for highly non-uniform subcellular distributions of A-type K+ channels and predicts their involvements in novel forms of intercellular communication in the olfactory pathway. ..
  10. Itri J, Vosko A, Schroeder A, Dragich J, Michel S, Colwell C. Circadian regulation of a-type potassium currents in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:632-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we were able to detect significant hybridization for Shal-related family members 1 and 2 (Kv4.1 and 4.2) within the SCN...
  11. Koh S, Ward S, Dick G, Epperson A, Bonner H, Sanders K, et al. Contribution of delayed rectifier potassium currents to the electrical activity of murine colonic smooth muscle. J Physiol. 1999;515 ( Pt 2):475-87 pubmed
    ..Delayed rectifier currents sensitive to 4-AP are important determinants of rhythmicity but not action potential amplitude. ..
  12. Fitzakerley J, Star K, Rinn J, Elmquist B. Expression of Shal potassium channel subunits in the adult and developing cochlear nucleus of the mouse. Hear Res. 2000;147:31-45 pubmed
    ..This study describes the developmental distribution of mRNA for the three Shal channel subunits Kv4.1, Kv4.2 and Kv4...
  13. DeSimone C, Zarayskiy V, Bondarenko V, Morales M. Heteropoda toxin 2 interaction with Kv4.3 and Kv4.1 reveals differences in gating modification. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;80:345-55 pubmed publisher
    Kv4 (Shal) potassium channels are responsible for the transient outward K(+) currents in mammalian hearts and central nervous systems...
  14. Hermanstyne T, Granados Fuentes D, Mellor R, Herzog E, Nerbonne J. Acute Knockdown of Kv4.1 Regulates Repetitive Firing Rates and Clock Gene Expression in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Daily Rhythms in Locomotor Behavior. Eneuro. 2017;4: pubmed publisher
    ..1-encoded IA channels in regulating circadian rhythms in neuronal excitability and behavior. ..